Sunflowers: December Feature Plant

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What better way to celebrate the start of Summer than with a feature post on the wonderful exuberant Sunflower, Helianthus annuus!BlogSummerDays20%ReszdIMG_3870 Sunflowers belong to the daisy family, Asteraceae, and the genus Helianthus has over 70 species, most of them native to North America, except for three species from South America. Most are ornamental, frost-hardy herbaceous perennials, like the Jerusalem Artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, but the Common Sunflower, familiar to most people, is an annual, as indicated by its species name: ‘annuus’. The genus name Helianthus is derived from two Greek words: ‘helios’ meaning ‘sun’ and ‘anthos’ meaning ‘flower’.BlogJanGarden20%Reszd2015-12-31 15.26.43Mythology

In Greece, the sunflower is a symbol of the water nymph Clytie, who was turned into a sunflower after she lost her love Apollo, and constantly faces the sun, awaiting the return of his chariot. The visual similarity of the flower to the sun makes it a symbol of worship and faithfulness in many religions. In fact, the Incas used South American sunflowers to worship the sun in their temples, where priestesses wore necklaces of sunflowers, cast in gold, as well as sunflower crowns. The Hopi Indians of North America also used sunflowers in their tribal rituals, as well as for food and a purple dye. In China, the sunflower is an auspicious symbol, denoting long life and good luck, its bright yellow colour symbolising vitality, intelligence and happiness. Vincent Van Gogh is famous for his series of paintings, depicting sunflowers in vases, one of which sold for $39 Million in 1987. Here is my daughter’s sunflower painting- just as special and always makes me feel happy.BlogJanGarden20%ReszdIMG_5641Habitat and Distribution

Native to North America, the sunflower was first domesticated in South-Western USA over 5000 years ago and soon became widespread throughout the Americas. Spanish conquistador, Francisco Pizzaro, saw large crops in 16th century Peru and the sunflower was carried back to Spain, where it was cultivated and hybridized. By the 19th century, it was being cultivated on a wide scale in Russia, the Ukraine and the Caucasus regions for the manufacture of vegetable oil. The sunflower  is the State flower of Kansas and the National flower of Russia. Mostly grown in temperate areas, it is now also grown as a commercial crop in the United States, Argentina, India, China, Turkey, the European Union (mainly France and Spain) and South Africa. In Queensland, it is widely grown in the Central Highlands and on the Darling Downs, as seen in the photo below.blogsunflowers50reszdimage-158Description

Helianthus annuus is an annual forb, which grows up to 5 metres tall, with a well-developed tap root, which extends up to 3 metres into the soil. There are now a number of cultivars, varying in colour (yellow, orange, rust red) and height, from dwarf varieties less than 1 metre tall to taller cultivars over 3.5 metres tall.blogsunflowers50reszdimage-159 The tallest sunflower ever recorded was 7.76 metres tall, though there is a German record of 8.23 metres tall! There is also a discrepancy in growth rates: one source states 30 centimetres in one day, while another estimate is 2 metres in 6 months- that’s 182 days. For mathematicians, that’s 2000 centimetres in 182 days or 11 centimetres a day! Suffice to say that they are one of the fastest growing plants in the world! Our Burgundy Spray sunflower reached 2 metres last year and was harvested and ploughed in at 20 weeks- that’s 5 months- but we did use plenty of manure!BlogButterflyHeaven 20%Reszd2015-12-01 17.20.36 BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-27 12.02.02The erect stem is rough and hairy and is branched in many wild varieties, but unbranched in cultivated varieties.BlogJanGarden20%Reszd2016-01-03 10.11.21 The petiolate leaves are dentate (toothed margins) and sticky. The lower leaves are opposite and ovate or heart-shaped, while the leaves higher up the stem are arranged spirally.

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Blooming in Summer, the inflorescence is a terminal head (capitulum), 10 to 50 centimetres in diameter, with a world record of 87.63 centimetres.BlogFestiveSeason20%Reszd2015-12-23 20.05.37 Each flower head is surrounded by three rows of bracts (phyllaries)- see photo above- and is composed of sterile outer yellow (or orange/ rust red) ray florets, which attract pollinators, and fertile inner brownish disc florets.blogsunflowers50reszdimage-160 A single flower head may have up to two thousand disc florets, each with the potential to develop into a seed. If there are multiple flower heads on the same plant, the number of disc florets per head will be much lower.BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-28 09.50.43 The disc florets open in sequence, beginning at the periphery of the disc and moving inward. The disc florets are arranged in spiral whorls from the centre of the flowerhead, according to the famous Fibonacci sequence, which allows for the uniform packing of the maximum number of seeds on a seed head without any central overcrowding or bare patches at the outside edges. The Fibonacci sequence is a number set, in which each number is the sum of the previous two numbers: ie 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 and so on, and was described by Fibonacci (also known as Leonardo of Pisa) in his book : Liber Abaci in 1202.image-159-copy-copy

In the case of sunflowers, count the clockwise and counterclockwise spirals that reach the outer edge, and you’ll usually find a pair of numbers from the sequence: 34 and 55, or 55 and 89, or—with very large sunflowers—89 and 144. Another interesting mathematical fact is that each floret is oriented to the next by the Golden Angle, 137.5 degrees.BlogJanGarden20%Reszd2016-01-03 19.38.59 Botanists have not yet been able to determine a mechanistic model that fully explains how the sunflower seed patterns arise, as some  plants don’t always show perfect Fibonacci numbers. A study published by the Royal Society Open Science on 18 May 2016 of 657 sunflower photos revealed one in five flowers had either a non-Fibonacci spiralling pattern or more complicated patterns, including near-Fibonacci sequences and other mathematical patterns that compete and clash across the flower head. See: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/5/160091 . Another interesting link is: https://plus.maths.org/content/sunflowers. Click on the first article in the search results: ‘Citizen scientists count sunflower spirals’ by Marianne Freiberger.

For more information about sunflowers and the Fibonnaci sequence, see :

http://momath.org/home/fibonacci-numbers-of-sunflower-seed-spirals/

and    https://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/nature-golden-ratio-fibonacci.html.BlogJanGarden20%Reszd2016-01-05 16.04.53Another fascinating fact about sunflowers is their heliotropism (sun tracking) when young. During growth, sunflower leaves and flowers tilt to face the sun during the day, accounting for their French and Portuguese names: Tournesol (French) and Girassol (Portuguese). As the buds open, the flexible part of the stem tissue (the pulvinus) hardens and heliotropism ceases, the sunflower blooms permanently facing east, thereby acting as a living compass!BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-27 17.41.12 Sunflowers are pollinated by bees, though some modern varieties are fully self-fertile. The following website has some interesting information about sunflower pollination, which highlights the importance of bees. See: http://www.pollinator.ca/bestpractices/sunflowers.html. Initially, each floret is male, the pollen-bearing anthers extending above the rim of the floret, then later on, the style emerges and the stigmatic lobes spread, opening the receptive surfaces for pollination – see the photo below. If there is enough pollinator activity, the pollen is removed from each floret before the stigma opens, reducing the chances for self-pollination. The resultant seeds are 15 to 25 mm long and vary in colour from white to brown and black and even striped.BlogFeb Garden20%Reszd2016-02-12 10.24.58Growing Conditions and Propagation

Heat and drought-tolerant, sunflowers are very easy to grow in most climates, so long as they have full sun all day  (6 to 8 hours) and well-dug, nutrient-rich, well-drained soil. They are propagated by seed. Dig the seed bed well with plenty of manure/ compost, as they are heavy feeders, then rake the soil level. Broadcast the seed and rake into the surface or plant seeds individually to a depth of 2 cm. In cool temperate climates, sow seed in Spring after the last frost (we sowed our Burgundy Spray sunflower seeds on 7 October last year); in warm temperate climates, from late Winter to late Spring; and in frost-free subtropical and tropical regions, seed can be sown all year round, though Autumn to Spring is best. Sunflowers prefer long, hot Summers and hot wet humid Summers increase the risk of fungal diseases like downy or powdery mildew or rust. Mulch the seedbed with chopped sugar cane or lucerne to retain moisture, keep the soil cool and deter pigeons or mice. As the seedlings develop, thin them according to the size of the plants. Giant Russian sunflowers grow to over 4m high with a flowerhead of 5o cm, so require 1.5 m between each plant.BlogJanGarden20%ReszdIMG_5166 Water or foliar feed weekly with seaweed extract in the morning, so that the foliage is dry by sunset, also reducing the risk of fungal mould and rot. For show flowers and maximum seed production, apply two handfuls of poultry manure per square metre when the seedlings are 15 cm high and a 4 cm layer of well-rotted cow manure and compost when they reach 0.5 m in height. Stake the stems when necessary- old pantihose are good. The dwarf varieties should flower within 10 to 12 weeks of sowing, while the taller varieties take 12 to 16 weeks to bloom. Our Burgundy Spray sunflower had its first bloom open at 12 weeks, just in time to celebrate the New Year! We harvested the seeds on the 23 February 2016.BlogFestiveSeason20%Reszd2015-12-25 11.10.42

If your plants are affected by fungal disease, a general fungicide can be applied. Slugs and snails love browsing on the stems and leaves of sunflowers, so spray the seedlings with an organic snail bait or a mixture of 1 part espresso coffee to 3 parts of water, then mulch, repeating after heavy rain or irrigation. Bees and butterflies love the flowers, while birds, rodents, squirrels and deer are attracted to the sunflower seed, though large amounts are fatal to the latter! There are numerous insect pests, most of which attack other plants as well. More information on these insects and their management can be found on :http://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/wp-content/uploads/Sunflower_IPM-Workshops_north-March2013.pdf and https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/e1457.pdf BlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_0005 (2) Seed heads should be harvested when very dry ie once the back of the flower heads are turning yellow or brown. Tie paper bags over their heads, then cut the stems and hang upside-down in a dry, well-ventilated place till fully dry.BlogFeb Garden20%Reszd2016-02-12 10.21.10 The seed head can be sharply struck or rubbed across an old washboard to release the seeds. To process sunflower seed for consumption, soak them overnight in a bucket of 1 gallon (4.5 litres) water and 1 cup salt. Redry in a 250 degree Fahrenheit (120 degrees Celsius) oven for 4 to 5 hours and store in airtight containers.For replanting,  the seeds are viable for 5 years, according to: http://tcpermaculture.com/site/2013/06/14/how-long-will-seeds-last-stay-viable/, but if you want to check their viability before planting, see: http://homeguides.sfgate.com/check-sunflower-seeds-viable-68389.html.

Uses

Sunflowers are grown extensively throughout the world for human and animal food and sunflower oil production. There are two types grown. The first is oilseed, a very small black seed  with a very high  oil content , which  is processed into sunflower oil and meal and is also the seed of choice of most bird feeders. The second type is non-oilseed (confectionery sunflower), a larger black and white striped seed used in a variety of food products from snacks to bread. Sunflower seeds are rich in healthy fats, oil, vitamin E, protein, fibre and minerals and can be eaten raw or roasted for a savory snack or ground into a seed paste (Sun Butter) like peanut butter. They are excellent for promoting heart health and lowering cholesterol. The seeds can also be ground into a sunflower meal and used as a substitute for wheat flour in breads and cakes and the seed husks can be ground into a coffee-like beverage.blogsunflowers20reszdimg_0176 Sunflowers are also widely used as an animal food, mainly for birds (seeds) and cattle (forage crop or a high protein meal, which is a by-product of sunflower oil extraction and is often blended with soya bean meal). The seeds can also be pressed to make an  oil, which has been used in salads and for cooking, margarine production and in industry : as drying oils for paints and varnishes and in beauty products like soap and cosmetics. However, readers should be aware that there is some research about health risks associated with cooking with vegetable oils. See these links for further information: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11981884/Cooking-with-vegetable-oils-releases-toxic-cancer-causing-chemicals-say-experts.html and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20886885. The cooking oil is recycled as a biofuel. For more on the commercial industry overview of sunflowers in the United States, see: http://www.sunflowernsa.com  and   http://www.soyatech.com/sunflower_facts.htm. Sunflower oil can also be used in medicine: for constipation and lowering bad LDL cholesterol or applied directly to the skin for poorly healing wounds, skin injuries, psoriasis and arthritis and as a massage oil.blogsunflowers20reszdimg_0171Native Americans also grew sunflowers for food and oil, medicine, fibre and dyes , as well as to provide shelter for crops of maize, pumpkins and beans. The juice from the stems was used to treat wounds and an infusion of the plant in water was used to treat kidney and chest pain. The fibre from the stalks could be made into cloth and both the seeds and flower heads yielded a dye: purple, blue and black from the seeds and a bright yellow from the flowers.image-159-copySunflowers can also be grown as a green manure crop, the plants being dug into the ground once the seedlings reach a height of 30 cm. The plants can bioaccumulate heavy metals in contaminated soil, like lead, arsenic and uranium, and were used to remove nuclear fallout after the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters.image-160-copy-copyAnd finally, sunflowers are commonly used in floristry and are often given on the third wedding anniversary as a sign of adoration, strength and loyalty. Stems should be cut early in the morning before the flowerbuds are fully open- preferably ½ to ¾ open. If buying them, the leaves should be a strong green colour and the stems should be strong. They must be sold with a water source, as they shock easily. Remove any foliage below water level and cut the stems on a sharp diagonal (2 to 4 cm from the stem ends), under water if possible to avoid air blockages in the stems. Do NOT bash the stems. Use a preservative to maintain open flowers and change the vase water daily. The flowers have a vase life of 7 to 10 days. The leaves will wilt and die before the flowers, so only retain the upper leaves. To help prevent leaf drooping, add 10 drops of household detergent to 5 litres of water and leave in this solution for 1 to 3  hours, but no longer than overnight. If the leaves do start to droop, immediately recut the stems up to 6 cm and place in deep water with preservative for up to 3 hours. If the flowers droop completely, recut the stems and place them in boiling water to clear the blockage quickly (though the lifespan of the flower will be halved).

