The Spring Garden

Spring is such an exciting period with everything waking up after the long cold Winter! The garden is literally transformed from September to November, as can be seen in the photos below, one for each month:BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-10 18.57.32OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIt just gets better and better as the days progress, especially with the recent life-giving rain!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA In fact, this seasonal post is probably the most challenging to write, as so much is now flowering that it demands complete ruthlessness when it comes to photo selection and I really don’t know that I am up to the task! Here are a few more general garden photos from mid-Spring:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 07.07.13BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.31.34and late Spring:

BlogSpringGardenReszd3017-11-26 11.16.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 11.17.49But back to the start of Spring and proceeding from the top down! First up, the trees…! It is just so lovely to have our tapestry of green back, especially on those sunny golden evenings when a thunderstorm is brewing.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASeptember was blossom-time, starting with the wild plums and crabapples: the Floribunda and Golden Hornet:

They were followed by the apples, quinces and pears, the maples (October) and finally, the dogwood (November).

By October, most of the trees were sporting their new foliage wardrobes and by November were in full fruit and seed production mode: plums, crabs and apples.

Next, the shrubs! September marked the end of camellia and japonica season;

and the return of old favourites like lilac and Michelia, White Caviar.

The bright sunny yellow of the broom and the Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum) always gladdens my heart!

The May Bush (Spiraea), the Viburnum x burkwoodii Anne Russell and the Beauty Bush (Kolwitzia amabilis) were spectacular this September:

and continued on into October, to be joined by the white lilac, Mme Lemoine; the choisya (Choisya ternata), Viburnum plicatum Mariesii and the Snowball Tree (Viburnum opulus).

Further colour and scent was added by the woodbine on the fence;

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Woodbine (Lonicera periclymenum)

As well as the weigela, the Carolina allspice and the red azalea, which enjoyed its move to the rainforest section of the garden.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-10-19 10.51.59BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0571BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0602By November, the yellow honeysuckle on the fence had joined its cousin and was heading for the skies, while the blooming of the snowball tree finished with a snowfall of petals.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.26.55OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABoth philadelphus were in full glorious bloom and scent, as was the Italian Lavender. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 06.58.18BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0618And the roses…! My beloved roses…! But first, the bulbs! The bulbs are always the first flowers of Spring! Lots of whites, golds and blues with the odd red and orange accent. My wild white bank of Actaea daffodils above the birdbath was a great success and we had a good show of the glamorous Acropolis daffodils at the entrance to the pergola below the Michelia.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-20 09.46.45BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 14.34.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 13.47.18The bright yellow nodding heads of Winter’s miniature Tête à Tête daffodils (1st photo) were joined by these bright golden Golden Dawn tazettas (2nd photo).BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-03 11.04.32BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 18.37.24 The pink and blue bluebells under the crab apple and next to the mosaic birds provided a soft blue, while the masses of grape hyacinths and divinely-scented Delft Blue hyacinth turned the treasure bed into a sea of blue.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.46.40BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-13 19.37.44BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-08 13.14.56  The tulips in the cutting garden also provided a wonderful show from the soft pale yellow and candy-pink-striped species tulips (Tulipa clusiana Cynthia): BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_1293BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-25 11.31.52BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-25 11.33.05to the Pink Monet and Gold Bokassa tulips;BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-28 11.51.23BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.18.27 and the brightly coloured Synaeda Orange Lily Tulips and Red Bokassa tulips, all children of the original bulbs planted in 2015.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-28 11.51.59BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0071BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-21 10.41.28BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 11.59.53A snake’s head fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris) and Jacobean lilies (Sprekelia) arrived in October, but the iris quickly stole the show.BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0059OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the stunning bright colours of the Dutch Iris in the cutting garden,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 16.18.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.49.38 but I think my heart belongs to Bearded Iris, whose soft romantic colors and forms complement the November roses so well: gold in the Soho Bed and soft mauve in the Moon Bed.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-10-23 08.06.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-17 16.11.58BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-16 09.07.14 A friend has just given me a large variety of differently-coloured Bearded Iris, which we have planted above the agapanthus bank.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-16 09.14.53After the bulbs, the Spring flowers started to take over. Because there are so many, I have organised them into colour palettes.

White: Acanthus mollis; Rock Orchid and Dianthus Coconut Sundae,

Dandelion seedheads; Feverfew and Nicotiana,

and a white Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea Mirabelle, though some of them were pink:

I love the white cornflower in amongst the white foxglove and feverfew in the shady end of the cutting garden.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.35.19

Yellow: Nigella orientalis Transformer, English Primrose, Geum Lady Stratheden and Wild Strawberry;

Gold: A very special gift: an Intersectional Peony and my self-sown gigantic Russian Sunflowers;

and the stunning Meadow Lea dahlia;BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.42.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.34.45Red: Ladybird Poppies in the Cutting Garden and Dahlias, providing jewel-like colour on the skirt of the Albertine roses, as they finish their blooming season;

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Deep Red: The last of the Double Hellebores from Winter;

Pink: Rhodohypoxis baurii and Dianthus Valda Wyatt of the treasure garden and the last of the pink violets from under the camellia; deep pink divinely-scented sweet peas; a mutated Ladybird Poppy and glamorous self-sown Peony Poppies in the sunflower bed.

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Rhodohypoxis baurii in the centre of a sea of grape hyacinths
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Dianthus Valda Wyatt

I just adore the self-sown peony poppies in the Soho Bed!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.34.26

Purple: I am hoping one of my readers can identify this cute little flower adorning the steps, but the others are Perennial Wallflower and Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla);BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 19.06.34BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 13.18.12BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-18 13.56.21 Blue: Forget-me-nots, Borage, Blue Primrose and Cornflower;

And this last week, the Geranium Rozanne in the treasure bed!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.56.43And Green: Hacquetia epipactis, a new purchase and woodland plant from Moidart Nursery (https://www.moidart.com.au/).BlogSpringGardenReszd3017-11-22 15.25.02The roses started with the white and yellow banksias on the bottom fence and the pergola over the outside dining area in late September, with the house and main pergola roses opening in early to mid-October and then, the main flush of roses in November.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.12.18BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-19 07.27.59 I have presented the roses according to their location.

House: First up, Noisette climber, Lamarque, whose clean fragrance reminds me of Granny Smith apples:

then, Hybrid Teas, Mrs Herbert Stevens (white)and Château de Clos Vougeot (red):

Main Pergola: The climbing roses are now starting to clothe the pergola, especially on the top side, with Adam and Mme Alfred Carrière already reaching the top!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-18 14.32.19 In order, top to bottom and left to right : the top side with Mme Alfred Carrière; the bottom side; Adam (2 photos); Mme Alfred Carrière (2 photos); Souvenir de St Anne and Souvenir de la Malmaison, in the middle of the top and bottom sides respectively; New Dawn and Devoniensis.

I just had to include two more photos of the beautiful Devoniensis in the late afternoon light!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 17.15.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 17.09.39Arches: Cécile Brünner on the entrance arch;OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Cornelia (pink) and Sombreuil (white) on the arch at the bottom of the garden, leading into the future chookyard;

and Noisettes, Alister Stella Grey (small rose on bottom left) and Rêve d’Or (the larger rose in the other three photos) on the small arch near the shed corner.

Shed:

The Albertine frame on the back wall of the shed has been a great success, with the Albertine roses in full bloom from late October till late November and now, the jewel-like dahlias adding colour to its skirts as the roses gradually finish.

Here are the dahlias:BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.26.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.36.10BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.35.16BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 10.59.43BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.35.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 11.00.12In the front beds of the shed include: Reine Victoria; Fritz Nobis and Leander.

The roses in the long bed against my neighbour’s fence have been wonderful this year! They include, in order, top to bottom and left to right: Archiduc Joseph (first two photos); Viridiflora (green); Small Maiden’s Blush (white; photos 4 and 5); Mme Hardy (white with a green eye); Fantin Latour (pink); and the divinely-scented Mme Isaac Pereire!

I have still to identify these two once-flowering roses. Any suggestions?BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 06.50.27BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.29.50Maigold brightens up the lawn beside the shed. I planted it for my Dad, who died last January, and it borders the Tea Garden, planted with peppermint, Moroccan spearmint, chamomile and Camellia sinensis, as well as a golden Kerria. Unfortunately, the Native Frangipani, which was planted above Scamp’s grave and which got hit by last Winter’s frost, has not recovered, so we are replacing it with a golden peach tree or a lemon-cented tea-tree, which ever one come first!

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Maigold

Hedges:

The fragrant Rugosa hedge is growing, though the Roseraie de l’Hay still struggles with root competition from the Cottonwood Poplar. In order, Mme Georges Bruant (a white double); Frau Dagmar Hastrup (a pink single) and Roseraie de l’Hay (a rich purple, double, highly fragrant rugosa).

The Russelliana are tough though and are thriving, despite a similar problem and full shade from the Mulberry Tree in Summer! BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 07.22.06OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI love the Hybrid Musk hedge to the left of the arch next to Sombreuil: Autumn Delight (first two photos) and Penelope (the rest of the photos! It’s a favourite!):OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 11.10.53OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.59.12And it looks like my ill Kathleen is on the mend at long last!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.18.23The hedge on the right, next to Cornelia, contains some of my favourite roses: Felicia (first photo); Stanwell Perpetual (photos 2-5) and Mutabilis (photos 6-7).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.47.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.57.35OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOn the boundary fence is a very prickly rose, which I propagated from cuttings, having a 100 percent strike rate! I think it is Wichurana Rambler, Albéric Barbier.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.59.29 Soho Bed: A mass of colour with gold bearded iris, Italian lavender, pink and white valerian, catmint, borage, thrift, geum, perennial wallflowers, salvia, stachys, rose campion and November roses!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.11.02OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 09.04.24Here are single photos of some of the roses in the Soho Bed, in order: Top to bottom, left to right: Fair Bianca (white); Mr Lincoln (deep red); Heaven Scent (pink; frilled petals) and Lolita to the right of her; The Alnwick Rose; Eglantyne (pink; two photos); The Children’s Rose (pink); Icegirl (white); Just Joey (salmon); and Our Copper Queen (gold).

Moon Bed: Full of beautifully blowsy and romantic David Austin roses, mauve bearded iris, blue borage and forget-me-knots, purple catmint and salvias (light and dark blue, deep pink and red-and-white Lipstick). Here is the Moon Bed in early Spring:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn order, from top to bottom and left to right: Windermere (cream; two photos); William Morris (pink; two photos); Heritage (pink globular); Golden Celebration (gold); Lucetta (pink; two photos); the divinely-scented Jude the Obscure (peachy-cream and heavily cupped); and Troilus (lemony-cream). Unfortunately, my Evelyn died!