I really enjoyed researching my last feature post for this year. The sunflower is a fascinating plant and I hope you enjoyed the post as much as I enjoyed writing it.  If I have whetted your appetite to know more, it would be worth trying to source ‘Sunflowers: the Secret History’ by Joe Pappalardo. See: http://www.overlookpress.com/sunflowers-the-secret-history.html.

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The November Garden

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It has been a long month with a prolonged Spring season, but we are now finally getting some Summer heat with days in the mid-30s- a bit hot, given we haven’t had time to adjust yet (!), though we did have some beautiful soft recuperative rain last week. The Spring garden has been an absolute delight and quite magical, especially in the late afternoon sun.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-47-43blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-09-42-58blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-13-47-26 I think November has to be my favourite month with all the trees in their full regalia and Bearded Iris, Poppies and Roses all coming into their own. I just love the view from our verandah over our beautiful garden, with its borrowed landscape backdrop of trees of an infinite variety of foliage colour, texture, shape and form, especially in the misty rain or when the sun first comes up.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-45-39blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-09-19-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-07-41-58 The Soho Bed and Moon Bed have been such a show this Spring.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-09-43-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-13-47-22blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-12-17-07blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-04-11-25-22blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-12-09-48blognovgarden20reszdimg_1871blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-11-57-15blognovgarden20reszdimg_1969blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-28-13-52-13 The roses are in full swing. Here is a selection of blooms from each section of the garden:

Soho Bed:  Hybrid Tea and David Austin roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Big Purple; Alnwick and Eglantyne

Middle Row: Heaven Scent; Our Copper Queen and Fair Bianca

Bottom Row: Lolita; Just Joey and Mister Lincoln

Moon Bed:  David Austin roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Heritage; Lucetta and Windermere

Middle Row: Troilus; Jude the Obscure and Evelyn

Bottom Row: 2 photos William Morris; Golden Celebration;

Pergola:  Climbing roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Adam; Souvenir de la Malmaison and Madame Alfred Carrière

Bottom Row: La Reine Victoria; New Dawn and Devoniensis;

House Walls:  Climbing roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Lamarque; Mrs Herbert Stevens; Cecile Brunner

Bottom Row: Paul’s Himalayan Musk; Lamarque and Mrs Herbert Stevens;

Shed Front:   From left to right:

Top Row: Viridiflora; Archiduc Joseph and Madame Isaac Pereire

Bottom Row: Fantin Latour; Fritz Nobis and Leander;

Shed Back:   From left to right:

Top Row: Both photos Rêve d’Or

Bottom Row: Alister Stella Gray and Albertine;

Rugosas:   From left to right:

Top Row: Roseraie de l’Hay; Russelliana (not a rugosa but at the end of rugosa hedge) and Frau Dagmar Hastrup)

Bottom Row: Frau Dagmar Hastrup ; Madame Georges Bruant and Roseraie de l’Hay

Hedge:  From left to right:

Top Row: Kathleen; Stanwell Perpetual and Sombreuil

Bottom Row: Cornelia; Mutabilis and Penelope.

Cornelia has been such a show that she warrants another photo all of her own! She will eventually be supported by an arch. Sombreuil is on the other side.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-10-04-21Unexpected:   Unidentified root stocks instead of the roses I’d expected from the cuttings. Obviously, the originals had already died and been replaced by their root stocks: The deep red one is Dr. Huey, but I am not sure of the others: possibly Rosa multiflora (top left) and Rosa fortuniana (top right and bottom left), both of which have been used extensively as root stocks in the past.

The poppies have also been a visual delight from the simple wild form to the pink and purple peony poppies, which show such variation in colour and form.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0466blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-09-59-57blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-08-40-24blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-09-53-29blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-09-53-58 I love the seedheads, as well as their fairy-like appearance as they gradually lose their petals.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-13-24-39blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-13-24-42 The Iceland poppies planted last year are blooming for a second year and the new Ladybird Poppies Papaver commutatum ‘Ladybird’ are so dramatic, especially among the cornflowers, though the seed packet also obviously included corn poppy seedlings as well!blognovgarden20reszdimg_0065blognovgarden20reszdimg_0085blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-09-17-17blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-09-17-24blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-13-38-05blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-10-16-43 They replaced the ranunculus and Dutch Iris, which had their last blooms in early November.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0488blognovgarden20reszdimg_0484blognovgarden20reszdimg_0485blognovgarden20reszdimg_0482 The cornflowers and the Nigella orientalis ‘Transformer’ have persisted, as have the magical foxgloves, which have deepened in colour and have such amazing patterns in each bell. I love the seedheads of the nigella, which follow their exotic soft yellow flowers.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0008blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-09-55-16blognovgarden20reszdimg_0491blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-11-57-45blognovgarden20reszdimg_0393And the dahlias, despite their initial setback with the late frosts, have returned in a myriad of bright colours.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0006blognovgarden20reszdimg_0099blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-23-15-06-10blognovgarden20reszdimg_0440blognovgarden20reszdimg_0443blognovgarden20reszdimg_0093blognovgarden20reszdimg_0014blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-09-17-40Other blooms in the garden include: Feverfew, Lady’s Mantle (Moon Bed), Italian Lavender (Soho Bed) and Calendula (Herb Garden).blognovgarden20reszdimg_0091blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-05-18-45-02blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-28-13-45-45blognovgarden20reszdimg_0425 The Dianthus ‘Coconut Ice’ and ‘Doris’ are in full bloom in the treasure garden and the Rosalie Geranium and Convovulus provide a sea of blue. The bromeliads at the front entrance combine the blue and the pink.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-18-28-53blognovgarden20reszdimg_0438blognovgarden20reszdimg_0437blognovgarden20reszdimg_0047blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-07-11-21-28blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-08-47-49blognovgarden20reszdimg_0048 The blue flowering salvia in the Moon Bed is also in bloom, along with the white Aquilegia under the hydrangeas.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0454blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-14-18-58-04 I love the white petticoats of the Acanthus mollis.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-13-20-03-02blognovgarden20reszdimg_0410 Beside the pergola, the Snowball tree Viburnum opulus has been in flower for the whole month and has almost finished, the ground beneath it covered in its fallen snow-like petals.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-04-12-24-11blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-01-58blognovgarden20reszdimg_0418 The beautifully fragrant Philadelphus virginalis on the other side of the pergola has taken up the batten.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-21-08blognovgarden20reszdimg_0088 The Carolina Allspice in front of the Snowball tree has also lasted a long time.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0733 Both honeysuckles are starting to cover the fence well and I adore their fresh sweet scent.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0457blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-08-48-54 At the bottom of the garden, the sweet peas provide fragrance and the red bottlebrush provides a splash of colour, as does the ripening fruit on the mulberry tree.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-23-15-09-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-07-13-56-41blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-16-19-29 We have been enjoying its berries, along with the abundant strawberries, the loquats and the produce of the vegetable garden.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-18-13-44blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-15-32-01blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-10-26-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-18-05-52blognovgarden20reszdimg_1923 The birds and flying foxes are also in seventh heaven. The latter are so cute that it’s hard to begrudge them their bounty, though we do want some of the fruit!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-08-27-22blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-20-16-59-55blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-20-17-00-11blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-20-17-00-37blognovgarden20reszdimg_0030 Visiting birds have included members of the Cockatoo family: Pink Galahs, Little Corellas, Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos and Black Cockatoos ;blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-18-20-32-31blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-06-38blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-07-11blognovgarden20reszdimg_0072blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-44-42blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-43-43blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-09-56-17blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-10-01-20 the parrot family: King Parrots, Crimson Rosellas and Eastern Rosellas and the equally colourful Rainbow Lorikeets;blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-18-41-03blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-35-37blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-38-24blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-37-16blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-35-46blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-35-43blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-16-14-44blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-20-16-54-32blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-20-16-58-41 and the Honeyeater family: an unidentified honeyeater in the grevillea and the delightful miniscule Scarlet Honeyeater.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-09-57-41blognovgarden50reszd2016-11-12-10-00-50-copy-2blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-16-09-47-36We also have a few White-faced Herons doing the rounds.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-17-44-21Residents include the male Satin Bowerbird;blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-17-53-37 the cheeky Grey Fantailsblognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-10-28-18 and a new baby magpie, raised in a nest high in the pepperina tree.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-06-11-38-45blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-16-47-53 We  found this exquisite little nest in our old camellia. Shaped like an elegant wineglass and bound by spiders’ webs, I suspect it belongs to our friend, the Grey Fantail!blognovgarden20reszdimg_0435The insects have also been revelling in the late Spring garden:  Bees in the poppies and butterflies on all the flowers;blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-08-40-35blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-18-39-52blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-16-14-23blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-18-12-13-32blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-09-07-37 beetles on the angelica seed heads and dahlias;blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-18-00-39blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-18-35-07 and Orange Stink Bugs on the cumquat trees- Ross’s form of Sport and Rec at the moment!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-22-44blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-23-28 Not that he needs the extra work! Ross has been very busy in the garden: watering; sowing seed ; and transplanting the lemon verbena to the corner of the shed.blognovgarden20reszdimg_1928blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-17-27-54blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-09-10-55 He started digging up the shed bed for a cottage garden, removing the tree dahlia tubers, much to my reluctance and initial resistance and mollified only by planting one of the freshly sprouting tubers (much to his reluctance!) next to his new compost bays, supported by my neighbour’s tall buddleias. We also planned another rose arch where the rocks are positioned.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-19-16-50 As already mentioned , he finally assembled a compost bay out of recycled pallets behind the strawberry bed and it looks fantastic!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-14-17-28-55 He had a play with a friend’s mulcher, reducing our enormous green waste pile to a much smaller amount of mulch for the vegie bed!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-10-24-26 We also moved the potting area down to the bottom shady corner of the garden and marked out the edges of the garden beds, which we will demarcate with recycled fence palings.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-14-17-47-26Our final job in November was to dig up the Narcissi from the Iris bed in the cutting garden, now that their foliage has died down, to allow more room for the Iris as they multiply. We transplanted the bulbs in groupings to naturalize in the lawn: The Ziva Paperwhites on either side of the garden end of the pergola, as shown; the Golden Dawn jonquils around the Lemonade Tree on the staircase; two groupings of Winter Sun under the Golden Hornet Crab Apple tree and the Native Frangipani and Acropolis in front of the Michelia at the entrance to the pergola and finally, the wild Pheasant’s Eye Actaea in a swathe between the birdbath and the hill, where they can run rampant to their hearts’ delight! Just have to clean up the Iris bed now and stake those layabout cornflowers!!!blognovgarden20reszdimg_0103blognovgarden20reszdimg_0086Meanwhile up in the house, I have been busy making felt poppy cushions, a birthday apron for a friend, who has just launched her new poetry book ‘Kangaroos in the Blood’, hence the theme of the apron (!), and our 2016 Christmas Cake and Pudding! Happy Birthday Liz!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-12-55-50blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-18-18-41-09blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-18-18-51-42blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-18-18-54-34blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-20-23-41 I have also had a wonderful time arranging beautiful bouquets for the house, as well as for my daughter!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-17-09-03-17blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-09-09-52-41blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-09-39-39blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-11-08-00blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-20-04-01blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-18-26-41

The Kings of Merrica River

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Merrica River Nature Trail is another walk we had wanted to do for a long time and it lies in the northern precinct of Nadgee Nature Reserve, a 20 671 ha wilderness area. In fact, it is the end of the road and car access to this wonderful wilderness area. From Merrica River, it is a 3 to 4 day hike (55 km) around the coast to Mallacoota, Victoria, and is another bucket list camping trip, involving heavy packs and booking ahead. Only 30 hikers are allowed in the reserve at the one time and the cost is $10 per night per person. Permits can be obtained by phoning (02) 6495 5000. I would love to visit it in November to see the masses of moulting swans, resting on Nadgee Lake, while waiting for their new plumage to grow, as well as to run down the enormous sand-dunes at Cape Howe in Croajingalong National Park, also involving a long walk in. There is not that much  information online about Merrica River, but I did read in a bushwalking book that in Spring, the banks of the river were lined with King Orchids Dendrobium speciosum in full bloom, so we resolved to visit it on the last day of  September. We had not envisaged how wonderful the Spring wildflower show would be, so it was a double visual treat in store! blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0498blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0244Because there were so many wildflowers (over 800 species in Nadgee Nature Reserve), this post will be more of a photo essay, in which I will probably just refer to the genus name, unless I am sure of the species name.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0241blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0208 Here is a much magnified map from the National Parks board of the area:blogmerricariver50reszdimg_0676blogmerricariver75reszdimg_0676-copyTo get there from Eden:

Travel south along the Princes Highway for 22.5km. Turn left on Wonboyn Road and follow it for 8.7 km, just before the fork to Wonboyn Lake. Turn right into the gravel Old Bridge Forest Road and travel for a further 5.6 km, turning left at the fork-it is well signposted.The Merrica River carpark and the start of the track  is located across the Merrica River causeway.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0108blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0656blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0110The Merrica River Nature Trail is 4 km to the mouth of the Merrica River, where it joins the sea, so it is worth taking a sunhat, drinking water, walking boots and bathers if it is a warm day. The track starts through a tunnel of Coast Banksia Banksia integrifolia.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0630blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0138 The track crosses a creek, which flows into a small waterfall, then joins the fire trail through a eucalypt forest to the beach…blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0585blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0283blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0290 and the mouth of the Merrica River…blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0295blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0421blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0296 lined with grey lichen-covered rock blocks, with forest right down to the edge of the water.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0333blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0297blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0303The vegetation in Nadgee Nature Reserve has been almost undisturbed since European settlement and has such an isolated remote feel.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0398blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0470blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0339 We walked down along the river to see if we could spot a King Orchid, but only found one specimen far on the other side.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0306blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0311 We did however find a base camp with a kayak and a fireplace under the huge Bracelet Honey-Myrtles, Melaleuca armillaris, which flower later in Summer. What a wonderful spot to camp!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0327blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0326blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0324 I loved the brown and gold colour of the water, evidence of all the tannins in it!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0313blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0309 We then turned our attention to Disaster Bay and waded across a shallow knee-high passage, following the cliff line on the right…blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0335blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0363blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0362 where we discovered masses of King Orchids in full bloom on the higher rocks – such a spectacular show and well worth the long walk in!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0468blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0445blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0374blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0378blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0386 They obviously liked that aspect with full northern sun and even salt spray and wind!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0387blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0366blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0428 The lower rocks along the shoreline were very attractive with quartz banding and were covered with oysters, as well as being refuge for scurrying crabs!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0472blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0473blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0481 We saw a Pied Oyster Catcher, a Reef Heron (photo below), and a Black Cormorant searching for food and Gannets diving, but alas, no whales, Ground Parrots, endangered Eastern Bristlebirds, or the pair of resident White-Bellied Sea Eagles!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0356 We ate lunch out on the rocks facing the ocean and looking straight across Disaster Bay to Green Cape Lighthouse, around the corner from a couple of salmon fisherpeople!blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0410blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0413blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0412 Then, it was time to retrace our steps, taking more wildflower photos and  watching and listening to the many forest birds, including Grey Fantails, Eastern Yellow Robins, Golden Whistler, White Throated Tree Creepers, Lewin Honeyeaters, Satin Bowerbirds, Wonga Pigeons, Grey Thrush, Lorikeets and the migratory Fan-Tailed Cuckoo, who has returned for the Australian Summer. We didn’t see any other animals, as most of them would have been asleep in their tree hollows, but here are some photos of the homes of the resident ants:blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0634blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0635 Finally, here are the wildflower photos, grouped according to colour :

White and Cream:

Forest Clematis Clematis glycinoides;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0187blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0193 Wedding Bush Ricinocarpus pinifolius;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0127blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0633 Daisy Bush Olearia sp;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0254 Apple Berry Billardiera scandens;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0239 Sweet Pittosporum Pittosporum undulatum;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0258blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0257 Pimelea linifolia;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0502blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0129 Beard-Heath Leucopogon sp;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0189 and a Boronia species.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0177Yellow, Gold and Orange:

A number of different native pea genus: Pultenaea; Dilwynia, Bossiaea – all that is certain is that they all belong to the Family Fabaceae!;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0173blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0684blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0150blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0224blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0596blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0617blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0689blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0690blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0544 Golden Glory Pea Gompholobium latifolium;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0591 Hop Goodenia Goodenia ovata;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0260 Guinea Flower Hibbertia sp;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0131blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0132Toothed Guinea Flower Hibbertia dentata;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0202blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0156blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0155blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0581Fireweed Groundsel Senecio linearifolius;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0264 Pomaderris elliptica;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0140 Stringybark Wattle Acacia linearifolia;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0642 Prickly Moses Acacia ulicifolia;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0683 Melaleuca megacephala;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0618blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0678Pink and Purple:

Native Indigo Indigofera australis;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0568 Hardenbergia violacea;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0563blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0557 Glycine clandestina;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0252Thyme Pink Bells Tetratheca thymifolia;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0597blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0170 Common Heath Epacris impressa;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0671blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0650 and Purple Burr-Daisy Brachyscome spathulata subsp. spathulata.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0253Red: Dusky Coral Pea Kennedia rubicunda;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0528blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0529blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0530blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0246blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0531Bush Cherry Exocarpos sp;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0545Blue:

Waxlip Orchid Glossodia major;blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0646blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0210blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0211 Native Iris Patersonia sericea;blogiris20reszdimg_0651blogiris20reszdimg_0673 Love Creeper Comesperma volubileblogmerricariver20reszdimg_0553Green: Large Hop Bush Dodonaea triquetrablogmerricariver20reszdimg_0142and the pods of the Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0626There were even some interesting fungi.blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0653blogmerricariver20reszdimg_0248It was a wonderful day out and we were so impressed with the Kings of Merrica River, that we immediately followed up with a visit to Nethercote Falls the next day to see if their King Orchids were also in bloom, as we had missed them last Spring and we were thrilled to discover that they were! Third time lucky! I have added the new photos to the old post: November Falls. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2015/11/19/november-falls/. Next month, we will finish the year with Wonboyn Lake and Bay Cliff, truly the pièce de résistance of the area and a fabulous place to enjoy the Summer! Till then…!

Mt Imlay National Park

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In early Spring, we finally made a visit to Mt Imlay, a long-held ambition ever since we first arrived here. Mt Imlay (886m) dominates the skyline from Merimbula to the Victorian border and is accessed via Burrawang Rd, 20 km (15 mins drive) south of Eden, on the Far South Coast of New South Wales. Here is a photo of the National Parks map:blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0676 It was named after the Imlay Brothers, who settled in this region in the 1830s and 1840s, establishing a huge pastoral, whaling and trading empire. It was known to the local aborigines as ‘Balawan’ and is a place of spiritual significance for them. Apparently, it was used as a site for telepathic communication with groups to the north near Wallaga Lake. The foothills were selectively logged in the 1960s and a fire trail was built to the summit, giving access to the trig station, but the track was closed in the 1970s to allow the area to revegetate. There is also a Telstra Sea Phone facility, built in 1994 and serving as the last communication link between Melbourne and Sydney for coastal vessels.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0736 In 1972, 3808 ha of steep, heavily forested country around the peak was reserved as Mt Imlay National Park, which has since been extended to 4822 ha. The park has a variety of habitats and is an important refuge area for the conservation of the local native flora and fauna, including a number of threatened or geographically significant species. The summit is of particular scientific interest because of its predominantly undisturbed nature, the presence of several threatened plant species and its biogeographical similarity to Tasmanian peaks. I will be describing our walk soon, but first some introductory notes about this beautiful national park.

Geology

Most of Mt Imlay National Park was formed during the Ordovician Period, 500 to 435 Million years ago, from sedimentary and metamorphosed rocks of the Mallacoota Beds, part of the Southern Highlands Fold Belt, including greywacke, sandstone and shale. The summit of Mt Imlay and the upper slopes are younger, with Devonian (395 to 345 Million years ago) rocks of the Merimbula Group, lying above the Ordovician sediments. The Merimbula Group includes sandstone, conglomerates, quartzite, siltstone and shale. Quaternary sediments form narrow river flats along the Towamba River on the northern edge of the park.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0917blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0770blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0995blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0888blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0899 The soils on the summit and ridges are shallow with many rock fragments and the upper slopes are very sandy, loose and very erodible and subject to movement. I always marvel at the tenacity and optimism of seedlings growing in rock!blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0919 The summit area is only small and drops steeply in all directions with cliff lines in the north and east and a series of steps on the western slope. These steps are formed by the differential erosion of the alternating bands of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. Ridgelines extend from the summit, dissecting the rest of the park, which has narrow rocky ridges and deep gullies, as seen in the photo below.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1016Vegetation

The ridges and dry lower slopes are covered by open forest, dominated by Silvertop Ash, Eucalyptus sieberi and also includes Yellow Stringybark E. muelleriana and occasionally  E. globoidea and Blue-Leaved Stringybark E. agglomerata.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0918 The understorey is shrubby and  includes Native Cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis, Hickory Wattle Acacia falciformis, Shiny Cassinia Cassinia longifolia, Tetratheca thymifolia , Narrow-Leaf Geebung  Persoonia linearis, Acacia obtusifolia , Prickly Broom-Heath  Monotoca  scoparia , Smooth Geebung  Persoonia levisBanksia collina, Bedfordia arborescens, Hakea macreana, Mountain Speedwell Derwentia perfoliata, which had just finished flowering when we visited, and Hibbertia saligna, which is regionally uncommon and at the southern limit of its range. The steep south-east facing slopes (especially just below the ridge crest) are covered by stands of White Ash, E. fraxinoides, a species with a restricted distribution.

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Tetratheca thymifolia
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Narrow-Leafed Geebung Persoonia linearis
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Blanket Bush Bedfordia arborescens, so called for the supersoft undersides of their foliage.
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Hakea macreana
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Mountain Speedwell Derwentia perfoliata had just finished flowering.
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Hibbertia saligna

The moist sheltered gullies and slopes support a tall open forest of Yellow Stringybark, Monkey Gum E. cypellocarpa and River Peppermint  E. elata, with a shrub layer of Hop Goodenia  Goodenia ovata , Blue Olive-Berry  Elaeocarpus reticulates, Lance Beard-Heath  Leucopogon lanceolatus and Fireweed Groundsel  Senecio linearifolius.

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Monkey Gum, also known as Mountain Grey Gum, Eucalyptus cypellocarpa, has beautiful bark.
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Blue Olive-Berry Elaeocarpus reticulatus
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Lance Beard-Heath Leucopogon lanceolatus

There are also pockets of rainforest, including Black Olive-Berry, Elaeocarpus holopetalus, Banyalla Pittosporum bicolour, Soft Tree-Fern Dicksonia antarctica, Hard Water Fern, Blechnum wattsii and Pomaderris species, including Pomaderis phylicifolia subsp. ericoides.