As you can imagine, we have been kept very busy raising seeds (with not much success!), mulching garden beds, training raspberry canes and vegetable gardening. BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-15 09.17.16BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 19.05.32OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-20 09.50.42 The first photo below was taken in early Spring, when the kale was in full flower, and the second photo taken in late Spring.BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0567OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARoss commandeered my old dahlia and zinnia patches opposite the cutting garden for more vegetables, but I can still include the odd flower for pollination purposes, as well as just sheer scent and beauty! Because Iceland Poppies are one of Ross’s favourite flowers, we sowed its seed on one quarter of the old dahlia bed, but unfortunately only two white poppies emerged! They look stunning against the deep purple cabbage leaves!

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 11.18.11BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.58.27Ross has reorganized the vegetable beds, as seen in the photo below. In the top left, perennial crops like raspberries, rhubarb, asparagus, comfrey, angelica, Russian Tarragon, and the odd potato from last year’s plantings, with sweet peas, nasturtiums and calendula flowers and even the odd wild strawberry, though we have lots of real strawberries in the old zinnia patch!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.39.26BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.40.48 BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 09.01.32On the right of the path are four vegetable beds, so he can rotate plantings. Just look at the size of those purple cabbages!!! It’s wonderful growing and eating our own food and the vegetable garden is now at a stage, where it self-seeds with tomato plants appearing all over the place! OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALikewise, our giant bed of sunflowers and peony poppies, both of which have had excellent yields this year, compared to previous years.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-18 14.38.58BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.37.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.59.36BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-17 07.35.12BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.59.51 As well as a few surprises like this miniature rose, which must have grown from a seed in a bird dropping. I was momentarily stumped by the identity of this stranger, growing at the edge of the hard-packed dirt path under the shade of the potato plants, until I remembered that I had sown a whole packet of Scarlet Flax, Linum grandiflorum rubrum, last year in the cutting garden, none of which had come up, so I don’t know how it reached its current postion, but hopefully it self-seeds and is here to stay!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI’ve also been kept busy with birthday cakes and gifts: A crochet roll for my daughter, who has started learning to crochet and amazingly and unbeknownst to me, received two balls of soft, multi-coloured mohair wool and this set of brightly coloured crochet hooks of different gauges, from a workmate. They look so wonderful in the crochet roll! I also printed out some crochet patterns for the matching folder.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-07 13.28.14BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 10.53.11And gifts for Zoe, my dear friend’s beautiful little daughter, who has such a generous and giving soul: a hedgehog to thank her for the cute little felt mouse, which she gave me, and a birthday ladybird coin purse. Note: all three patterns (crochet roll, hedgehog and coin purse) came from the wonderful book: Everyday Handmade: 22 Practical Projects for the Modern Sewist by Cassie Barden and Adrienne Smitke 2011.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 18.15.53OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAA French cockerel coffee cosy and coaster for my friend’s 60th birthday, involving a huge saga and much blood, sweat and tears! All I can say, is NEVER EVER try to make such a complicated fiddly pattern when you have a bad migraine!!! Nor cook a cake, but that’s another story!!! This pattern came from Mollie Makes Feathered Friends, edited by Jane Toft 2013.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd75%GetFileAttachmentAnd birthday cakes for my neighbour and daughter!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.20.30BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-06 22.50.21 It’s so wonderful being able to play with all the Spring blooms and create beautiful bouquets and vases for the house!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 17.50.11BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-06 10.01.18BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-31 12.42.22BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0468BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-31 12.47.44BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0471OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 10.30.36BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 10.34.36While we have also had some terrific days out over the Spring, including a wonderful whale-watching trip, I am reserving these photos for future posts and instead, I am finishing this post with some of our avian residents and visitors! We are currently deluged with the noisy chatter of Rainbow Lorikeets, drunk on the nectar of Bottlebrush. Unfortunately, I am without a camera at the moment and the birds are a bit quick for my mobile phone, but the photos below show the source of their delight!

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOliver, our super-quiet King Parrot, returns to our verandah from time to time to check if Ross has relented and softened his stance towards feeding wild birds!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 10.47.51BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0549The Crimson Rosellas love feasting on the Spring blossom of the wild plum,BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 20.01.45BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 20.02.33while the Yellow-Tailed Black Cockatoos prefer sheoak nuts!BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0739BlogSpringGardenReszd25%IMG_0714The male Satin Bowerbird and his wife love our garden, snipping off blue cornflowers, Erlicheer blossoms and even the odd snowball (Viburnum opulus),BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-01 15.27.41as do the magpies, which still chase off any larger birds- at the moment, the targets are storm birds, but given the latter are cuckoos, that’s very understandable! This quiet baby magpie loves weeding with Ross in the garden!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-17 19.38.55The galahs, who adored the pink blossom in early Spring, both an edible treat and a visual complement to their rose-pink plumage, and the Duranta berries;BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-02 19.29.00BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0681And the return of the huge and noisy Little Corella flocks amassing in Candelo for Christmas, before their big journey in early January!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 06.41.33BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 06.40.31Now that the year is drawing to a close, this is the last of my seasonal posts for the year. In fact, for quite a while, although I shall probably still add the odd post updating you on any major changes in the garden next year, the reasons becoming clear in next week’s post, Camera Woes (Thursday). I am also returning to my monthly feature plant posts, so you may also catch a brief glimpse of the garden in them!

But first, next Tuesday, I will tell you all about the wonderful Old Roses of Red Cow Farm, which we recently visited in early November. Such a treat! I was in heaven, as you can well imagine!!! If you can only ever visit this magnificent garden once, then this is the time to do it!!! Happy Gardening!

P.S. Here is a photo of our delightful street library just outside the general store, a new addition to Candelo! It even has a library stamp and ink pad!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-29 14.47.59BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-29 14.48.57

David Austin’s English Roses

Up until the late 19th Century, nursery catalogues listed a huge variety of different rose types from the Species Roses and Old European varieties (Gallicas, Damasks, Albas, Centifolias and Mosses)  to China Roses and all the progeny of rose hybridization since the latter’s introduction to the West: the Boursaults, Bourbons, Portlands, Hybrid Perpetuals, Noisettes, Teas and early Hybrid Teas and Floribundas.

However, with the development and increased popularity of the Hybrid Tea over the early 20th Century, many of the earlier varieties of rose began to disappear and today, many of them have vanished without  a trace.

Fortunately, there were still some famous gardeners, who kept the Old Roses going:

Gertrude Jekyll and Edward Mawley wrote a book titled: Roses For English Gardens in 1901, which can be downloaded from the Biodiversity Library website: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/29702#/summary.

Constance Spry (1886-1960) was one of the first collectors of Old Roses in the 20th Century and Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962) grew many heritage varieties in her garden at Sissinghurst Castle.

Graham Stuart Thomas (1909-2003), who met the 88 year-old Gertrude Jekyll in his early days at Hillings, Woking, started collecting Old Roses in the 1950s, expanding the collection at his own Sunningdale Nursery, before finding it a permanent home at Mottisfont. See my post on the Rose Gardens of England at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/10/24/bucket-list-of-rose-gardens-in-england/.

Other collectors retrieved Old Roses from neglected gardens , historic homesteads, cemeteries and roadsides all over the world. See my post on the Barossa Old Rose Repository at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/14/barossa-old-rose-repository-and-the-twentieth-century-and-heritage-rose-gardens-of-the-waite-institute/.

By the time I started my own garden in the early 1980s, Old Roses were making a come-back with Peter Beales, UK, at the helm of their revival. See the second entry in my post at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/10/24/bucket-list-of-rose-gardens-in-england/.

However, the other big name in the rose world at the time was David Austin (1926-), now 91 years old. Here is the story of his journey in the rose world!

History

David grew up on a farm in Albrighton, Shropshire, where he still lives today. Initially starting farming like his father, he became increasingly interested in gardening, especially in amateur rose breeding.

He loved the shrubby form of Old Rose bushes and the beautiful scent of their blooms, with their wide variety of flower forms, which provided so much more interest than the uniformly pointed buds of the Hybrid Teas. There were single, semi-single and double forms, of which there were flat, recurving or cupped rosettes; deep and shallow cups; and even pompom-shaped flowers, depicted in this photograph from Page 33 of David Austin’s English Roses, Australian Edition, 1996:BlogEngRosesReszd2017-09-29 09.24.10However, to some people’s eyes, Old Roses had two major drawbacks, compared to the Hybrid Teas:

Their muted colour range: Only whites, pinks, crimsons and purples, compared to the bright colours and yellows, oranges, peaches and apricots of the Hybrid Teas (though the climbing Noisettes do have yellows in their colour range, but here we are talking about the bush forms only); and

The fact that they only flower once in the Summer. Personally, I have never really accepted these criticisms, especially the latter, as most of our garden shrubs are only once-flowering eg Spiraea, Weigelas and Viburnums, but with the decreasing size of the modern garden, recurrency plays an increasingly important role, providing more colour and scent for money, and I must admit that I too am guilty of this in our Moon Bed, here in our small garden at Candelo- more later!!!

As early as the late 1940s, David Austin conceived the notion of breeding Old Roses with the modern Hybrid Teas and Floribundas to maximize the advantages of each and produce healthy, vigorous shrubs with flowers with the form and scent of Old Roses, but the colour range and remontancy of the modern rose.

He started experimenting in the 1950s and by 1961, had produced his first rose Constance Spry, named after the famous flower arranger. I grew this rose against the tennis court fence in my Armidale garden, seen in the photo below.BlogEngRosesReszd50%Image (168)A progeny of a short Gallica, Belle Isis, and a strong, though not tall, Floribunda, Dainty Maid, Constance Spry bears deeply-cupped, soft-pink flowers with a myrrh scent, but unfortunately, like all first crosses, only flowers once in the Summer.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_9461 The repeat-flowering gene is recessive, so Constance Spry had to be back-crossed at least once more with other repeat-flowering roses to ensure the recurrent-flowering ability.

Some of these roses included:

Ma Perkins, a Floribunda, which produced copious seed, which germinated well and was one of the few modern roses to have the cupped shape of Old Roses (like that of a Bourbon); Mme Caroline Testout, an early Hybrid Tea with globular flowers with numerous petals, seen in the photo below; and another Hybrid Tea, Monique.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9267Other crosses involved other Gallicas like Duchesse de Montebello, Duchesse d’Angoulême and R. gallica officinalis; Damasks like La Ville de Bruxelles, Marie Louise and Celsiana; and Albas, Königan von Dänemark and Mme Legras St. Germaine.