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Black Olive-Berry Elaeocarpus holopetalus
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Soft Tree-Fern Dicksonia antarctica
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Hard Water Fern Blechnum wattsi
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Pomaderris phylicifolia subsp ericoides

Other ferns include: Maidenhair fern  Adiantum sp (Photo 1); Bracken fern  Pteridum esculentum; Coral Fern  Gleichenia rupestris (Photo 2); and Rock Felt Fern  Pyrrosia rupestris (Photo 3).blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0898blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0744blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0767 Climbers include Austral Sarsparilla, Smilax australis, which is shown in the first three photos at various stages and Drooping Mistletoe, Amyema pendula (Photos 4 to 5).blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0777blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0762blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0766blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0747blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0750On the rocky summit is a woodland, dominated by Narrow-Leafed Peppermint, Eucalyptus sp. aff. radiata, but also including Silvertop Ash and Messmate E. obliqua. There is also a stand of less than 200 trees of the very rare, endemic Mallee Gum, Eucalyptus imlayensis, which emerges from a closed tall heath, containing Leptospermum scoparium (1st photo below), Scented Paperbark, Melaleuca squarrosa, Mat Rush Lomandra longifolia, Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis (2nd photo below), Prickly Broom-Heath Monotoca  scoparia, Common Oxylobium Oxylobium arborescens, Boronia pinnata and Hibbertia dentata.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0934blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0686 Other plants we saw on our walk included: Hairpin Banksia Banksia spinulosa (photo 1), Old Man Banksia Banksia serrata (photo 2), and plenty of flowering Epacris impressa (photos 3 and 4), which was quite spectacular!blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0837blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0862blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0980blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0902The  Imlay Mallee is only found at a single site on the steep rocky east-facing slope at an altitude of 850m to 870m. It grows to a height of 7 metres and is multi-stemmed with smooth orange-brown and grey bark, which is shed from the stems in ribbons. Seed production is rare and there are no juvenile plants recorded. Mallee Gum appears to be related to Tasmanian eucalypts, an association backed up by the presence of Eriostemon virgatus, which normally grows in Tasmania, Mt Imlay being one of the few mainland locations of this shrub. Known by its common name, the Tasmanian Waxflower, it is the only four-petalled Eriostemon in Eastern Australia. The Weevil Aterpus kubushas, also found in Tasmania and the Victorian Alps, has also been collected on the summit, further evidence of Mt Imlay’s biogeographical similarity with the Tasmanian peaks.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0909blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0903

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Eriostemon virgatus

The summit of Mt Imlay also has a number of threatened and biogeographically significant plant species including: Pomaderris costata, Persoonia brevifolia (close to northern limit), Monotoca elliptica, Saw Sedge Gahnia subaequiglumis, Prostanthera walteri, and Leafless Pink Bells, Tetratheca subaphylla, seen in the photo below.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0798 We enjoyed seeing the early Spring blooms of another endangered endemic species, Boronia imlayensis, seen in this photo. It had only just started flowering on our visit in late August.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0964 We could not identify this shrub- perhaps someone could help us?blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0839blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0838Recent mapping of the park revealed that half of the park is fragmented old-growth forest, whose hollows provide essential habitats for all the arboreal mammals.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1004blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1005blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0774Fauna

Native mammals include: Red-Necked Wallaby, Swamp Wallaby, Greater Glider, Brush-Tail Possum, Eastern Pygmy Possum, Platypus, Wombat, the Large-Footed Myotis and Bush Rat. There are three threatened species: the  Long-Nosed Potoroo, the Koala and the Tiger Quoll. Native birds recorded include: the Gang-Gang Cockatoo, the Superb Lyrebird, the Little Eagle, the Wedge-Tailed Eagle, the Wonga Pigeon, Common Bronzewing, Yellow-Tailed Black Cockatoo, King Parrot, Grey Currawong, Little Lorikeet and Red-Browed Finch.  Reptiles include: Red-bellied Black Snake, Brown Snake, Lace Monitor and Cunningham’s Skink.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0675And now to our walk, as seen in the National Parks map above! From the Princes Highway, a 20 minute (10 km) drive up the gravel Burrawang Rd through the East Boyd State Forest with dramatic examples of the devastation of clear felling practices along the way , as well as revegetated areas from 1977 and 1978, brings you to the Burrawang Picnic Area and the start of the Mt Imlay Summit Walking Track.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0670 At the start of the walk and the last stretch to the summit are Boot Cleaning Stations with an information board (seen in the 2nd photo), to stop the spread of the Cinnamon Fungus, Phytophthora cinnamomi.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0689blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0688 These include a brush to clean your boots and a dip with a chemical solution to wash your soles.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0877blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1034 Already, a number of species have been affected including the Austral Grass Trees, Tea Broom-Heath, Common Heath, Leafless Pink Bells and Hairpin Banksia.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0863 The fungus attacks the roots and causes them to rot and has already destroyed large areas of Grass Trees in particular.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0866blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0867The track is described as a challenging 3 km walk, rising 600 m to the summit (6 km return; 3 to 4 hours), but because the walk is broken up into different sections and there is so much botanical interest, we managed it quite easily with photography stops along the way. Also, I think we are fairly fit, as our daily walks in Candelo involve steep hills either side of the valley, and we weren’t even stiff the next day. I was very impressed with my usually suspect knee, which behaved beautifully on the walk with not a twinge of pain! The walk follows the ridge up the right hand side of the mountain, shown in the photo below.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0737 The track is marked by silver tags on the trees and there are interesting information boards at intervals.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0822blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0752 The first stretch of the track is a bit boring through dry open eucalypt forest along the old road, but once you reach the Austral Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea australis) ridge, it becomes much more interesting.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0704blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1022 We ascended a steep path past Dianella tasmanica outcrops (photo 2) to our first set of large boulders.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0720blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0996blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0734 We skirted around a natural amphitheatre on the same level, then ascended to the base of a cliff with huge boulders under a tall forest of Silvertop Ash trees.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1015blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0789blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0790blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0978 A steep slope leads to a razorback ridge, which runs 500m to the trig station.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0942blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0954blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0890 There were lots of Spring wildflowers in a variety of colours- whites, creams, yellows, pinks, blues, purples and reds. Here are a few more photos. In order: Eriostemon virgatus, Lance Beard-Heath Leucopogon lanceolatus , Hakea macreana, Pomaderris phylicifolia subsp. ericoides, Sweet Wattle Acacia suaveolens, and Common Heath Epacris impressa (last two photos).blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0923blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0870blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1013blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0841blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0684blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0869blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0979 The stunning photo opportunities were further increased by the spectacular views of the coast, north to Mt Dromedary (photos 1 and 2) and Eden, including the wood chip mill (photos 3 and 4); west to the mountains (photos 5 and 6); east to Green Cape and Bay Cliff and the Wonboyn River (photos 7 to 10);  and to the far south, the holiday shacks, beaches and river entrance at Mallacoota (photos 11 and 12).blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0973blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0967blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0926blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0930blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0956blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0848blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0842blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0844blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0831blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0931blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0946blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0947Unfortunately, the day was a bit cloudy and grey and the summit quite cold and windy, so we ate a quick picnic lunch at the top, disturbing a roosting Little Eagle in the process.blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0906 Then descended back to the Silvertop Ash forest, where we met the only other bushwalkers we saw that day- a couple with a six year old daughter, whose timing was better as the sky had just turned a bright blue for their arrival at the summit. Their views would have been even better! These photos  contrast our day (photo 1) and that of the next couple (photo 2).blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1036blogmtimlay20reszdimg_1014 We really enjoyed visiting this iconic local landmark. Next week, we explore the Merrica River, another stunning walk in Springtime. I will finish with a lovely photo of the stump of a dead Austral Grass Tree, which captured our attention!blogmtimlay20reszdimg_0924

Favourite Private Specialty Gardens : Part 2 : Dry Climate, Sustainable and Small Gardens

BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 008

The Millenium Drought in Australia from 1995 to 2009 had a massive impact on Australian gardens, resulting in the adoption of a more appropriate style of garden design for our dry climate, especially given the future effects of climate change. These gardens are predominantly made up of low water use plants, which are adapted to drought, many of which are sold by Lambleys Nursery. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/03/08/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-nursery-gardens-in-victoria and http://lambley.com.au/. I have already discussed a perfect example of a Mediterranean Garden, Lixouri, in October’s post. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/09/20/favourite-private-country-gardens-part-2/.

Dry Climate and Mediterranean Gardens

Bedrock

141 Karoonda Highway (on Bookpurnong Tce), Loxton, South Australia   2.5 acres         Ph: 0427213322  BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.29.46BlogPrivSpec25%Reszd2014-10-26 10.43.07Once a quarry and the old drive-in site, Bedrock is situated in Loxton, 250 km east of Adelaide. Loxton is known as the ‘Garden Town of the Riverland’, due to its position on the Murray River, and has many low water usage, sustainable landscapes. We visited it in late October 2014 as part of the Renmark Rose Festival.

Bedrock is a magnificent grand scale garden with a tropical lush feel. BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.43.51Chris and Raelene Schultz developed the garden from scratch, when they bought the old drive-in site back in 2000. Hundreds of tonnes of rock and stone were used to build retaining walls and edgings, as well as a rustic stone cottage (2014) for accommodation and small functions.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.44.38 Recycled materials from the 1850s were used in the latter, which complements the 1923 weeping mulberry and their grandmother’s 40 year old roses.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.32.35BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.32.19 There is a pond with a cascading waterfall and waterlilies;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.44.09BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.43.16 a beautiful wisteria-covered arbour;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.45.23 and a sunken iris garden with an urn water feature.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.31.22BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.49.31BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.49.16BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.48.23BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.31.39Everything about this garden is dramatic and bold from the entrance sign to colourful pansy and ranunculus beds and the dry creek bed and stone wall feature.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.45.43BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.44.28BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.35.32BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.30.25BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.32.55BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.32.00BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.31.26 There are native plantings, a fruit orchard, trees and annuals and lots of quirky locally-made animal sculptures. It will be interesting to see this relatively new garden in a few years’ time.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.32.50BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-10-26 10.33.16Hill House

26-30 City View Drive, Wandana Heights, Geelong, VIC   0.4 ha (1 acre)

This is a much older garden (25 years old) on the top of the hill in Geelong, with panoramic views over the city and Port Philip Bay to the You Yangs and Melbourne.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2131BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2161 Originally a 90 year old windbreak plantation, the garden is built on a series of terraces, linked by curved hedges and stone walls.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2136BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2121BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2219 Entry is via a gatehouse structure with a shingle roof, which came from the rotunda building of the original Ceres Lookout.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2272BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2120 Recycled materials have been used extensively throughout the garden from the walls made of railway sleepers, salvaged from the South Geelong Railway renovations, and the petrified timber slab, excavated from a local quarry, under a metal tree in the south-west corner to the use of Japanese bath tubs and North Indian well buckets as plant containers and the retired band instruments hanging in the trees.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2146BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2181BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2149BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2228BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2138BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2203 This eclectic and whimsical garden has so many wonderful design ideas, which can be adapted to small gardens, courtyards and dry, shady areas.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2216BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2118BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2226BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2130BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2265BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2207 The use of Tuscan toppings, instead of lawn, saves water. Steel baskets of orchids are supported on the original pylons of the Portarlington Pier beneath the photinia hedge, while a storm-damaged cypress is used as a base for a metal flame sculpture.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2168BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2143BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2256BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2190 Other trees include: salvaged Red Gums (350 years old) on the eastern and western boundaries; Conifers; Gleditsia ‘Ruby Lace’ trees; Bottle Trees; pollarded, standardized Catalpa trees (ball-like canopy), Crepe Myrtles, Maple collections, Fiddlewoods and many palms.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2267BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2133 Bromeliads grow in the shady sheltered southern part of the garden, along with azaleas, while roses prefer the sunnier sites.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2222BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2155 There are many many pots, as well as original sculptures, and lots of unusual succulents including this strange Elephant’s Foot, Dioscorea elephantipes, which can live to 70 years old, shown in the bottom photo below.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2245BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2214BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2164BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2221BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2258

Meanderings

62 Kennedy St, Castlemaine, VIC  Ph (03) 5472 4202    0.25 acres

A much smaller garden in Castlemaine, Central Victoria, an area renowned for its tough climate with extreme temperatures, heavy frost and low rainfall, as well as depleted soil from goldmining days. The garden was created by Barbara Maund in 1991 and was inspired by the English Arts and Crafts Movement, as well as medieval monastery gardens. The only plants from the pre-1991 garden were a 100 year old box hedge, a large mauve lilac, a nandina thicket and belladonna lilies. The garden was started around the 1895 Victorian stucco house and is semi-formal in nature. The design displays strong structural elements from the geometric garden rooms to the hedges and topiaried plant forms (circles, arcs, balls, domes, squares and rectangles), but is softened by a patchwork of self-sown annuals, perennials and blowsy old-fashioned roses, as well as the creeping thyme along the brick paths.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 394BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 398 Local landscaping materials were  used : gravel in the paths between different garden sections; old bricks contain garden compartments and create a series of circles, a shallow round pool (to reflect the moon) and the well; stone is used for stepping stones and paving; and slate for mulch , as well as iron and other recycled materials.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 396BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 397BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 405BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 401BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 408BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 419BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 406BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 412 Plants were chosen for their toughness and include perennials, succulents, iris, seasonal bulbs, roses and self-seeding plants. Many of the aromatic plants are Mediterranean in origin : lavenders, thymes and rosemary, as well as silvery artemesia, santolina and lambs’ ear, Stachys byzantinia. Very much a collector’s garden, there are 37 fragrant Heritage roses, fruit trees and over 70 self-seeding plants, all in one quarter of an acre!BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 409BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 413 There are many different colour themes from the purple driveway tunnel and northern yellow borders to the central blue walk and circle and the white southern beds.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 415BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 411I loved the bright red berries of the pyracantha, trained along wires the length of the verandah and complimented by red begonias and white wooden stars.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 410 The topiary of the Australian map outside the old shed and the square box were very impressive.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 403BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 404BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 421 There were also lots of seats in the sun, shade and shelter, from which to admire the many vistas. In late Spring, the plants are treated to home-made compost and leaf mould, while blood and bone is applied in March and August. The plants are self-mulched with clippings year round. Watering is done by hand, using water from rainwater tanks and a grey water system.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 417BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 418BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 414When we visited Meanderings through the Australian Open Garden scheme back in April 2010, it was owned by Larraine and Jim Kollmorgen, but it has since been sold in 2014.

Coastal environments are also tough for gardeners with the salt-laden winds and sandy soils. I have already described Villa Lettisier, which protects its garden from the coastal winds coming straight off Bass Strait with huge hedges. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/09/20/favourite-private-country-gardens-part-2/. Corio Bay is much more sheltered, but still presents challenges to gardeners with strong winds, low rainfall and alkaline soil. We visited the next two gardens on the Bellarine Peninsula on the shores of Corio Bay near Geelong on the Cottage By the Sea Inc Open Day in March 2014. For the 2016 program, see: http://cottagebythesea.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/GARDENDAY2016.pdf

Seaview

965 Portarlington Rd., Curlewis, VIC BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.25.02A beautiful coastal country garden developed from an empty paddock back in 2000 around a newly built house. Right on the shores of Corio Bay, the property has superb views of the You Yangs.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.15.22BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.20.38 While the house was being built, native trees were planted on the south-west corner of the garden to protect it from the prevailing winds.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.24.11BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.23.16 In 2001, a lawn of Santa Ana couch was laid down- a perfect choice, as it does not require watering. The  large east-west garden bed was the first to be planted. I loved the vegetable garden.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.17.06BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.17.17 An original dam was converted to a small lake with rocks and plantings. A 35m deep bore was sunk in January 2007, its water feeding into the dam.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.06.26BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.05.58BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.05.04BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.07.35BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.07.44BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.09.46 Drought-tolerant plants, suited to coastal environments, were chosen and include : a rosemary hedge; a white cedar underplanted with flaxes and grasses; a Chinese elm to provide shade near the dam; an oleaster hedge on the southern fence, planted 2003 ;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.03.05BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.21.54BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.23.37BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.12.21BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.13.39BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.03.48 And a succulent garden, planted mainly from cuttings in 2010.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.01.18BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.01.29 There were also lots of interesting sculptures and wire work on display and for sale.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.10.48BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.16.00BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.29.52BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.08.29BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.08.48BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.13.48 Brambledale Farm

2115 Portarlington Rd., Drysdale, VIC

Bought by Elizabeth Vorrath in 1972, Brambledale Farm is a working farm, named after the original late 1800s cottage, which fell into disrepair and was demolished in 2009. Originally running sheep and growing crops and potatoes, the owners now agist horses and fatten cattle.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.23.22  A new house was built in 1974, with extensions in 1998.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.28.05 A stand of Tuart Gums protects the house from the harsh south-westerly winds.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.46.23 John Patrick designed a circular driveway with a pond, now a dry river bed. A haha wall at the front allows for uninterrupted superb views of Corio Bay and the You Yangs.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.23.36BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.20.57BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.53.47BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.22.05BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.25.35BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.25.39 A tennis court area was built in 1998, incorporating a stand of Lemon-scented Gums and two oaks, planted in 1975, including a Golden Rain Tree. A retaining wall and wide steps leading up to the house were built in 2006.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.41.24BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.43.37BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.24.42 This is a large well-established garden with formal and informal areas and superb plantings and combinations of colour and texture.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.28.50BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.37.49BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.33.09BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.44.28BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.19.25BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.27.14 Since the Millenium Drought of the early 2000s, the garden was replanted with hardy plants with low water requirements including : grasses and succulents; echiums and sedums; euphorbias and heleniums; kniphofias; a variety of salvias, lavenders and other sun-loving perennials; and a ground cover of Chinese Star Jasmine.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.28.27BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.27.50BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.25.05BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.27.25 Gravel replaced lawns and a new gravel garden, inspired by Michael McCoy, was built in 2008. I loved the bright sunny colours of these heleniums.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.45.24BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.45.15BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.44.13BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.44.05 I also loved the abundance, colour and variety in this garden, discovering new plants like the Castor Oil plant, Ricinus communis (photos 1 and 2); Salvia mexicana ‘Limelight’ (photo 4) and Jack-in-the-Pulpit or Cobra Lily, Arisaema (photo 3).BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.29.09BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.29.19BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.23.54BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.28.16Attila Kapitany

1 Lough Court Rd, Narre Warren North, VIC   0.4 ha (1 acre)

http://www.homelife.com.au/gardening/garden-design/succulent-water-wise-garden

The ultimate dry climate garden, this dramatic succulent/cacti garden fully warrants its video footage, seen here at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jyfWFVHHVw  and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T27q1Z6D4ko.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 641 Attila Kapitany bought this residential house block, overlooking an ornamental public lake, formerly a large farm dam, with his wife Michele back in late 2002. Attila has vast experience (over 30 years worth) growing  and marketing succulents and cacti. Once director of a family business of garden centres, including Paradisia, Australia’s largest succulent and cacti nursery (http://www.paradisia.com.au/), he was a President of the Cactus and Succulent Society of Australia for 10 years (http://www.australiansucculents.com/). He has written 15 books on succulents and cacti, including seven books, co-authored with Rudolf Schulz. His book, Australian Succulent Plants, describes 100 of the 400 Australian succulent species, including 60 new species. Below is his hand-drawn mud map from our visit in March 2010.BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_0324This is a very impressive, steep garden, built on terraces with garden rooms linked by paths of granitic gravel and sand. The design developed organically, rather than having a master plan, and gives the illusion of rivers of plants flowing down to the lake.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 604The block is screened on three boundaries (top and sides) by a 3m cypress hedge of Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Castlewellan Gold’, planted from 2002 to 2003, with the front of the block left clear for the lake view. There are two holes cut in the hedge for peepholes over the garden to the lake.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 607Water had to be carted by bucket in the first 12 months, then mains water was installed with five garden taps positioned around the perimeter. The hard, dry, impermeable, nutrient-deficient soil has been improved with loads of mulch and humus and semicircular banks of compost and soil have been created on the downside of each plant to collect water runoff from higher up the hill and prevent it from disappearing down to the dam.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 575BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 591 There are over 10 000 plants of 1000 species, all raised by Attila and Michele from seeds and cuttings, collected on their travels, except for the central Bottle Tree, Brachychiton rupestris.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 594BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 621

There are 30 species of bottle trees, raised from seed collected from their natural Queensland habitat; blue-grey yuccas and Dasylirion wheeleri, grown from seed collected from their habitat in the desert regions of the USA; architectural agaves, gymeas (spear lilies) and aloes;BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 590BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 601 a saltbush collection ;BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 577 colourful ground cover succulents like aeoniums and crassulas;BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 617BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 580BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 596BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 581BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 599BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 584BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 583 and plants with foliage colour and nectar -producing flowers (for birds, bees and butterflies).BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 630BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 627 Seventy percent of the plants are succulents, while the rest are natives. One fifth of the plants are native to Australia. There is such an eclectic mix of shapes, patterns, textures and colours.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 598BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 624

BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 612BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 614 Height is provided by the bottle trees, the spear lilies and the White Silk Floss tree, Ceiba insignis, as well as the vertical stone installations of the Ruins. These angular basalt rock pinnacles mimic the Lost City of Northern Territory, while a patch of rusty red sand in the centre of the garden represents the Red Centre of Australia.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 635BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 622BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 633 It is well worth visiting this amazing garden, which is at its peak in late Winter/ Spring! Be advised to stay on the path though, to avoid being stung, poisoned or falling down the slope into the dam!

BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 631BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 637BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 620BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 602More information can be seen in a Garden Drum article ‘A Sucker for Succulents’ by Tim Entwhistle in 2013: http://gardendrum.com/2013/09/17/a-sucker-for-succulents/.

Barwon Heads

29-31 Bridge St., Barwon Heads, VIC    1128 m2

A much safer, much smaller garden, but equally fascinating in a totally different way !BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.52.23 Showcased during the Geelong Sustainable House Day in September 2014 for its retrofitting of a 1900s weatherboard beach house (including under deck water tanks between the house and the garage), it was the predominantly native garden around the old house, which really impressed us, especially as it had only been created in the last four years!BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.45.01BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.43.29BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.48.04 I loved the recycled brick edgings; the winding gravel paths;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.47.13BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.50.06 the skillful planting for colour and texture at all times of the year in such a small space;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.50.47BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.52.57BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.47.58BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.47.38BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.45.37BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.46.31 the use of old stumps, logs and branches and rock in the landscape, as well as lots of pots and wooden half-barrels; the beautiful grasses;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.51.07BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.47.47BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.50.29BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.48.43BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.46.27BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.49.58 the blue mosaic dish and rock bird bath and the espaliered japonica on the front fence.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.53.47BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.49.02BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.47.03BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-09-14 14.46.13Sustainable Gardens

Markos Garden

21 Barnett St Hampton, Melbourne, VIC   16m x 45m

http://www.markdymiotis.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRKrJuEN5uA

The last two gardens have focused on particular groups of plants (succulents/ cacti and Australian natives). This small suburban garden is no different, only this time it’s Mediterranean food plants! Its owner, Mark Dymiotis, hailed from Cyprus 55 years ago and bought this house with a bare garden in 1985. He has a passion for both Mediterranean food and the philosophy of Simple Living and has incorporated them both into his lifestyle and career , teaching adult education courses on vegetable growing, the Mediterranean diet, making sourdough bread and pizzas, oven building, wine making and olive preserving. It is amazing how much he can grow and produce in his tiny garden!BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 015BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 014 The front garden on the street is Mediterranean cottage style and contains 3 cherry trees, 2 pomegranates, a persimmon, a grapevine pergola and a significant salvia collection, maintained by the Salvia Study Group. Mark grows salvias for their flowers, perfume, medicinal properties, drought and disease resistance and frost tolerance.

BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 020BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 009BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 021BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 018 The back garden has a small lawn with two olive trees; an orchard of four varieties of plums, three varieties of apricots, two types of pears, many varieties of figs, mandarins (two varieties on the one tree), a lemon tree, a Kiwi fruit vine and another grapevine pergola; raised vegetable beds with frames; a compost heap; three large rainwater tanks;  a shed (for wine making, olive preserving and making tomato sauce) and two brick wood-fired ovens for bread and pizzas.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 016BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 022BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 024BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 017 There are also two climbing roses (Lady Hillingdon and Iceberg), a mock orange, a jasmine and a honeysuckle. The raised vegetable beds are constructed with concrete and brick walls, to reduce water loss and insect nests, and are totally organic. Mark maintains high productivity with the use of compost, manure and green manure to improve the naturally sandy soil; crop rotation and companion planting: nasturtiums under the fruit trees; basil and stinging nettle in the vegetable patch; marigolds with tomatoes and zinnias with cucumbers and beans. In Summer, he grows tomatoes, capsicums and chillies; cucumbers, zucchinis and eggplants; marrows, corn and beans; and onions, purslane and amaranth. The Winter garden produces broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower; broad beans; rocket and coriander; and garlic, fennel and globe artichokes. Parsley, silver beet, celery, cos lettuce, spring onions and a huge variety of herbs are grown year round. I would highly recommend a visit to this garden, especially if you love home-grown food!

BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 011BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 013BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdfeb2010 025Hendrik’s Garden

9 Camden Rd Hughesdale, Melbourne, VIC   14km SE from Melbourne CBD  0.4 ha  15m x 48m

http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s3135331.htm

http://www.vanleeuwengreen.com/static/uploads/files/edible-eden-wfdgvdouwmov.pdf

Another very impressive, productive small garden, created by professional horticulturalist and landscape gardener, Hendrik Van Leeuwen, who bought place with his partner Nicole in 2005. Hendrik  started his landscaping business, Van Leeuwen Green (http://www.vanleeuwengreen.com/) with Jake Green in 1995. They design and construct, renovate and maintain gardens, so he had plenty of experience and design knowledge to put into practice. After renovating the Californian bungalow house, Hendrik and Nicole turned their attention to the bare front and back gardens, which afforded them a blank canvas with which to work. Design features include: foliage texture, colour and form; traditional seasonal flowering events; plant zoning for similar requirements; the planting of low water use, low maintenance species, which thrive in hot, dry conditions, and aesthetic food plants (vegetables, fruit and herbs). Sustainable features include:  the use of sustainable hard landscaping; rainwater harvest drip irrigation and recycled grey water; recycled red gum sleepers around the garden beds and chooks to recycle food scraps and produce poultry manure.