For example:

Shropshire Lass 1968, a cross between Mme Butterfly, an early Hybrid Tea and an Alba, Mme Legras St Germaine, which is Summer flowering only.

Scintillation, 1968, a cross between R. macrantha, and Hybrid Musk, Vanity,  and

The Prioress, 1969, a cross between Bourbon, Reine Victoria, and a seedling;

Some of the early roses from crosses between Ma Perkins, Monique, Mme Caroline Testout and Constance Spry,  all pink and all recurrent-flowering, unless otherwise specified, include:

Wife of Bath 1969 , bred from a cross between Mme Caroline Testout x (Ma Perkins x Constance Spry). For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=2557;

Canterbury 1969, bred from a cross between (Monique x Constance Spry) x seedling;

Dame Prudence 1969, a cross between Floribunda, Ivory Fashion, and another cross (Constance Spry x Ma Perkins);

The Yeomen 1969, a cross between Ivory Fashion x (Constance Spry x Monique);

The Friar 1969, a cross between a seedling and Ivory Fashion;

Chaucer 1970, a cross between a Hybrid Gallica, Duchesse de Montebello and Constance Spry. For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/l.php?l=2.1112.1 ; and

The Miller, 1970, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Baroness Rothschild, and Chaucer.

Other early breeding programs focused on achieving a red colour range. To develop his red roses, David Austin crossed a single red Floribunda, Dusky Maiden, with a very old deep red Gallica, Tuscany, to produce Chianti, 1967, with its large, highly scented, deep crimson rosette blooms, again flowering only once, in early Summer.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0247 Further breeding , including the introduction of red Hybrid Tea, Château de Clos Vougeot, seen in the photo above, which is a rather weak shrub in the UK, into the breeding program has resulted in red family of English Roses, which is slightly on the smaller size. These include:

The Knight 1969 A cross between a Bourbon, Gipsy Boy and Chianti, but it has been discontinued as the plant is rather weak and later:

Glastonbury 1974 The Knight x seedling;

The Squire 1977 The Knight x Château de Clos Vougeot, a much stronger rose than its David Austin bred-parent; and further crosses between English Roses,

Prospero 1982 A similar cross to The Squire;

Wise Portia 1982 and Wenlock 1984 , both crosses of The Knight x Glastonbury; and

Othello 1986 A cross between two English Roses, Lilian Austin x The Squire.

By 1970, David Austin had a small range of roses ready to be launched, many of them named after characters in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales  (including Wife of Bath 1969, Canterbury 1969, both still available, and The Prioress 1969, The Yeomen 1969, Dame Prudence 1969, The Friar 1969, The Knight 1969, The Miller 1970 and Chaucer 1970, all since deleted from sale), so he formed his nursery, David Austin Roses Ltd., to introduce the public to his English Roses, as they became known.

While the early English Roses had a good fragrance and the Old Rose beauty, they were still not as robust as David Austin wanted, so he continued to cross them with other repeat-flowering shrubby Old Roses like Portlands (especially Comte de Chambord), Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals. Also, he still did not have any yellow shades, a problem which was rectified by the use of some influential roses:

Iceberg, the highly popular white Floribunda, bred by Kordes in 1958, which is exceptionally repeat-flowering, continuing right through into the Winter, and has strong, broad and busy dense growth.

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Iceberg

The first crosses produced a perfect soft pink rosette, but the plant suffered badly from blackspot like its Iceberg parent. Backcrossing with some of the better English Roses, did produce some very good varieties like Perdita 1983 and Heritage 1984 ; and his famous yellow English Rose, Graham Thomas 1983, a cross between Charles Austin x (Iceberg x Seedling);

Aloha, a climbing Hybrid Tea with highly fragrant flowers with an Old Rose form, bred from New Dawn, a highly disease-resistant repeat-flowering Wichuraiana Rambler, producing some very strong larger varieties with larger flowers like Charles Austin 1983 (Chaucer x Aloha); and Golden Celebration 1992.

Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, a Rugosa Hybrid, which is a cross between Noisette, Gloire de Dijon, and another unknown Rugosa Hybrid. Rugosas are highly disease-resistant and vigorous. Crosses with Chaucer produced yellow and apricot English Roses with large highly fragrant rosette blooms like Tamora 1983 and Jayne Austin 1990 and Evelyn 1991, the latter two both crosses between Graham Thomas and Tamora. Here is a photo of Evelyn from my garden:BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0342To date, David Austin has bred more than 200 English Roses. Today, the nursery is managed by David JC Austin, the eldest son of David CH Austin, and is one of Britain’s leading rose nurseries. Every year, there are 50,000 crosses between April and July to germinate more than 250,000 seedlings the following year, the most outstanding of which are subject to  eight years of field trials. Eventually, only three to six new varieties will be released each year at the Chelsea Flower Show in London. The latest releases for 2017 are cerise pink James L Austin, rich apricot Dame Judi Dench and soft yellow Vanessa Bell.

Description

Growth

Shrub roses with full bushy or arching growth, usually 1.2 metres high or less. Here is a photo of Troilus from my Moon Bed:BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 15.41.44Flower Form:

Single: Ann; The Alexandra Rose;

Semi-Double : Windflower; Scarborough Fair; and Cordelia;

Rosette: Eglantyne (flat); Mary Rose; and The Countryman;

Deep Cupped: Brother Cadfael; Golden Celebration; Heritage; and Jude the Obscure;

Shallow Cupped: Crown Princess Margareta; Sweet Juliet; and Teasing Georgia;

Recurved: Grace and Jubilee Celebration.

Flower Scent:

Old Rose Fragrance: Gertrude Jekyll; Eglantyne; and Brother Cadfael;

Tea Fragrance: William Morris, Graham Thomas; Pat Austin; and Sweet Juliet;

Myrrh Fragrance: Constance Spry; Chaucer; and Cressida;

Musk Fragrance: Francine Austin; The Generous Gardener; Molineux; and Windrush;

Fruit Fragrance: Jude the Obscure; Leander; and Yellow Button.

Varieties of English Rose

There are six groups of English Roses and I will be discussing some of their famous examples, especially those which I am now growing:

1.Old Rose Hybrids:

The original English Roses, including once-flowering Constance Spry, which lean very much toward the Old Roses in character.

Small bushy shrubs with rosette-shaped flowers.

White, blush, pink, deep pink, crimson and purple flowers, though two varieties, Jude the Obscure and Windrush, are yellow.

Old Rose fragrance, though often mixed with the scents of tea, myrrh, lily of the valley, lilac and almond blossom.

Repeat-flower regularly, unless otherwise specified.

Here are some examples:

Fair Bianca 1982 Of unknown parentage (though in their book, The Quest for the Rose,  Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix state that Belle Isis is part of its parentage), this small shrub has white, medium, very double blooms, opening to flat and quartered rosettes.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0467 With its contrasting pink tipped buds, it is very popular for bridal bouquets, an ideal use as its strong myrrh fragrance tends to go off after a day or two, to my nose anyway!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-11 16.10.15 We grew masses of them at Soho Rose Farm, where Ross, who had to prune these low bushes, christened them Fair Little Buggers! Nevertheless, we inherited one from Soho, which is now thriving in our Soho Bed.BlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_0094Pretty Jessica 1983 A cross between Wife of Bath and a seedling, this short, compact shrub, with fragrant warm rich pink rosette flowers, repeats well, but needs regular spraying due to its poor resistance to disease and it is no longer available.BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 14.01.00Mary Rose 1983 A cross between the Wife of Bath and The Miller, this medium-sized, twiggy shrub has small clusters of large, cupped rose-pink blooms with a light Old Rose fragrance with a hint of honey and almond, in flushes throughout the season. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/mary-rose. It was named after Henry VIII’s flagship, which was recovered from the Solent 400 years later, and was one of the first English Roses, along with Graham Thomas, to become widely popular after the introduction of Constance Spry.

Mary Rose has played such an important role in the total development of English Roses. For example, in order of their introduction,  it is one of the parents of :

William Shakespeare 1987 (along with The Squire);

LD Braithwaite 1988 (also with The Squire);

Sharifa Asma 1989  (with Admired Miranda);

Kathryn Morley 1990 ( a cross with Chaucer) ;

Peach Blossom 1990 (with The Prioress);

Sir Edward Elgar 1992 ( another Mary Rose-The Squire cross again);  and

Glamis Castle  1992 (from a cross with Graham Thomas).

Mary Rose has also produced two sports: the  softer pink Redouté 1992 and the white Winchester Cathedral 1998.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWindrush 1984  A cross between a seedling and (Canterbury x Golden Wings, a Hybrid Spinosissima– see photo above) and named after a river in Southern England, this medium shrub bears large, semi-double, soft yellow, wide open flowers with a boss of stamens and a light spicy Musk fragrance. It occasionally repeats later in the season. Here is a photo from Ruston’s Roses in Renmark:

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Wildflower 1986 A cross between Lilian Austin and (Cantebury x Golden Wings), this light yellow single rose has 5 petals and a mild fragrance and occasionally repeats later in the season.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGertrude Jekyll 1986 A cross between Wife of Bath and Portland, Comte de Chambord, this large, upright shrub bears warm, deep pink Hybrid Tea-like buds, which open into large heavy rosettes, with petals spiralling from the centre and a powerful Old Rose fragrance, only equalled by Evelyn. Named after the English garden designer and author, Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932), its foliage and growth are close to that of  Portlands and it forms quite a good climber.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_9450LD Braithwaite 1988 A cross between  Mary Rose x The Squire, which was a cross between The Knight x Château de Clos Vougeot, this low spreading shrub has dark red, slightly cupped, loosely formed flowers, which are slow to fade and which develop a Old Rose fragrance as they open out wide and flat.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_2280 It was named for David Austin’s father-in-law, Leonard Braithwaite, and is growing opposite Fair Bianca in our Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-12 13.49.19Eglantyne 1994 A cross between Mary Rose and a seedling, this medium, upright shrub bears perfect, soft pink rosette blooms with a button eye and a lovely sweet Old Rose fragrance. It was named after Eglantyne Jebb, a lady from Ellesmere, Shropshire, who founded the Save the Children Fund after the First World War.  It grows on the other side of LD Braithwaite, diagonal to Fair Bianca, in the Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0428Jude the Obscure 1995 One of only two yellows in the group, it is a cross between Abraham Darby and Windrush. Named after the character in Thomas Hardy’s novel, it is one of my favourite English Roses for its tall, vigorous and healthy growth and its deeply cupped, incurved golden cups with their wonderful fruity scent, which David Austin describes as ‘reminiscent of guava and sweet wine’ and which  I could soak up forever!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-18 12.03.10 Fortunately, I planted it on the bottom corner of the Moon Bed, where I will still be able to bury my nose in her blooms, even when the citrus behind are fully grown.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-22 17.03.14Windermere Before 2005 A cross between two unspecified seedlings, this lovely rose has clusters of white medium blooms with an Old Rose form and a fruity citrus fragrance. It grows in the front of the Moon Bed next to Jude the Obscure.