The formal front garden matches the design of the house and contains a front hedge of Lilly Pilly ‘Bush Christmas’ and two rectangular beds, edged with English box, containing central crab apples; Chinese Plumbago, Ceratostigma wilmottianum, echeverias and purple succulent, Aeonium arboretum ‘Schwarzkopf’; grasses and heliotrope. It has a restricted but effective colour palette, with bold massed plantings for visual effect and weed suppression and foliage contrast in colour and form.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 276BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 280The south side of the house is cool and protected, and has the appearance of a lush tropical rainforest, with two types of Strelitzia, S. nicolai and S. reginae; clivias; native frangipani and giant liriope. All the plants were chosen for their low water requirements, longevity, toughness and ability to withstand heat waves. Away from the house as you approach the back garden are large bottlebrush trees; grasses (Poa and Pennisetum) and sedges (Lomandra); herbaceous perennials, both native (kangaroo paw) and exotic (salvias and red hot pokers). Citrus, stone fruit and a Natal plum, Carissa grandiflora, grow along the southern fence.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 244BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 261BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 260The back garden is highly organized and productive with an organic vegetable garden, edged with railway sleepers; a chook pen; fruit trees and shrubs and herbaceous perennials.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 248BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 255 Bifold doors open out onto sustainably grown speargum decking, penetrated by a single olive tree, forming an outdoor living space. Salad greens are grown in boxes under the kitchen window for easy access and the deck is shaded by a pergola, clad with grape and kiwi fruit vines. A small bed in front of the decking contains cool climate bananas (Abyssinian banana, Ensete ventricosum), strelitzia and a bangalow palm. A low clipped rosemary hedge follows the decking near the outdoor toilet and a clipped lillypilly hedge screens the workshop and borders a small lawn, turfed with heat- and drought-tolerant Kikuya grass, which is watered with grey water. Key accent plants include a giant ornamental banana in the middle of the backyard and a lemon-scented gum at the very back.The northern boundary is planted with apple/ peach and citrus trees; mixed vegies and herbs (globe artichokes) and shrubs and perennials.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 273 The formal vegetable garden, near the chook pen, is heavily mulched with pea straw and chook manure to enrich the naturally sandy loam soil and is watered using drip irrigation and rainwater. I loved the red stems of the rainbow chard, the Russell lupins, planted for their flowers and soil nutrition, and the bamboo trellis of peas.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 274BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 252BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 251 There is also a round paved area with a fire pit (Castlemaine slate) for entertaining.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 272BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 263 There were so many inspiring ideas in this small garden! I loved its illusion of the tropics, despite the fact that it is situated in the far south of Australia. The neighbours also had a great sense of colour!BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 283BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 284BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdgrampians 4 285Small Gardens

Marg’s Tropical Cornucopia

66 Prospect Hill Rd, Camberwell, Melbourne, VIC   45m x 20m

This garden is another wonderful, inspiring, highly  productive ‘tropical’ garden in a small space, containing many semitropical plants rarely grown in Melbourne! Ian and Marg bought their 1883 house in 1984, then the neighbouring property in 2003. There are no lawns, just brickwork and paving, and the relaxation spaces have a distinctly Moroccan feel, from the outdoor dining area surrounded by bamboo to the rooftop garden and plant selection, especially the orange and pink bougainvillea ‘Tango’.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 010BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 001BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 015BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 002BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 008 In 1990, they planted casuarinas, a big figtree in the backyard, persimmons leading to the front verandah and Lamarque roses by the seat in the front fence, but the rest of the garden was planted from 2004 on, after the installation of two rainwater tanks (10 000 litres). A hydroponic vertical garden was inspired by Patrick Blanc. They even have their own beehives, which produce 30 kg honey annually, right in the heart of Melbourne!BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 021BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 022

It is hard to comprehend the amazing variety and number of plants in this tiny garden : over seventy food-producing plants, forty different fruit trees and hundreds of medicinal herbs and perfumed plants, reflecting Marg’s background as a cosmetic chemist. Food plants include: three different types of avocado, seven types of banana, three fig varieties and three different grapes, apricots and other pome trees, limes,  guavas, a persimmon, a pomegranate, and a huge variety of tropical fruit trees like black/green sapotes, custard apples, mango, mountain pawpaw, jabotica and the delicious-sounding icecream bean!BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 005BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 012 There are bottle trees, candlenuts, plants with red/black and variegated foliage, cannas and bougainvilleas for colour, giant bamboo for sound and many many succulents for their hardiness, architectural structure and Winter colour.

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Marg has achieved her incredible success by incorporating organic matter and weathered granitic sand, rich in volcanic nutrients and sourced from Dromana, into the sandy topsoil, as well as using her own foliar spray, Marg’s Magic Mix, a concentrate made from plant, fish and mineral sources, which is diluted and then sprayed on the plants.

The Nook

5 Tavistock Rd, Monbulk, VIC   0.2 ha (0.5 acres)

http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s3062916.htm

BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 022Another garden packed with interesting plants and valuable ideas for small gardens, The Nook is situated at Monbulk, the centre for the horticultural industry in Victoria, especially flowers, which are exported all over the world and berries for jam making, and the 1920s cottage is part of that legacy, having once been owned by fruit pickers. Val and Don Jackson extended and refurbished the house after they bought the block in 1999. Don was a contemporary fellow horticulturalist of Edna Walling, the association marked by the planting of three silver birches, Edna’s signature plants, at the entrance.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 021 The design of the romantic English cottage style garden owes much to Don’s efforts, but sadly he passed away in 2007 and the garden became Val’s therapy.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 008BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 016BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 010 Design elements include:  arches, trellises and arbours, covered with roses and clematis; meandering brick paths, steps and paving; a small bridge to a rose garden; a secret garden; an alpine rock garden; a borrowed landscape of the neighbour’s chestnut trees; distinct microclimates; and separate areas to suit plants with different growing conditions.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 007BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 006 BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 017BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 015BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 019Azaleas, rhododendrons, camellias, hydrangeas, cyclamens, cliveas  and hellebores are grouped in the shade of mature walnut trees and a hazelnuts, while roses, succulents and vegetables are in the sunnier parts of the garden.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 018BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 012 I loved the herbaceous borders, filled with so many lovely cottage plants like foxgloves, delphiniums and salvias. Roses include: Mutabilis; Pink Perpetué; Clair Matin; Lavender Lassie; Paul Transom; and Graham Thomas , while Clematis ‘Belle of Woking’ and C. montana ‘Tetrarose’ cover the walkway. There are fuchsias and pieris; cordylines and ferns; many succulents; unusual evergreen plants like the aromatic Adenandra from South Africa and the burgundy Chinese Fringe Flower, Loropetalum chinense ‘Roseum’; and interesting bulbs like Hoop Petticoat daffodils and tuberous plants like Rhodohypoxis, which were new to me.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 020BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 013BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdgrampians 1 014 This delightful small garden is packed with colour and perfume and is still open to the public through Open Gardens Victoria. See: http://www.opengardensvictoria.org.au/companies/25/62/The-Nook .

Coburn

134 Wooralla Drive Mt Eliza, Mornington Peninsula, VIC   0.2 ha (0.5 acres)

Finally, Carole Coburn’s delightful small garden, developed over 20 years, and fully deserving of the lyrical description by Open Garden Australia, back in October 2009 : ‘a Persian carpet, embroidered with rivers of jewel-like colours’. It did not disappoint!BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 150 The dense plantings include: lots of old-fashioned climbing and rambling roses, sprawling over pergolas, fences and arbours (eg. Mme Alfred Carrière);BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 172BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 148BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 168BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 169 Many small trees like maples, silver birches, a weeping cherry and palm trees;BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 149BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 130BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 126 And massed plantings of campanula, foxgloves and lamium; and Spring bulbs.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 173BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 170BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 147BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 156BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 158 The winding paths are bordered by hedging plants and there is a tranquil lawn.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 155BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 144BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 140 There is also a natural curved shaped pool with shallow stone shelving and an old timber decking, its edges softened by creeping plants, a spa and a pottery outdoor heater.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 136BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 137BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 162BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 160 I loved the use of planters and pots.BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 131BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 157BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 164Visiting these amazing gardens has vastly enriched my knowledge of garden design principles and plants and all of them are prime examples of the huge potential in gardens, irrespective of garden size, climate and budget. I feel so lucky to have been able to access them through Open Gardens Australia, as well as various garden festivals, and look forward to getting to know some of the beautiful gardens in our new state. We have just returned from a weekend in the Southern Highlands, Sydney’s equivalent to Melbourne’s Mt Macedon, so I will finish the year with a December post about the fabulous gardens we visited. Next year, I am focusing on my beloved roses! Such wonderful dreamy gardens…!!!

 

 

 

 

Poppies: November Feature Plant

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It’s Poppy Season again! Our first Peony Poppy opened overnight, while we have had plenty of wild purple single poppies for the last fortnight.blogpoppy20reszd2016-10-29-09-26-27blogpoppy20reszd2016-10-29-09-25-32Poppies belong to the family Papaveraceae and subfamily Papaveroideae . Papaver is derived from the Latin word ‘pappa’ for food or milk and alludes to the milky sap produced by some poppies. There are a number of different genera and cultivars listed below:

Genera:

Papaver:

P. rhoeas: Field or Corn Poppy Cultivars: Shirley Poppy

P. commutatum ‘Ladybird’

P.somniferum: Opium Poppy: Flore Plena cultivars- semidouble and double, including Peony Poppy: Paeoniflorum/ Laciniatum groups

P. setigerum: Poppy of Troy

P. orientale: Oriental Poppy: Flore Plena cultivars- semidouble and double

P. nudicaule: Iceland Poppy

Eschsolzia :

E.californica: Californian Poppy

Meconopsis:

M.cambrica: Welsh Poppy

M.grandis: Himalayan Blue Poppy

M.napaulensis: Nepal Poppy or Satin Poppy

M. betonicifolia: Tibetan Blue Poppy

Romneya: Matilija Poppy or Tree Poppy

Stylophorum: Celandine Poppy

Argemone: Prickly Poppy

Canbya: Pygmy Poppy

Stylomecon: Wind Poppy

Arctomecon: Desert Bearpaw Poppy

Hunnemannia: Tulip Poppy

Dendromecon: Tree Poppy

History :

Poppies have a very long history. The Opium Poppy, P. somniferum, was domesticated by the indigenous people of Western and Central Europe between 6000 BC and 3500 BC. There are images of opium poppies in ancient Sumerian artifacts from 4000 BC. Ancient Egyptian doctors prescribed the chewing of poppy seed to relieve pain. The Ancient Minoans also made and used opium. The Ancient Greeks later called the sap ‘opion’, which then became ‘opium’ and opium poppies were used  as offerings to the dead in both Greek and Roman myths. They are used as emblems on tombstones, symbolizing eternal sleep and its flower and fruit is depicted on the coat-of-arms of the Royal College of Anaesthetists.BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-05 16.58.04In fact, all poppies are seen as a symbol of sleep, death and peace: Sleep, because of its sedative effect, and death, because of the blood-red colour of many poppies. P. rhoeas, the Flanders Poppy, grows wild on the First World War battlefields and is a symbol of remembrance of the soldiers, who died in the Great War. Ironically, they were also the subject of the First and Second Opium Wars of the late 1830s to the early 1860s between China, France and the British Empire. China tried to stop Western traders from selling and later smuggling opium from India into China. On the other side of the coin, in Persian History, red poppies symbolize ‘eternal love’.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (143) - CopyThe poppy is on the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Macedonia, while the Californian Poppy is the state flower of… yes, California! For more interesting facts about the history of the poppy, see: https://www.deamuseum.org/ccp/opium/history.html

Description:

Herbaceous ornamental plants, including annuals, biennials and short-lived perennials.BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-19 09.40.31Most flower in late Spring/ early Summer and have blooms with 4 to 6 showy petals, which are crumpled in the bud, then open out flat as they mature, before falling away.

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Crumpled petals in opening poppy bud  Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-16 08.57.23 The two sepals fall away as the flower bud opens up.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-12 10.03.09 The centre of the flowers is a whorl of stamens and the ovary has 2 to many fused carpals.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-11 09.17.08 The pollen of Oriental Poppies is dark blue, while that of Corn Poppies is grey to dark green.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-13 12.02.06 Most poppies secrete a milky white latex when injured.BlogSummers here 20%Reszd2015-11-25 18.45.46Flowers are followed by  attractive unilocular seed capsules, capped by the dried stigma and containing many fine black seeds , which escape through tiny holes below the stigma disc with the slightest breeze. Some species are monocarpic, dying after flowering. Many species self-seed freely and can become an agricultural weed.BlogSummersplendrs20%Reszd2015-12-17 18.30.01There are 70 to 100 species in Papaver genus alone, so I will be discussing the more common garden varieties.