2.Leander Group:

A cross between Old Rose hybrids and modern roses, with R. wichuraiana in their makeup, they lean more toward the modern rose, but still have the typical Old Rose form.

Large healthy robust shrubs with elegant arching growth.

Large yellow, apricot and flame-coloured flowers, varying from a rosette to deeply cupped shape.

Fragrance of Old Rose, Tea Rose, myrrh and fruity undertones of raspberry, lemon and apple.

Charles Austin 1973 named for David Austin’s father, this strong upright shrub with shiny modern foliage is a  cross between Chaucer and Aloha. It has very large, apricot-yellow rosette blooms with a fruity fragrance, which fade with age. While not continuously repeating, it has a second flush in Autumn. For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=1071 .

Leander 1982 A tough reliable rose, named after the legendary Greek lover, it was produced by a cross between Charles Austin and a seedling and has small sprays of deep apricot small to medium rosettes with a raspberry scent in the Tea Rose tradition.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 08.44.01 My rose, planted in front of the shed, grew from a cutting I took from a shrub in a friend’s garden. Here is a photo of older blooms.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 16.57.05Troilus 1983 I first saw this rose in 2014 in Renmark, the perfect climate for it as it thrives in the warmth, though it is still doing very well in the front of the Moon Bed between Windermere and Heritage.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-04 12.26.25 I love its large clusters of creamy apricot fully cupped blooms. Its seed parent is a cross between Gallica Hybrid, Duchesse de Montebello, and Chaucer, while its pollen parent is Charles Austin.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0378Abraham Darby 1985 A cross between Floribunda, Yellow Cushion, and Aloha, a modern climber. A large bush with long arching growth and large glossy leaves. Large deeply cupped Old Rose blooms, with soft peachy pink petals on the inside and pale yellow on the outside, fading in colour towards the edge of the flower as it ages, and a rich fruity fragrance with a raspberry  sharpness. This rose has played an important part in the development of the Leander Group and is named after Abraham Darby (1678-1717), one of the founders of the Industrial Revolution, which began in Shropshire. For a photo, see: https://hedgerowrose.com/rose-gardening/2011/06/11/growing-david-austins-abraham-darby-rose/.

Charles Darwin 1991 A cross between two unnamed seedlings and named after the legendary British naturalist and father of the Theory of Evolution, Charles Darwin, this rose has some of the largest blooms of the English Roses. Full and deeply cupped at first, the mustard yellow blooms open to shallower flowers with a button eye. They have a strong fragrance, which is a blend of the scents of a soft floral tea rose and pure lemon. The shrub has broad, vigorous, spreading growth and is highly disease-resistant.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGolden Celebration 1992 One of the largest flowers of the English Roses, this large shrub with long arching branches is a cross between Charles Austin and Abraham Darby.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.27.29 I am growing it at the back of the Moon Bed next to Lucetta, and love its large deeply cupped golden blooms, which  have a strong Tea scent at first, developing fruity undertones of Sauternes wine and strawberry as it ages.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 17.09.28William Morris 1998  Named after the father of the Arts and Crafts movement, William Morris (1834-1896), to commemorate the centenary of the founding of the University of East London, this tall shrub with long arching canes and glossy foliage is a cross between Abraham Darby and a seedling.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-06 13.06.43 My rose is very healthy and vigorous and constantly in flower with clusters of apricot pink rosettes with a strong fragrance.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 09.52.05 Growing in the front of the Moon Bed, I am in two minds about whether I should have grown it at the back of the bed due to its height, but its long graceful canes, covered in pink blooms look equally beautiful falling romantically over the front edge of the bed, even though my lawnmower curses me every time!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 09.52.09The Alnwick Rose 2001 Named  for the Duke and Duchess of Northumberland, who created a very large rose garden with many English Roses  at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, it is a cross between a seedling and Golden Celebration.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 09.26.51 I love the blooms of this rose: medium-sized, deeply cupped and incurved, pink flowers, with an Old Rose fragrance with a hint of raspberry. This is my final English Rose in the Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 17.08.08Jubilee Celebration 2002 Named in honour of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee in 2002, this large vigorous shrub, a cross between  AUSgold  (the registration name of Golden Celebration) and a seedling, bears sprays of large domed rich salmon pink blooms, tinted with gold under the petals, with a lovely fruity rose scent with undertones of lemon and raspberry. For a phot, see: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/rose-jubilee-celebration-aushunter.

Summer Song 2005 A bushy upright shrub, bred from a cross between two unspecified seedlings, it has sprays of small burnt orange cupped blooms with a fragrance of ‘chrysanthemum leaves, ripe banana and tea’, according to David Austin. I used to love using these bright blooms in the exotic Moroccan Mix, which we used to assemble at Soho. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/summer-song.

3.English Musk Group:

A cross between Old Rose hybrids and Noisettes and the newer Hybrid Musks, to which the Floribunda, Iceberg, is related, being a cross between Hybrid Musk, Robin Hood, and Hybrid Tea, Virgo.

Lighter growth and flowering than the Old Rose Hybrid or Leander groups.

Dainty soft flowers in fresh and blush pink, soft yellow, apricot and peach.

Variety of fragrances.

Lucetta 1983  This strong healthy shrub, with long arching canes, has large, open and flat, semi-double, saucer-like, blush-pink fragrant blooms with a boss of gold stamens. Its parentage is unknown.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 17.06.10 Growing next to Golden Celebration at the back of the Moon Bed, its blooms contrast beautifully with the Flowering Salvias, the  deep blue ‘Indigo Spires’ and a lighter blue salvia, grown from a cutting from my sister’s garden.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-18 12.02.35Graham Thomas 1983 Given the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (AGM) in 1993 , the James Mason Award (Royal National Rose Society, UK) and the Henry Edland Medal for Fragrance (Royal National Rose Society Trials), both in 2000, and voted the world’s most favourite rose by 41 rose societies in 2009, this tall upright shrub was named for rosarian, Graham Stuart Thomas, and is a cross between Charles Austin x (Iceberg x seedling). For a close-up photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/graham-thomas. It has medium deeply cupped golden yellow blooms, opening to cupped rosettes with a strong Tea Rose fragrance. I used to grow this rose in Armidale and would love to find a place for it here! Here is the climbing form at Ruston’s Roses.BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.52.59

Heritage 1984 Another popular and beautiful deeply cupped, blush-pink rose with a fragrance, which has been described as having ‘overtones of fruit, honey and carnation on a myrrh background’. Like Graham Thomas, it is the progeny of a Seedling x Iceberg. Other sites state the parentage as: Seedling x (Iceberg x Wife of Bath). I have always grown this rose in all my gardens from my first married home to Armidale and now here in Candelo.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 15.24.51Belle Story 1984 Named after one of the first nursing sisters to serve as a British Royal Navy officer in 1884, its seed parent is a cross between Chaucer and a Modern Climber, Parade, while its pollen parent is a cross between The Prioress and Iceberg.BlogEngRosesReszd50%Image (194)Sweet Juliet 1989  A cross between Graham Thomas and Admired Miranda, an English Rose, which itself has The Friar as both its seed and pollen parents and has been discontinued, this lovely rose has medium, shallow-cupped, apricot-yellow flowers with a strong Tea scent, which becomes lemony as the blooms mature. It was named for the heroine in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/sweet-juliet.

Evelyn 1991 A cross between Graham Thomas and Tamora, this lovely rose has large apricot and pink flowers with a shallow saucer-like form, whose petals gradually recurve to form a rosette shape. They have a beautiful Old Rose fragrance, one of the strongest of the English Roses, with the fruity notes of apricots and peaches. It was named on behalf of my favourite perfumers, Crabtree and Evelyn, and is a sister rose to Jayne Austin (Graham Thomas x Tamora) and Sweet Juliet, sharing some of the characteristics of both. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to disease, a reputation borne out by my own recent experience in the back of the Moon Bed! It was making a feeble attempt to recover, but unfortunately died, so I may try to replace it with Sweet Juliet, if I can find it or maybe, I should just move Leander to the Moon Bed, in case it was a case of Unlucky Number 13, there being 4 English Roses in the Soho Bed, 8 in the Moon Bed and one in the Shed Bed!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 10.34.12Comte(s) de Champagne 2001 A cross between a seedling and Tamora, this rose is one of the first English Roses to have open-centred cup-shaped blooms. Soft yellow buds open to perfect, open, medium to large, globular cups, with a honey and musk fragrance and a mop of deep yellow stamens. The lax spreading bushy shrub is healthy and free-flowering. It was named after Taittinger’s finest champagne. According to David Austin, the President of Taittinger, M. Claude Taittinger, lives in a chateau built by Thibault IV, Count of Chapagne and Brie, who is also credited with bringing the Apothecary’s Rose, R. gallica officinalis, from Damascus to France on his return from the 7th Crusade in 1250.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA4. English Alba Rose Hybrids

The most recent varieties, a cross between Albas and other English Roses.

Almost wild light and airy growth and healthy foliage.

Light and dainty flowers in mainly shades of pink, though some are almost white and Benjamin Britten is scarlet.

They are the least fragrant of the English Roses, being a delicate mix of Old Rose, myrrh, musk and tea, without any particular scent predominating.

Shropshire Lass 1968 The foundation rose of this group, it is a cross between an early Hybrid Tea, Mme Butterfly, and an Alba, Mme Legras St Germaine. It is a large strong free-flowering shrub, though non-repeating, and has blush white almost single flowers with a large boss of stamens and a strong scent with hints of myrrh. I grew this rose in my larger Armidale garden. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/shropshire-lass-climbing-rose.

5. English Climbers:

Some of the larger English Roses perform well as small climbers, where they can reach 3 to 3.5 metres here in Australia. For example, Constance Spry; Shropshire Lass; Gertrude Jekyll; Graham Thomas; Leander and William Morris.