Species Notes:

Papaver rhoeas : Corn Poppy/Field Poppy/ Flanders Poppy

Annual herbaceous plant up to 70 cm tall.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (141) - CopySymbol of agricultural fertility in the ancient times and of remembrance of the First World War casualties. We drove past fields of wild poppies in the Cevenne region of France.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (146) - CopyPapaver, also ‘pappa’, is the Latin for food or milk and rhoeas means red in Greek.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (141)Habitat: Thought to be native to the eastern Mediterranean region, and probably introduced to northwest Europe in the seed-corn of early settlers. Now widespread throughout Western Asia, Europe and North Africa.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (145) - CopyDescription: Flowers late Spring with blooms, 50-100 mm across, with 4 vivid red petals with a black spot at their base.

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Papaver rhoeas flower   Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

The flower stem has coarse hairs and the seed capsules are obovoid. They contain the alkaloid rhoeadine, which is a mild sedative.

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Wild red poppies   Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Cultivars (all available from Lambley Nursery) include:

Shirley Poppy ‘Angels’ Choir’:  Double, semi-double and single flowers, many of which are bicolors, in cream, pastel pink, rose, salmon, peach, apricot, lavender  and dove grey;

Shirley Poppy ‘Double Mixed’: Double flowers ranging from white to  pale lilac, pink and red.

Shirley Poppy ‘Dawn Chorus’: Flecked and edged in many colour combinations, these crinkled satin flowers range in colour from pure white and vanilla to soft pink, apple-blossom, scarlet and slate blue.

Papaver rhoeas ‘Bridal Silk’: New strain of P. rhoeas with white flowers

Papaver rhoeas ‘American Legion’: Heirloom red flower with white cross in the centre

Papaver rhoeas’Pandora’: Burgundy-red to pinkish-red flowers

Papaver rhoeas ‘Mother of Pearl’: Strain developed by Welsh artist Cedric Morris in his Suffolk garden ‘Benton End’. Soft smoky colours include white, grey, lilac, mauve, pink and soft orange. Many of the poppies are flecked and there are some picotees.

Seeds should be surface sown in a sunny spot late Autumn to mid-Winter, then thinned to 10 to 40cm apart. Forms a long lived soil seed bank that can germinate when soil is disturbed, so is virtually a weed in parts of Europe.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (144) - CopyPapaver commutatum: Ladybird Poppy

Erect annual 45 cm tall and 15 cm wide with 8cm diameter bright red flowers with a shiny black splotch at the base of each petal in early Summer. Self-seeds easily.

Native to North Turkey,North-West  Iran and the Caucasus, Papaver comutatum was developed using a species introduced from Russia in 1876 by Mr William Thompson, the founder of Thompson and Morgan.

The species name commutatum comes from the Latin commutata, meaning ‘changed or changing’. It is used for a species that is very similar to one already best known. In this case, ‘similar to’ the common poppy Papaver rhoeas.

Surface sow seed late Autumn/ early Winter.

Papaver somniferum: Opium Poppy

Habitat: Originated in the Eastern Mediterranean, but its origin has been obscured by ancient cultivation throughout Europe and South-East Asia. It has naturalized in Britain and other temperate climates throughout the world. It is the only poppy, grown as an agricultural crop on a large scale, primarily for opium and poppy seeds.BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-16 08.57.08Name:Somniferum’ is the Latin word for ‘Sleep-inducing’.BlogSummers here 20%Reszd2015-11-25 18.45.32Description: Annual herb up to 1m high. All plant parts are glaucous (grey-green), the stem and leaves sparsely covered with coarse hairs, the lobed leaves clasping the stem at the base.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-14 09.17.47 The flowers are 120mm diameter and have 4 white, mauve or red petals, which can have dark markings at the base.BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-05 13.23.58 They flower in Spring and early Summer. The hairless, round seed capsule is topped with 12 to 18 radiating stigmatic rays and contains many fine black seeds.BlogBugsBBB20%Reszd2015-12-08 16.53.06There are many subspecies and varieties and cultivars, so great variation in : flower colour; petal number and shape; number of flowers and fruit; number and colour of seeds; and production of opium, though most varieties, including those most popular for ornamental use or seed production, have higher morphine content than other poppies.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-11 09.16.26There are two subgroups grown for ornamental use in the garden :

Paeoniflorum Group: Peony Poppies: very double flowers of many colours;BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-12 13.38.37Laciniatum Group: very double, deeply lobed flowers, which look like pompoms.BlogSummers here 20%Reszd2015-11-23 17.54.42Lambley Nursery sells the seed of a variety of Peony Poppies for the garden: Double Coral; Double Red; Double White and Double Mauve and Pink, which I grew last year- I suspect some of them may have been Laciniatum strains as well!BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-12 13.37.44 Seed should be sown in situ 3mm deep or just sprinkled on the soil surface from mid-Autumn to mid-Winter, then the seedlings thinned to 20 to 30 mm apart.BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-19 09.39.23 They self-seed easily, with many seedlings appearing spontaneously in the Soho Bed and I have also sown last year’s seed in the Cutting Garden in rows. Lambleys also sell a Peony poppy called ‘Danish Flag’, a bright red single flower with a central white cross.

Papaver setigerum: Poppy of Troy/ Dwarf Breadseed Poppy.

Herbaceous annual plant, closely related to and sometimes classified as a subspecies of P. somniferum.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (142) - Copy Native to the Mediterranean region and grows wild in pastures and fields in southwestern Europe (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece) and in North Africa.BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-05 10.19.01Species name ‘setigerum’ derives from the Latin word ‘saetiger’, meaning ‘bristly’, referring to the short bristle on the top of the lobes of its leaves.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-11 09.15.59The flowers have four pink-purple petals, with a dark purple blotch at the base and bloom in late Spring/ early Summer, followed by glabrous seed capsules, 2 to 3 cm long.BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-05 10.19.09Papaver orientale: Oriental Poppy

Perennial flowering plant.

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Oriental Poppy   Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Native to the Caucasus, North-east Turkey and Northern Iran.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (145)Grows a mound of finely-cut hairy foliage in Spring, followed by flowers. After flowering, the foliage completely dies away, an adaptation allowing survival in the Summer droughts of Central Asia, to be renewed after Autumn rains.

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Oriental Poppy   Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Originally a scarlet-orange, there are a number of cultivars with colours ranging from white with black blotches to pinks and salmons to deep maroon and plum. Some well-known cultivars are:  ‘Beauty of Livermere’ (red);  ‘Cedric Morris’ (pale pink and black) and ‘Perry’s White’ (white with dark purple splotches in the centre).

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Oriental Poppy cultivar   Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Oriental Poppies do not produce any narcotic alkaloids like morphine or codeine.

They like a light calcerous soil and full sun or partial shade. Sow the seeds at a depth of 1 cm after the frosts have passed, when the days are 21 degrees Celsius and the soil has warmed up. Germination takes 10 to 20 days. They do not handle transplanting or over-watering well. Mulch in Winter to protect the plant from frosts.

Papaver nudicaule: Iceland Poppy

Boreal flowering plant, native to the subpolar regions of Europe, Asia and North AmericaBlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-15 16.28.23Hardy short-lived perennials, often grown as biennials.Blog late19centBG20%ReszdIMG_3425Large papery bowl-shaped slightly fragrant flowers on hairy curved stems, one foot long, in late Spring/ early Summer.BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-14 13.56.21 Wild species is white or yellow, but the cultivars range in colour from white, cream, lemon and yellow to pink, rose, salmon, orange and red and even bicolors.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (144) Last year, I grew ‘Excelsior’. Other cultivars include: ‘Matilda’ and ‘Oranges and Lemons’.BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-09 14.16.59 They are the best poppy for cutting, the blooms lasting several days in a vase.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-14 09.17.03Feathery blue-green foliage. All parts of the plant contain toxic alkaloids and are poisonous.BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-03 16.14.37The seeds are extremely tiny and should be scattered on the soil surface in situ, as their long tap roots resent disturbance, in Late Autumn and Winter. They like a well-drained garden bed in full sun, but do not handle hot weather well, so are best in climates with cooler Summers, where they can last 2 to 3 seasons.BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1562Eschsolzia californica: Californian Poppy

The Eschsolzia genus has 12 annual or perennial species and was named after the Baltic german/ Imperial Russian botanist, Johann Friedrich von Escholtz (1793-1831).BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (149) - CopyLeaves are deeply cut, glaucous and glabrous, and mainly basal.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (154) - CopyFlowers are funnel shaped and terminal with 4 yellow or orange petals and 12-numerous stamens. There are a large number of cultivars, whose name generally reflect their colour: Orange King; Tropical Sunset (sunset colours- red, orange, gold); Tequila Sunrise (mandarin, red and cream); Dusky Rose and Buttercream.

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California Poppy flower and seedpod    Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

They are borne alone of in many cymes and close in cloudy weather. The two fused sepals fall off as the flower bud opens. The seedpods are long and pointy and split when ripe to release many tiny black seeds.BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (143) They self-seed easily, but do not breed true to type, which leads to some interesting combinations and chance surprises. Compare the photo above of the original plantings (only orange) with the photos below (2nd generation plants in the same spot).BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (155) - Copy I was  delighted to discover second-generation bright orange poppies under my deep purple Rugosa roses, while their butter-cream sisters chose to carpet the ground under my salmon-pink Vanguard rose, even though I originally only planted the orange form (see photo above and compare to photo below). Definitely the garden devas at work!BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (148) - CopyCalifornian Poppies like warm dry climates, are drought-tolerant and can withstand some frost. They grow in poor or sandy soils with good drainage and are easy to grow. In fact, once you have them, you will never get rid of them! They can be quite invasive. Their taproot gives off a colorless or orange clear juice, which is mildly toxic.

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California Poppies growing wild      Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Meconopsis

Name derives from the Greek words : ‘Mekon’ meaning ‘Poppy’ and ‘opsis’ meaning ‘alike’.

Shortlived perennials, which like partial shade and are heavy feeders.

The Welsh Poppy, Meconopsis cambric, is indigenous to England, Wales, Ireland and Western Europe. It has yellow or orange flowers, self-seeds readily and likes damp shady places and rocky ground.

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Welsh Poppy    Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

The 40 other species of Meconopsis are all found in the Himalayan region, including Meconopsis grandis: Himalayan Blue Poppy, the national flower of Bhutan, M. betonicifolia, the Tibetan Blue Poppy and Meconopsis napaulensis, the Nepal Poppy or Satin Poppy. Most are monocarpic and difficult to maintain in cultivation. For new growers, some good sites are: http://www.meconopsis.org and  http://www.gardenershq.com/meconopsis-grandis.php.

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Himalayan Blue Poppy    Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Romneya: Matilija Poppy/ Tree Poppy

Native habitat is Southern California and Northern Mexico.

Perennial sub-shrubs with woody stems, 2.5m high and 1m wide.

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Tree Poppy    Courtesy of https:pixabay.com

Silver-green deeply cut leaves and 13cm diameter flowers with an intense yellow centre, resulting in its other name of ‘Fried Egg Plant’.

Grow in a warm sunny spot with fertile well-drained soil. Not easily grown, but once established are difficult to remove. Often sprout after fire in its native habitat.

Use:

Ornamental garden plantsBlog late19centBG20%Reszdmid september 2012 097

BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-10 14.25.01BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-19 09.27.02BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-15 12.14.59BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (142)BlogPoppy50%ReszdImage (157) - CopyFood:

Poppy seeds are edible and are an important food source, being rich in oil, carbohydrates, calcium and protein.BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-26 17.24.32 The seeds are harvested from P.somniferum.BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-26 14.27.21 Poppy seed production is largest in the Czech Republic, followed by Spain, Hungary, Turkey, Germany and France in that order. Poppy seeds are used widely in traditional pastries and cakes in Central Europe, as well as in a Poppy Seed Cake in Turkey and Kutia (a grainy pudding) in the Ukraine. They are also used in curries and sprinkled on bread. Poppy Oil is used as a cooking oil, in salad dressings and in margarine, as well as being added to spices for use in cakes and bread.

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Bread sprinkled with poppy seed  Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Medicine:

Papaver somniferum is also the source of the drug opium, which contains powerful medicinal alkaloids called opiates, which  include morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, noscopine and oripavine and has been used as an analgesic and narcotic medicinal drug, as well as a recreational drug.