6. English Cut Flower Roses:

In 2004, David Austin unveiled hid plans for his current 15 year breeding program, which is directed towards producing English Roses for the cut flower industry. They are similar in their flower form (rosettes) to English Roses grown in the garden, but are bred to be grown under glass and are the result of crossing English Roses with cut flower varieties of Hybrid Teas.

They combine the blowsy  Old Rose forms, fragrance and romantic soft colors with the year-round availability, strong stems and the long vase life of modern cut roses and are ideal for gift bouquets, floral arrangements for the home and for all kinds of special occasions like weddings, birthdays and parties.

Unlike many of the Cut Flower Hybrid Teas, which have no fragrance, the English Cut Roses have a strong fragrance, but because of this, will last 2 or 3 days less in water than a typical Cut Hybrid Tea, the chemicals producing the scent also having the effect of hastening rose petal decay.

The initial seven varieties included four heavily perfumed roses: glowing clear pink Phoebe (originally called Olivia Austin), creamy-white Patience, deep pink Emily (synonym Cymbeline), and blush-pink Rosalind; and three lightly fragrant, exquisitely formed roses: peach-hued Juliet, rosy Miranda and raspberry-red Darcey.

His current Cut Rose Collection includes 14 exclusive varieties:  Patience, Juliet, Miranda, Darcey, Charity, Keira, Constance, Edith, Beatrice, Carey, Kate , Tess and new Cut English Roses, Purity and Capability. For photos of these roses, see: https://uk.davidaustin.com/the-collection/ , https://www.parfumflowercompany.com/david-austin-wedding-roses/   and http://www.alexandrafarms.com/David-Austin.html.

David Austin’s  Wedding and Gift  Rose Brochure is at : https://www.parfumflowercompany.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/David-Austin-Roses-Brochure.pdf.

For more information about David Austin and his beautiful English Roses, it is worth reading David Austin’s books:

David Austin’s English Roses Australian Edition 1993/ 1996;

The English Roses: Classic Favourites and New Selections 2007; and

The Rose 2009/ 2012.

Next week, I am focusing on our own Spring garden, but the following fortnight, will be looking at the work of other contemporary breeders of modern shrub roses and modern climbers, including Guillot, Delbard and Meilland in France; Kordes and Tantau in Germany;  Harkness and Joe Cocker in the UK and Swim and Weeks in the USA.

Modern Roses: Polyanthas and Floribundas (Cluster-Flowered Roses)

On Tuesday, I wrote about Hybrid Teas, one of the most popular rose types today, the other type being the Floribundas, or as they are now known, the Cluster-Flowered Roses, which developed from the Polyanthas, so I will discuss the latter first.

Polyanthas

The first Polyantha rose, Paquerette, was a cross between a low growing, perpetually flowering R. multiflora and an unknown Dwarf China hybrid (possibly Old Blush China) by Sisley, France, and was introduced by Guillot, France, in 1875.

Another early Polyantha was Mignonette, Guillot, France 1880, a cross between R. chinensis and R. multiflora, and the earliest Polyantha rose still available. Both bore large sprays of very small, pompom-like, soft rosy-pink flowers, like those of R. multiflora, fading to white with age. Here is a photo of a Multiflora rose, Phyllis Bide.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9508

They were originally classified as R. rehderiana and were called Polypompoms. While they all possessed cluster blooms in the one florescence, they exhibited great variability in their growth habits and the size and shape of their blooms. It was not until the early 1900s that there were enough uniformly distinct characteristics to form a splinter group, known as the Dwarf Polyanthas.

Adaptable, floriferous, hardy and low maintenance small roses (with only an occasional tendency to mildew) with large, tightly-packed clusters of small, slightly cupped, semi-double flowers (unfortunately, with little or no fragrance) throughout Summer, they were useful shrubs in colder climates, where the less hardy Hybrid Teas required mollycoddling in the cold Winters.

They were hugely popular in the period between the two World Wars, with a large number of varieties introduced, most of which have since disappeared with their declining popularity after the Second World War, though there was a brief revival of interest in the 1980s, when they were used as a ground cover, in group plantings and shrubberies or as specimen roses at the front of borders, especially where the soil was poor.

Some well-known Polyanthas are:

The Fairy, Bentall, United Kingdom, 1932: A cross between Polyantha, Paul Crampel, and Hybrid Wichuraiana, Lady Gay, it was one of the first hybrids to have a trailing habit. It has sprays of tiny ‘China’ pink, continuous blooms, with little scent and good disease-resistance. It makes a handy ground cover on embankments. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/fairy/.

China Doll, Lammerts, United States, before 1936: A cross between Polyantha, Mrs Dudley Fulton and Miniature rose, Tom Thumb, it is one of the lowest borderers and bears huge heads of rich ‘China’ pink blooms almost to the ground. See: http://www.1001-landscaping-ideas.com/china-doll-roses.html.

BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.29Climbing Pinkie, discovered by EP Dering, United States, 1952: A sport of Pinkie, bred by Swim, United States, in 1947 and whose parents were China Doll and an unknown rose, this climbing version is very vigorous and will grow without support to form a graceful cascading plant. It is constantly in flower with large trusses of cupped, semi-double, rosy-pink fragrant blooms on thornless stems. The photos above and below are Climbing Pinkie.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.35Green Ice, Moore, United States, 1971:  A cross between (R. wichuraiana x Floribunda, Floradora) and Miniature rose, Jet Trail, this free-flowering miniature has small, double, white, slightly scented  blooms, tinged with green, especially in cooler weather. It has thick glossy foliage and reaches up to 0.5 metres high. It makes a useful ground cover and also looks good in a hanging basket. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/green-ice/.

Polyanthas were important in rose history, as they led directly to the development of the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses or Floribundas.

Floribundas

Hugely popular in Europe, especially Germany, Floribundas have a mixed pedigree, with its ancestors being R. multiflora (large trusses of flowers) and Hybrid Chinas (long flowering season).

In 1910, the Danish breeder, Poulsen, crossed Dwarf Polyanthas with Hybrid Teas in an attempt to increase the hardiness and cold tolerance of the latter. He crossed Polyantha, Mme Norbert Levavasseur, with Hybrid Tea, Richmond, to produce Rödhätte (Red Riding Hood) with semi-double, cherry-red flowers in large clusters. It was distributed in 1912, but was lost in the turmoil of the First World War.

Crosses of Dwarf Polyantha, Orléans Rose, with Hybrid Tea, Red Star, by Poulsen’s son, Svend, produced two new roses in 1924: the pink semi-double Else Poulsen and the red single Kirsten Poulsen. These were the start of the Poulsen Roses and were soon followed by Karen Poulsen 1932 and the first yellow Cluster-Flowered Rose, Poulsen Yellow, in 1939.

Poulsen Roses were taller in growth and had larger flowers than most Polyanthas and, as more breeders experimented with them, they were renamed Hybrid Polyanthas for two decades, and then, Floribundas, in the 1950s. Most of them have been superseded by the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses and only a few survive today.

Quickly gaining in popularity, Floribundas were used as bedding plants, providing massed colour over a long period throughout the Summer. They have been interbred with other rose types as well, including R. wichuraiana; R. rubiginosa; R. rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia. Over the last twenty years, they have been interbred so much with Hybrid Teas, that it is difficult to separate them genetically.

The earlier Floribundas often had single or semi-double blooms, opening flat, but now, many Cluster-Flowered Roses have blooms as large and shapely as those of Hybrid Teas. The big advantage of Floribundas was not only their hardiness in cold climates, but also the fact that they are much more free-flowering than Hybrid Teas. Here is a photo of an early Floribunda, Gruss an Aachen.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9730Another breeding aim has been to introduce flowers with veined or hand-painted petals eg McGredy, using Kordes’ rose, Frühlingsmorgen.

Here are some well-known Cluster-Flowered Roses, in order of their introduction:

Gruss an Aachen, Hinner, Germany, 1909: A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Hybrid Tea, Franz Deegen, this Floribunda bears large, full, mildly fragrant, light-pink rosette blooms with a salmon-pink centre, ageing to cream.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.43.44Dainty Maid, LeGrice, UK, 1938: A cross between DT Poulsen and an unknown rose, it has single large flowers, which are clear pink on the inside and carmine on the exterior, and have a slight scent. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/dainty-maid-bush-rose.html. It is a parent of Constance Spry, one of the first English Roses bred by David Austin;

August Seebauer, Kordes, Germany, 1944: A cross between Hybrid Tea, Break O’Day, and Else Poulsen, it bears small clusters of large, double, deep pink, mildly fragrant blooms with a high centred form.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9719Iceberg, Kordes, German, 1958: A cross between Hybrid Musk rose, Robin Hood, and Hybrid Tea, Virgo, this rose holds the distinction of being  the most popular rose today and is one of the best Floribundas ever bred. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1983. Nearly every non-rose person knows this one!!! It has large clusters of small, lightly double white flowers, opening wide; smooth slender stems and glossy, light green foliage.

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I never really appreciated Icebergs until I saw them at my sister’s garden at ‘Glenrock’.
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Here is a closer photo from another Iceberg rose.

For an even closer view, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/iceberg;

BlogModRosesReszd20c 2013 017Just Joey, Cants, UK, 1972: A cross between Fragrant Cloud (a Hybrid Tea, with a strong fragrance, which was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1980) and Dr AJ Verhage, another Hybrid Tea. Photos above and below;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0424BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_1869Friesia, Kordes, Germany, 1973: A cross between two Floribundas, Friedrich Wörlein, and Spanish Sun, this rose has small clusters of deep yellow, high-centred ruffled blooms with a strong fragrance.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 14.04.00Gold Bunny, Paolina, France, 1978: A cross between Poppy Flash and (Charleston x Allgold), all parents being Floribundas, this rose flowers continuously. I grew this on our wall at rainy Dorrigo and, despite its reputation for susceptibility to black spot, my climber was superb, with shiny glossy healthy leaves and a multitude of golden pollen-rich blooms over a long period. It had so much pollen that I experienced hayfever symptoms for the first time ever with dry itchy eyes and a runny nose, but it was worth it and I suspect a distinct selling point when we sold the property!;BlogModRosesReszd30%DSCF2073BlogModRosesReszd30%DSCF2065Oranges and Lemons, McGredy, New Zealand, 1992: A cross between Floribunda, New Year and Freude, this striking rose has large, bright lemon-yellow blooms with vermillion orange stripes.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 018Scentimental, Carruth, USA, 1996 : A cross between a yellow and red Floribunda, Playboy, and a striped Floribunda, Peppermint Twist, it is one of the new Floribundas with Hybrid Tea-like blooms on small clusters. They are creamy-white, striped and splashed with burgundy-red, each petal being different, and so, each bloom being different too.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 039Victoria Gold, Welsh, Australia, 1999.  Released in 1999 to commemorate the centenary of the Victorian Rose Society, the first rose society in Australia, it has rich golden yellow blooms, with a fine red edge in cooler weather, borne in clusters up to 7 blooms per stem, and contrasting dark green foliage.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 14.00.26 A child of Gold Bunny, it is one of the first roses to flower in spring and can regularly repeat bloom until early winter. It is very disease resistant, a good performer in the  hot Australian climate and can be grown as an individual bush, a standard rose, grouped to form a bed of roses or a low hedge. At the Victoria State Rose Garden at Werribee Park, it is a feature plant around the old rotunda.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 14.00.12

Finally, there are two more sub groupings I should mention, which cover Floribundas at either end of the height scale!