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Opium Poppy field    Courtesy of https://pixabay.com

Widely cultivated throughout the world, its production is monitored by international agencies and every country has its own rules and regulations about its growth and production. For medicinal crops, it was traditionally produced in Turkey and India, but is now also grown in Australia, especially Tasmania.BlogButterflyHeaven 20%ReszdIMG_1764 Incisions are made in the green seed pods and the latex, which oozes out is collected when dried and opiate drugs extracted from the opium. Opium was dissolved in alcohol and/or water to make Tincture of Opium or Laudanum, used widely in the late 1800s. It has been used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions from pain to asthma, stomach complaints and even bad eyesight!BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-12 10.02.57Floristry: Both flowers and seedpods. Cut or buy when 1 to 2 flowers are opening and the rest of the buds are showing some colour (photo below). The ends of the poppy stems can be scalded with boiling water to stop the leakage of sap, otherwise wear gloves when handling the flowers to avoid skin irritation. Condition in a separate container of water for 24 hours before recutting the stems and arranging in a vase with floral preservative. Will last up to 5 days.Image (143)BlogSoftNovRain 20%Reszd2015-11-05 10.46.14Miscellaneous:

Poppy products are also used in paints and varnishes, as well as cosmetics.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-11 15.30.08Finally, the last feature post request for my talented daughter Caro- a quick study of some of our garden poppies, which would make great cards. December’s feature post plant is based on one of her early watercolours. Thank you so much darling for all your wonderful paintings! I really appreciate and treasure all your work! blogpoppy50reszd14881561_10154616681724933_451210402_oAnd to finish this post, a dramatic photo of a sunlit peony poppy, which I took yesterday!blogpoppy20reszd2016-10-29-12-13-11

 

The October Garden

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Well! What a month it has been! The mid-Spring garden has more than compensated for its late start and even though the temperatures are cooler than usual, the days are still sunny. There was an excellent fall of snow on the mountains last week – now that all the ski lifts have closed! The photos below were taken on our trips to Canberra on the 19th (first photo) and 23rd October (last 2 photos) this past week. It was actually snowing in Nimmitabel on Sunday!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0030blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0262blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0007 The cooler weather has prolonged the flowering season of many of the early Spring blooms, including bluebells under the crab apple tree, tulips (early October), hellebores and clivias.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0210blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-29-11-16-38blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0130blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0280 The trees have all just about gained their new foliage for the season, the poplars being the last trees to come into leaf, and the plums have finished flowering, while the crab apples are in their final days (photos 3 to 5).blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1893blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1902blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-09-09-08-14blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-26-00blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0116 The cockatoos (photos 3 and 4) and king parrots loved the blossoms- a bit crazy really, as they are depleting their future fruit source! The latter (photo 2) also love to graze the weeds in the vegie garden, as does the white-faced heron (photo 1)!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0300blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0279blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0024 blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0013The apples have luscious white blooms and are setting fruit already.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0111blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-11-02-22blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0119 Meantime, the loquat fruits are turning yellow, attracting king parrots and bowerbirds by day and possums and fruit bats at night, the latter occasionally waking us up with their skirmishes. I don’t think we humans will get much of a look in when it comes to the fruit!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0142blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1821 At least, the white mulberries are starting to ripen and the blueberries and raspberries are in flower.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0182blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0147blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0229 We have been feasting on delicious organic strawberries from our new bed, though I suspect a slug may also have been, as the wire guards preclude attack by birds or rabbits!blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-11-03-15blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0162 The rhubarb has also provided delicious desserts and I have been substituting angelica leaves for the sugar, at least in the fruit part of rhubarb and apple crumble- a great success!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0106blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0107 We have been enjoying our own home-grown onions, lettuce, rainbow chard and baby spinach from the vegetable garden.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-38-20blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-09-11-54-39I also made another batch of cumquat marmalade from the 1 kg fruit we harvested. I would strongly advise NOT to combine blogging with jam making, but I think I just got away with it. Even  though the marmalade is darker than usual, it set brilliantly! Fortunately, the cumquat trees are still covered in lots of new blooms. I love their sweet scent as we walk past them. The Michelia has almost finished flowering too, but the Weigela next door has now replaced it.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0199blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-29-16-43-08blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1691 Initially, its blooms opened white and I was a little disappointed, as I had bought it as a pink weigela to complement the pink flowering currant on the other side of the pergola entrance. I thought that the plant must have been mislabelled, but to my great delight, the blooms then turned a soft pink, deepening in intensity as they age. This plant is so pretty with its colour variations! The second photo below is my neighbour’s pure white weigela.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-16-33-07blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1850blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1692 Unfortunately, the flowering currant did not flower this year (with all its moves!), but it is doing well and the snowball tree behind it has masses of lime-green, turning white, globular blooms.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0096blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0088blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0090blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0238blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0299 The choisya has a mass of white starry flowers, which look very similar to the blooms of the citrus trees behind it.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0116-2 The Carolina Allspice has a number of buds this year, as has the Philadelphus virginalis, and I am keen to see the form of the latter’s blooms, as when it first bloomed last year, the flowers were the correct double form, but I did find some single ones later on, which could be root stock. We will just have to wait and see! On our recent trip to the Southern Highlands, we bought a Belle Etoile Philadelphus, with large single very fragrant flowers, which we have planted next to the old lilac on the fence. Ross has cut an archway between the bamboos and a path behind the large stand to access this part of the garden.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1907blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0209-2blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0205The blackbird has finished nesting in the bamboo, but a magpie has been very busy creating her brooding chamber high in the top of the Pepperina tree.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1861blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0346Our new Katherine Havermeyer lilac is a delight and is growing and blooming well.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-10-11-44-53 The Chaenomeles are still throwing out the odd bloom and the red rhododendron and white azalea are in full bloom, though we will probably move the azalea into a less shaded situation after it has finished flowering. My Grevillea ‘Lady X’ is perpetually in flower (last photo)!blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-38-58blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-24-22blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-20-25blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-23-30blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0298blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0251 Unlike the azalea, the Viburnum plicatum however appears to be thriving in full shade and we also bought two different hostas- Peter Pan and Allan P Mc Connell- from Moidart Nursery, near Bowral, to fill out this shady nook.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-21-38 I also discovered some Winter Aconite Eranthis hyemalis there- very expensive, as it is very difficult to source here in Australia- in fact, this is the only place I have ever seen it- and I may also let it run riot here among the snowdrops, though initially will put it in the treasure bed until I am sure it germinates next year! Here are the treasures we brought home!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1682blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0164 We also bought some blue primroses, a lovely deep blue auricula (photo 3), Pulsatilla vulgaris, Rhodohypoxis baurii (photo 4), a variegated Arabis procurrens and Azorella trifurcata to fill out the gaps in this bed as the grape hyacinth die down- I love their little seed pods (photo 2)! We planted the new plants in the treasure bed yesterday morning.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1684blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1974blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0291blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0245 The Lily of the Valley (photo 1) are also up and the Rosalie Geranium has returned. The Acanthus soldiers and blue Convovulus mauritanicus (photo 2) are on the march nearby. blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0054blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0211-2I love the pattern and form of the Acanthus, the photos below showing why their common name is Oyster Plant, and their colour really compliments the house walls. blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1837blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1834 The Garden beds have been such a treat this Spring!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0097-2blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0136blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0145blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0158blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0255 The Cutting Garden is a delight with lots of clear royal blue, pale hyacinth blue, bright gold and clean white Dutch Iris and blue cornflowers, forming a backdrop to the bright intense jewel-like ranunculus. Such a treat!blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-39-55blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1786blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-10-58-52blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0224blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0120blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0216-2blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0121blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0322blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-10-15-50-24 The beautifully-scented freesias (photo 1) have just about finished, but the nigella amongst it is in bud. I suspect they are the self-seeded progeny of last year’s lime-green variety (photo 2), rather than the new blue nigella, which we sowed last Autumn. The foxglove is in bloom again, its flowers displaying a similar habit to the weigela- white turning pink, from the base up (photos 3 and 4)!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0250blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0312blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0284blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0285 The Iceland Poppies from last year also self-seeded, producing white, gold and orange blooms. So stunning and long-lasting when cut.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-29-11-19-09blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-29-11-18-56 Here are more photos of the individual ranunculus blooms.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0091blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-30-15-41-43blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0124blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-10-15-51-18blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-10-16-11-36blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-28-54The Soho Bed  is such a picture and there is very little bare ground to be seen! I am a bit eclectic when it comes to style and colour, but somehow the jumble of colours seems to work – in my eyes anyway!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0204blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0210blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0240blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0067 The loyal wallflowers have been joined by a variety of other mauves and purples in the catmint, the wild poppies and the stunning Italian Lavender; blue forget-me-knot; pink thrift and verbena and gold highlights in the old gold bearded iris and now the geum.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-40-06blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-18-16-32blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1731blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0263blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0055blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0073blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0078 The bees, both honey bees and native bees, and butterflies are in heaven!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1924blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1911blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1908blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1946blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1926 Here are two Spring vases from the garden!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0330blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0133 The Moon Bed is also very beautiful with soft mauve bearded iris, rescued from the heavy shade of the cumquat trees and transplanted to the new Moon Bed, where they can recapture the glory of their flowering period.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0098blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0222blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-30-17 We did not know what colour they would be, so waited with baited breath as their blooms slowly opened. We were delighted with their dreamy colour, Ross’s favourite, and one which really suits the Moon Bed, while the gold bearded iris are perfect in our sunny Soho Bed!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0095blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-30-17 The blue salvia, yellow Paris daisies and day lilies and pink peony (1st photo below) are all growing madly and the roses all have fat buds and are just about to open! SO exciting! November is going to be heavenly! Even the roses from my cuttings last year are in bud! The second photo below shows the blooms of a white tree paeony Paeonia suffruticosa, which we saw at Red Cow Farm on our recent trip to the Southern Highlands , promptly purchasing a seedling, which we will plant at the bottom of the steps next to the pergola and the Philadelphus next Autumn! I will be describing this trip in more detail in my Favourite Gardens post in December.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0241blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1063blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1064 The highlight of the October roses has been the Yellow Banksia, R. banksia lutea, over the outdoor eating area. I can safely report it has now fully recovered from its drastic initial haircut and has been a mass of bright gold and softer lemon blooms!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1904blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-09-11-39-16blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0289blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0079 The Spirea on the fence nearby has also been a mass of blooms, but is now finishing off, while the honeysuckle is set to take over.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-09-30-11-06-22 blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0168blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0211The white banksia rose, R.banksiae alba plena, on the bottom future chook fence, has also been in full bloom, as has its partner, the Jasmine, Jasminium polyanthum.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-11-02-02blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-09-11-53-04 I think both of them are vigorous enough to compete with each other, as I have seen two instances out and about this Spring- a wall covered in yellow banksia and potato vine and an old pergola obliterated by a white banksia, a jasmine and a snail creeper!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1758blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0828 The Rugosas have also been beautiful, scenting the air round the vegie garden: in order, Frau Dagmar Hastrup, Mme Georges Bruant and Roseraie de L’Hay.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0109blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0262blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0295Mutabilis and Stanwell Perpetual have also had their first blooms.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-37-35blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-37-29My birthday Souvenir de la Malmaison appears to like her position in the middle of the pergola and her first blooms have been dreamy, though this particular lady does not like wet weather and has a tendency to ball, which is why she is in the middle rather than the more prominent ends of the pergola!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1852blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0089 Here are some other early starters in order:  Just Jude (2 photos); Viridiflora; Lamarque; Alister Stella Grey; Adam; Evelyn; Paul’s Himalayan Musk rose (2 photos); Countess Bertha; and Château de Clos Vougeot (2 photos).blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0017blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0261blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0320blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0241blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-26-26blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0226blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0223blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1819blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0023blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-11-12-27-04blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0247blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0160 My climbing Cécile Brünner (1st photo) on the front arch is just starting to bloom, a late small camellia beside her mirroring her form and colour (2nd photo).blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0209blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0248Spring is such a wonderful season! It’s hard dividing my time between the garden, blogging, cooking and sewing!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0075blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0070-2 I did finally finish assembling the small Spring cushions, helped my daughter make a bag and baked a delicious sponge for my husband’s birthday in mid-October.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0097blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0367And we have had visitors: Oliver and his son, Fagan, who miss the budgies (who have moved to my daughter’s flat) or probably more accurately, their bird seed!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1978blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1995blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1980 A brush-tailed possum, who wants to set up residence in the roof of the shed;blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1800 And finally, some Shetland ponies, who give rides to kids at the monthly markets and who are currently doing the rounds of Candelo, mowing lawns and paddocks in exchange for free feed! It’s such a great idea!blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0353blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0083blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1831