Grandifloras

An American classification only, referring to large-flowered, taller Floribundas, forming an intermediate group between Floribundas and Hybrid Teas. They include:

Queen Elizabeth, Lammerts, USA, 1954: A cross between a Hybrid Tea, Charlotte Armstrong, and a Floribunda, Floradora, it reaches 3 metres high, is incredible disease-resistant and has continuous-flowering clusters of long, high-centred, clear-pink buds, which open into large, deeply- cupped, lightly fragrant blooms. It was voted the Best Rose at the World Rose Convention in 1977 and its popularity after the Second World War was such that, along with Peace, it is found in almost every garden at some stage (though I haven’t got one yet!!!).

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I’m pretty sure that these are Queen Elizabeth.
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Both photographs were taken at Moidart, in the Southern Highlands, in mid-November.

For a closeup, see: http://www.all-my-favourite-flower-names.com/queen-elizabeth-rose.html.

Gold Medal, Christensen, USA, 1982: A cross between Yellow Pages x (Granada x Garden Party), all Hybrid Teas, this golden yellow rose with copper shadings is the classic Hybrid Tea form, with high-centred buds, opening to cupped, reflexed blooms.BlogSohoReszd5013-06-09 12.43.49Fragrant Plum, Christensen, USA, 1990: A cross between a Floribunda, Shocking Blue, and (Blue Nile x Ivory Tower, both Hybrid Teas, x Floribunda, Angel Face), it has large, double, mauve blooms with a strong, fruity fragrance.BlogModRosesReszd2016-10-28 13.51.47Miniatures, Ground Cover and Patio Roses

Bred from Dwarf China rose, Rouletti, long grown on the window sills of Swiss cottages and rediscovered by Henri Correvon in 1922, these roses are miniature versions of their larger Floribunda cousins, with smaller blooms, foliage, stems and prickles. You can see a photo of Rouletti on:http://www.paulbardenroses.com/minis/rouletii.html.

The slightly larger varieties are known as Patio Roses and are increasingly popular with people living in units or on small properties. An example is:

Queen Mother, Kordes, Germany, 1991: A cross between a seedling of R. wichuraiana and Floribunda, Toynbee Hall, it was bred for the Queen Mother’s 90th birthday to support the Royal United Kingdom Beneficent Association, of which she was the Royal Patron. It has small clusters of medium to large, semi-double, light pink flowers with a mild fragrance, which open flat.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 016The smaller varieties are known as Miniatures or Fairy Roses and have been crossed with Floribundas and Wichuraianas to develop blooms with new colours and shapes.  They are often grown in pots.

Ground Cover Roses, also known as Procumbent Shrub Roses,  are just that. Examples include: Sea Foam, Schwartz, USA, 1964; and Snow Carpet, McGredy, NZ, 1980. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/type/shrub-roses/ground-cover-roses for more.

Over the next two weeks, we will be looking at the Modern Shrub Rose and Modern Climbers, starting with David Austin’s English Roses, as well as the progeny of other breeders. We have already discussed Pemberton’s Hybrid Musks, which also fall into this category.

Modern Roses: Hybrid Teas (Large-Flowered Roses)

And now to the roses of the Twentieth Century: the Hybrid Teas, Polyanthas and Floribundas, which represent the majority of all rose plants and have been interbred so much that they are now very difficult to separate on a genetic basis.

Both groups are short bushes, 1m to less than 2m tall and less than 1 metre to 1.5 metres wide, with an upright growth habit, bred to be grown in rose beds and cut for floral arrangements in the home. They repeat-flower with several flushes, 6 to 8 weeks apart and lasting several weeks long, throughout the season, from late October and mid-November to pruning time the following Winter, here in Australia. The first two photos are of Just Joey.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-12 13.48.23Most blooms have the traditional modern form with a high-pointed bud, opening to a circular outline with a high spiralling centre. However, there are more informal types with a lighter, more airy arrangement of petals, while others have tight rings of petals in rosettes or cupped formations.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0384To add to the confusion, most roses of either group can form multiple heads (clusters) on the top of strong water shoots in Spring, and even cluster-flowered roses can throw a good number of single stems on older, lightly pruned plants.

Within each group, there is huge variety  in the foliage canopy (dense/sparse), leaf appearance (matt/glossy), height (tall/short) and bloom colour and shape, enabling the choice of roses for a wide variety of purposes and situations:

Floral arrangements and cutting blooms: Consistently single shapely blooms on long stems eg Mr Lincoln, Julia’s Rose, Blue Moon, Fragrant Plum (2nd photo below), Pascali  (long regarded as one of the best white Hybrid Teas and a cross between Queen Elizabeth and White Butterfly) and Double Delight. Here is a vase of Mr Lincoln (dark red) and Lolita (orange, pink and gold):BlogSohoReszd50cember2011 200Exhibition/ Competition blooms:  Consistently large blooms with a good form, but not necessarily long stems eg Peace;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-04 11.25.11Attractive garden plants: Plentiful eye-catching blooms on thick, well-rounded plants eg Apricot Nectar; Lolita (main tall rose in photo above); and Fragrant Plum (photo below);BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_1987Bedding Roses: Tidy growth habit, dense foliage and free-flowering eg Iceberg, La Sevillana (photo below) and Queen Elizabeth;BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-27 11.26.08Roses for Low Borders: 0.5 to 1 metre tall eg Polyanthas

Ground Cover, Patio and Miniature Roses: See later.

Single Blooms eg  Mrs Oakley Fisher, Ellen Willmott, White Wings (photo below) and Dainty Bess; and

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General Purpose Roses: Combine a number of the above attributes eg Gold Bunny, Just Joey (photo below) and Peace.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-23 15.13.08 In 1971, Hybrid Teas and Floribundas were reclassified as Large-Flowered Roses and Cluster-Flowered Roses respectively. I will now focus Hybrid Teas for the rest of this post, then Polyanthas and Floribundas (Cluster-Flowered Roses) in Thursday’s post.

Hybrid Teas

Hybrid Teas are the result of a cross between Tea roses (for their elegance and perpetual flowering) and Hybrid Perpetuals ( for their robustness and freedom of flowering) in the mid-19th Century.

The earliest Hybrid Teas were:

Victor Verdier, bred by Lacharme, France, 1859: A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Jules Margottin, and Tea rose, Safrano, and the first reliably documented rose, that could be classified as a Hybrid Tea, according to David Austin. See: http://www.petrovicroses.rs/en/roses/old-roses/hp/victor-verdier;

La France, bred by Guillot Fils, France, 1865: This rose has uncertain origins. Guillot thought it was possibly a seedling of Tea rose, Mme Falcot, the current position taken in  Peter Beales’book, Classic Roses, while David Austin attributes its parents as Hybrid Perpetual, Mme Victor Verdier (not to be confused with Victor Verdier) and Tea Rose, Mme Bravy. It had a good scent, vigorous growth and was very free-flowering. At the time, it was considered to be another Hybrid Perpetual and was a nearly sterile triploid, as were the early Bourbons. For a long while, it held the honour of being the first Hybrid Tea. For a photo, see: http://www.paulbardenroses.com/hybridteas/lafrance.html. It was soon followed by:

Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, Bennett, UK, 1882 (photo below): A cross between Devoniensis (Tea) and Victor Verdier (Hybrid Perpetual), it was a fertile tetraploid and was the parent of many early British Hybrid Teas. Thought to have disappeared, it was rediscovered in 1975 by Keith Money, Norfolk. Bennett, long regarded as the Father of the Hybrid Teas, was the first to use the term Hybrid Tea or as he put it ‘Pedigree Hybrids of the Tea Rose’. Bennett was also, along with French breeder, Sisley, the first to apply systematic deliberate cross breeding to roses with certain objectives in view, thus being the first modern rose breeders.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.48.16Other early varieties included:

Grace Darling 1884. Unknown parentage. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/grace-darling-bush-rose.html;

Mme Caroline Testout 1890 ( a cross between Tea Rose, Mme de Tartas and Lady Mary Fitzwilliam);BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9267Lady Waterlow 1903 (Hybrid Tea, La France de ’89 X Mme Marie Lavalley);BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.20.40Irish Elegance, Alexander Dickson II, United Kingdom,1905, a cross between R. hibernica and an undocumented Hybrid Tea. Salmon buds open to highly fragrant, single, flat peach blooms, fading to salmon-buff. This rose is very disease-resistant and blooms in flushes throughout the season.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAChâteau de Clos Vougeot, Pernet-Ducher, France, 1908: Unknown cross;blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0247Mrs Herbert Stevens, McGredy, UK, 1910, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Tea Rose, Niphetos;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0479Ophelia 1912 (a seedling, which arrived in a consignment of Antoine Rivoire – photo below). For a photo of Ophelia, see: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/ophelia-bush-rose.html; andBlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9703Mme Butterfly 1918, the bush form a sport of Ophelia. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/mme-butterfly.

While many of these early Hybrid Teas have been superseded by the more modern varieties, they still hold their own in their climbing forms, which are either crosses or sports involving the bush forms. For example:

Climbing Mme Caroline Testout 1901;

Climbing Château de Clos Vougeot 1920, both sports of their bush form;

Climbing Mrs Herbert Stevens 1922, one of the most popular white climbers, which is frequently found in old gardens;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-04 12.23.39Climbing Lady Sylvia 1926, the bush form itself also a sport of Mme Butterfly, and one of the most popular roses of the 1930s. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/lady-sylvia; and

Mme Gregoire Staechelin (Spanish Beauty) 1927, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Hybrid Tea, Château de Clos Vougeot. The first two photos below were taken at Walter Duncan’s home at the Heritage Garden, Clare, while the last photo was our old verandah at ‘Creekside’, Armidale.

BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9498BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9631BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (221)Ophelia, Mme Butterfly and Lady Sylvia all exhibit the ideal for perfect Hybrid Tea buds with their exquisitely scrolled formation and have few rivals, even today. They only differ in their colour: Ophelia is blush-pink; Mme Butterfly is a slightly deeper shade and Lady Sylvia is blush, suffused with apricot. In all three, the colour deepens towards the centre. All are reliable growers, reaching 80 cm in height, but are prone to blackspot. The neat foliage is grey-green and the flowers highly scented. All have excellent climbing sports. Ophelia alone was responsible for at least 36 sports!

For more photos of  the Early Hybrid Teas, see:http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/gallery/early-hybrid-teas.

The next advance was the first yellow Hybrid Tea! In 1910, Pernet-Ducher crossed a  clear-yellow  R. foetida persiana with a red Hybrid Perpetual, Antoine Ducher, to produce a seedling, which was then crossed with R. foetida bicolor  to produce the first yellow Hybrid Tea, Rayon d’Or.

Rayon d’Or is now extinct, but another yellow form of the same crossing (Antoine Ducher x R. foetida persiana) still survives: Soleil d’Or 1900.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA For a better photo, see: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/soleil-d-or-bush-rose.html.

Originally known as the Pernetianas and now reclassified as Hybrid Teas or Large-Flowered Roses, they had yellow or orange blooms with little scent and were very thorny and highly susceptible to blackspot. In fact, they are the source of most of the yellows and bright colours in modern roses, as well as the source of their susceptibility to blackspot!

Another important breeding program was the introduction in 1945 of R. wichuraiana genes by Brownlow, Rhode Island, to produce hardier varieties, more resistant to blackspot and suitable for growing in the colder climate of North-Eastern USA, which he called Sub-Zero Hybrid Teas. For more information on these roses, see: http://www.midwestgardentips.com/sub-zero_tea_roses.html. Some were later used by German breeder, Kordes, to produce varieties suitable for Germany.

There are now thousands of Hybrid Teas on the market, with at least ten large rose specialist breeders around the world, including: Kordes (Germany); Meilland (France); Dickson (Northern Ireland); McGredy (formerly Northern Ireland and later, New Zealand); Harkness (England) and Fryer (England); Cocker (Scotland); Jackson and Perkins (USA); and Weeks (USA), as well as countless smaller and amateur breeders.

Description

Tall upright growth with sparse foliage towards the base.

Large solitary specimen bloom with a high-pointed bud and variable degrees of scent. The photo below of Mrs Herbert Stevens shows the typical long pointed and spiralling buds.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-02 13.33.22Recurrent flowering.

Not as hardy or tough as Old Roses and more susceptible to diseases like black spot.

Most widely grown rose type and according to Deane Ross, the most popular rose type in Australia and New Zealand. Below is a photo of a bush of Mme Caroline Testout.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9266

Varieties

I have already mentioned a few early Hybrid Teas. Here are some more very famous and popular varieties in order of their introduction. Please note that it is only a miniscule portion of the vast number of Hybrid Teas available, the selection being based on the few Hybrid Teas, which I grow in my garden, and other personal photos from other gardens! Where I did not have suitable photos, I have included a link, as in the first rose below.

Mrs Oakley Fisher, Cant, UK, 1921. Single deep orange-yellow blooms with a good scent and golden-brown stamens. Unknown parentage. See: http://www.rosenotes.com/2014/08/mrs-oakley-fisher-rose.html;

Dainty Bess, Archer, UK 1925, a cross between Ophelia and Kitchener of Khartoum, both Hybrid Teas, it has single rose-pink blooms with a deeper pink on the outside, contrasting red-brown stamens and fringed petals.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Ellen Willmott,  Archer, UK, 1936: A cross between Dainty Bess and Tea Rose, Lady Hillingdon with large, single, creamy flowers, tinged with pink at the edges, wavy petals and golden anthers and red filaments;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9670Peace, Meilland, France, 1945: One of the most popular roses of all time, the story of its creation immortalized in Antonia Ridge’s beautiful book ‘For Love of a Rose’. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/.

Peace is the result of crosses between (George Dickson x Souvenir de Claudius Pernet) X ( Joanna Hill x Charles P Kilham) X  Margaret McGredy and was also called Gloria Dei (Germany), Mme A Meilland (France) and Gioia (Italy). For a shorter version of its story, see: https://www.gerbera.org/gardening-magazine/the-gardener-index/june-2005/peace-rose/. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1974;BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (190)White Wings, Krebs, USA, 1947 : A cross between Dainty Bess and an unknown rose, it is another Hybrid Tea with pure white single blooms with chocolate anthers;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9666Sutter’s Gold: Bush form: Swim, USA, 1950; Climbing form Weeks, USA, 1950: A cross between Charlotte Armstrong x Signora, both Hybrid Teas. A lovely rose, with whose climbing form I grew up. See: http://www.treloarroses.com.au/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=2466;

Meg, Gosset, UK, 1954: A cross between Paul’s Lemon Pillar X Mme Butterfly, both Hybrid Teas and another beautiful single golden rose;BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.52.10Papa Meilland, Meilland, France, 1963: A cross between Chrysler Imperial X Charles Mallerin, both Hybrid Teas. A  velvety deep red rose with a perfect formation and delicious perfume. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1988, however it can be a tricky rose with poor growth in Britain. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/papa-meilland/;

Mr Lincoln, Swim and Weeks, USA, 1964 : Another cross between the same two Hybrid Teas, Chrysler Imperial X Charles Mallerin. Another beautiful deep red rose with a divine scent and very long stems, making it very popular with florists;BlogSohoReszd50%IMG_9022BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_2319Blue Moon, Tantau, Germany, 1965:  A cross between Hybrid Tea, Sterling Silver, and an unknown seedling, this rose has upright growth and highly fragrant lavender exhibition blooms. One of the earliest and most successful of the blue roses that will flower through Summer and Autumn. See: http://rankinsroses.com.au/product/blue-moon/;

BlogModRosesReszd2016-10-29 12.10.20Lolita, Kordes, Germany, 1973 A cross between Hybrid Tea, Colour Wonder and an unknown seedling. Continuous slightly scented apricot flowers, tinged with pink on long straight almost thornless stems. I love it at all stages from the tight bud (photo above) to a high-pointed, classic-shaped rose through to a full bloom showing its stamens;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.25.03Julia’s Rose, Wisbech, UK, 1976: A coppery coffee-coloured rose with a slight scent, which is a cross between two Hybrid Teas, Blue Moon and Dr AJ Verhage;BlogSohoReszd50%late apr 2013 124Double Delight, Swim and Ellis, USA, 1977: A cross between Granada and Garden Party, both Hybrid Teas,  it has creamy-white, highly scented continuous blooms with red edges, but the leaves are susceptible to mildew. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1986. See: http://www.all-my-favourite-flower-names.com/double-delight-rose.html;

The Children’s Rose, Meilland, France, 1995: A cross between (Perfume Delight x Prima Ballerina, both Hybrid Teas) X The Mc Cartney Rose, another Hybrid Tea, this tall robust disease -resistant rose has highly fragrant, fully double fat, soft pink blooms, mainly borne singly, but sometimes in clusters on almost thornless stems. It starts to bloom in the mid-Spring, the flowering being constant throughout the season and right up to Winter pruning. It was introduced in the United States under the name, Frederic Mistral;BlogModRosesReszd20c 2013 202Our Copper Queen, Kordes, Germany, 1996: Tall healthy plant with large, fragrant, deep golden yellow solitary double blooms, borne in flushed throughout the season;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0380BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_4487Ice-Girl, Kordes, Germany, 1997: A cross between Frederic Mistral and Osiana, both Hybrid Teas, this rose has ivory-white, medium, double and quartered blooms in small clusters in flushes throughout the season;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.24.52Best Friend, Meilland, France, 1997: A cross between (Tino Rossi x Rendez-Vous) x  Sonia, all Hybrid Teas, this tall, disease-resistant rose has medium-pink blooms with a fruity fragrance, borne on long strong stems in flushes from late Spring to late Autumn.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.57.36 A perfect rose for floristry, it was named by the RSPCA to honour the unconditional love of man’s best friend (below is another photo of the rose with my best friend, my husband, Ross!) and has been awarded a Gold Medal at the Rome Rose Trials in Italy, and Fragrance Awards at the same trials, as well as at the Nantes Rose Trials and Bagatelle Rose Trials in France; Le Roeulx Rose Trials in Belgium and the Geneva Rose Trials in Switzerland; and lastly,BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.58.02Heaven Scent, Carruth, USA, 2001 A cross between a Floribunda, Blueberry Hill, and a Hybrid Tea, New Zealand, this is a strong tough rose with large highly scented (Damask scent) orchid-pink roses with a darker reverse and slightly frilled petals on long thornless stems, perfect for floral arrangements. It is the pink rose in the foreground. Lolita is the rose in the background.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-06 13.10.49BlogNovGarden20%Reszd2016-11-08 15.27.37On Thursday, I will be discussing the Polyanthas and Floribundas or the Cluster-Flowered Roses, as they are known today.

Oldhouseintheshires

The Wonderful World Of Art: Part Two: Post 1900s

On Tuesday, we explored the beautiful art books concerning artists of the period before the 1900s. This post continues our journey into the wonderful world of art through books about the artists of the Twentieth Century.

Even though the next four artists were born in the mid 1870s and 1880s, they came into their own over the turn of the century, a time of great excitement and hope for the future, when photography was in its infancy and Australia became a nation, achieving their peak fame in  the 1920s. They include: Australian printmaker, Margaret Preston (1875-1963); photographer, Harold Cazneaux (1878-1953), and painter, Elioth Gruner (1882-1939), both of whom were born in New Zealand, but grew up in Australia and  Australian artist, Hilda Rix Nicholas (1884-1961).

Margaret Preston by Elizabeth Butel 1985/ 1995

Well-known for her still life paintings and woodcuts of Australian flora and fauna and one of Australia’s leading Modernists of the early 20th century, Margaret was the most prominent Australian woman artist of the 1920s and 1930s, during which time her designs were used in painting and printmaking, as well as interior decoration, fabric design and even floral arrangements. The cover shows her Self-Portrait 1930.BlogArtBooksReszd30%Image (686)Studying in Munich and Paris, and travelling in Italy, Spain and Holland, between 1903 and 1919,  Margaret was heavily influenced by Japanese art and the Post-Impressionism, Fauvism and Cubism movements of the time. She also attended Roger Fry’s Omega workshops in decorative art in Britain during the First World War. Below is a photo of her, taken in 1930, by my next artist, Harold Cazneaux, titled: Margaret Preston in the Garden, from page 43 of this book.

BlogArtBooksReszd4017-07-30 13.37.02Her works display a love of asymmetry; pattern as a dominant element of design; simplified composition, where natural patterns are so closely observed that they can be broken down into discrete units, as seen in the photo below of The Brown Pot 1940 from page 57; a degree of primitivism; and a great appreciation and love of Australian flora and fauna, as well as the small things of life. BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 13.37.14 Her earlier works show an emotive and sensual use of colour, as seen in the photo below of her hand-coloured woodcut Anemones 1925, from page 32 of the book:BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 13.36.31 but as she progressed, she adopted a more restricted colour range, with a major emphasis on blue and a graphic use of black and white, as shown by this photo of one of my favourite oils: Implement Blue 1927, from page 38:BlogArtBooksReszd3017-07-30 13.36.45This detailed book discusses her early life and the three major phases in her work: the periods from1875 to 1920; 1920 to 1930; and 1924 to 1963; accompanied by a comprehensive bibliography of all her works; newspaper and journal articles; and books and monographs, as well as a catalogue of all her oil paintings; prints (etchings; woodcuts; masonite cuts; screen prints; stencils; and monotypes); fabric designs; ceramics and wood blocks. Here is a photo of one of her works on the cover of the October 1926 issue of magazine, Woman’s World, from p 42:BlogArtBooksReszd20%IMG_0027We feel very lucky to have one of her framed prints,  a hand-coloured woodcut, titled Christmas Bells 1925.BlogArtBooksReszd5017-07-30 13.40.18 For more information  on Margaret Preston, see: http://www.margaretpreston.info/ and https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/?artist_id=preston-margaret.

The Cazneaux Women by Valerie Hill 2000

Another lovely book featuring the monochromatic works of early Australian photographer, Harold Cazneaux (1878-1953) , with their beautiful women subjects , romantic compositions and a wonderful use of light and shade. The book cover features his photo of British artist and theatre designer, Doris Zinkeisen with Her Brushes 1929.BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (683)

I have always loved black-and-white photographs for their focus on design and composition, line and structure (form and shape), pattern and texture, contrast and tonal variations and the play of light and shadow, without the distraction of colour. These elements are superbly illustrated in the dramatic work of contemporary German photographer, Maik Lipp: See http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/01/maik-lipp_n_4019302.html.

While it was the only medium in Cazneaux’s day, when used today, it also lends a timeless or vintage aesthetic to the work, as can be seen in the work featured on this website: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/06/beautiful-black-and-white-photography/, although I still think the subject matter and treatment plays a big part of it too.  Compare the previous two links with  the work of Imogen Cunningham: https://www.imogencunningham.com and Endre Balogh at: http://www.endresphotos.com.

But back to Harold Cazneaux!

While Cazneaux also photographed historic cityscapes, and industrial and landscape aspects, this particular book is devoted to 36 plates of Cazneaux’s women – his wife Winifred and small daughters, Rainbow, Jean and Beryl, as well as stylish portraits of well-known women in the 1920s and 1930s including artist, Margaret Preston, writers Ethel Turner and Theo Proctor, performers, Dame Nellie Melba and Anna Pavlova; and a large number of Sydney social belles. I adore this photo: Bathing Baby 1909 from p 50:BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 13.38.14The plates show the developments in camera art,  as well as women’s fashions and the changing role of women, from the formally posed wet plate images of the 1870s (and earlier albumen prints), through the Pictorial period to the start of Modernism, where Max Dupain and Olive Cotton (see later) made their mark. Here is another favourite photograph by Harold Cazneaux: The Sleeping Child 1914 from page 64.BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 13.38.37We also learn about Harold’s life, his relationships with women and his artistic influences from his parents, Pierce and Emma, both early photographers; stepmother Christina, who nurtured his talent; his wife, Winifred, who trained at the first photographic studio, where he worked; John Kauffmann, who introduced Pictorialism to Australia, and the Sydney Camera Circle of the early 1920s. Harold’s photograph, Rainbow in the Cosmos 1916, from page 62, is delightful!

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His photograph Pergola Pattern 1931, from page 100 shows such a superb mastery of composition, pattern and contrast and the play of light and shadow!BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 13.39.30

The Cazneaux Collection, containing 272 exhibition prints; 200 working photographs and 4300 glass negatives, mainly from 1904 – 1940, as well as his personal papers and letters from 1903 – 1953, is held at the National Library of Australia: See: https://www.nla.gov.au/selected-library-collections/harold-cazneaux-collection.

BlogArtBooksReszd25%IMG_0023I loved the background of the these two photographs: Doris Zinkeisen: New Ideas Portrait with Leaf Background 1929 from page 91 (above); and A Study in Profile 1931 from p 104:BlogArtBooksReszd20%IMG_0025There are also significant collections of his photographs at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra, and the Mitchell Library and Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney. See: https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/?artist_id=cazneaux-harold.

The Art of Elioth Gruner: The Texture of Light by Deborah Clark 2014BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (689)

This cover features Elioth Gruner’s oil painting, titled Thunderstorm 1928.

Elioth Gruner (1882 – 1939 ) was also a master of light and shade, as seen in his very famous painting, displayed in the Art Gallery Of New South Wales: Spring Frost 1919, which introduced me to his work, seen in the poster below. The shafts of sunlight and the steam rising from the bellowing dairy cows can probably be better appreciated by viewing this link: https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/6925/.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 13.48.48We were also lucky enough to attend an exhibition of his work, Elioth Gruner: The Texture of Light, at the Canberra Museum and Gallery in 2014, many of his landscapes painted en plein air from the Sydney to the South Coast of New South Wales, including Cooma and the Monaro; the Canberra region, Yass and the Murrumbidgee River valley and the Southern Highlands, all part of our new home! Is it any wonder that we brought the book based on the exhibition home with us!!BlogArtBooksReszd20%IMG_0032There is even a painting of our old stamping grounds in Northern New South Wales with his painting Shelley Beach, Nambucca Heads 1933 (photo above from page 86), and Winter Afternoon, Bellingen, NSW 1937 , the latter held by our old home art gallery NERAM , which also owns his paintings: Beach Idyll 1934 and The Beach 1918, another personal favourite (seen in the photo below from page 21 of the book)!BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 13.55.28I adore his landscapes depicting pastoral life and the rural homesteads of the period, like Manar, a large cattle and sheep property between Bungendore and Braidwood, seen here in his oil painting, Manar Landscape 1928, the first photo below from page 52 of the book and Autumn, Manar 1939, 2nd photo below, from page 53.BlogArtBooksReszd25%IMG_0028He was obviously very popular in his day, enjoying the support of both conservative and progressive elements of the Sydney art scene, as well as winning the Wynne Prize for landscape painting seven times between 1916 and 1937.BlogArtBooksReszd25%IMG_0031 It was wonderful to see his paintings so closeup, to examine and admire his techniques for reproducing light and shadows, using short, choppy brush strokes and different tones of greens, as exemplified by Morning Light 1916, his first painting to win this award, shown in the photo above from page 26. Spring Frost 1919 was his second Wynne Prize.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 14.06.21Hilda Rix Nicholas: The Man For the Job by the Bendigo Art Gallery 2010

We were also very fortunate to see an exhibition at the Bendigo Art Gallery in 2010 of the works of Australian artist, Hilda Rix Nicholas (1884-1961), who also came to fame in the 1920s, the second Australian artist after Rupert Bunny (who I discussed in the first part of this post last Tuesday) and the first woman to have a solo exhibition in Paris in 1925.BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (690)

She too painted many lovely paintings of life in rural Australia, especially her family property, run by her second husband, Edgar Wright, at Knockalong near Delegate, on the Southern Monaro. I love this painting of His Land 1922-1923 from page 30.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 14.34.14 Other favourites are:  In the Bush 1927, from page 41; BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 14.35.04 Bringing in the Sheep 1936, held by our local art gallery, Bega Valley Regional Gallery, shown on page 54 of the book;

BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 14.35.43 and The Homestead of Tooraloo 1945 from page 60.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-30 14.36.05The book also chronicles her brilliant early career, from 1907 to 1918, in France, Morocco and Italy, marred by the desperate loss of her travel companions, her sister and mother, from illness and the untimely death of her new husband of six weeks on the Western Front in the First World War. For more about Hilda Rix Nicholas, see: http://knockalong.com/?page_id=664.

No discussion of the art world of the 1920s is complete without reference to the Bloomsbury Group, the subject of the next two books:

Charleston: A Bloomsbury House & Garden by Quentin Bell and Virginia Nicholson 1997

The Bloomsbury Group was a very famous name in the British art world, and while most of its members were born in the 1880s, their main flowering came during the 1920s after their move to Charleston in 1916 to escape the horrors of the First World War.BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (696)

This lovely book is an ode to Charleston and all its inhabitants: Vanessa Bell and her husband, Clive (temporarily),  their sons Julian and Quentin, the co-author of this book; Vanessa’s lovers, Roger Fry and Duncan Grant, to whom she bore a daughter, Angelica; David Garnett, Duncan’s homosexual lover, and Clive’s lover, Mary Hutchinson, as well as other members of the Bloomsbury Group: Vanessa’s sister, Virginia Woolf, and husband, Leonard, who lived nearby; Lytton Strachey; Desmond MacCarthy; EM Forster and Maynard Keynes, not to mention chief cook and housekeeper, Grace Higgins.

Starting with a map of the garden and ground plans of each storey of the house and an  introduction with its highly appropriate title: A Vanished World, a chapter devoted to Charleston’s golden age from 1925 to 1937, which was shattered by the death of Vanessa’s son, Julian in the Spanish Civil War, just before the Second World War.

Through the following chapters featuring each room : Clive Bell’s study and bedroom; Vanessa’s bedroom; the spare bedroom; and those of Maynard Keynes and Duncan Grant; the green bathroom; the dining room and kitchen; the library; the studios; the garden room and finally the beautiful garden, Angelica’s ‘earthly paradise’, including the productive Walled Garden and numerous old photographs, we get to know all about their unconventional lives and their art.

It is backed up by the following small paperback:

Charleston: Past and Present  by Quentin Bell, Angelica Garnett, Henrietta Garnet and Richard Shone 1987/ 1993

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This official guide to Charleston also describes the contents of each room, and includes essays on Life at Charleston, including personal letters and memoirs, like the childhood memories of the garden, written by Quentin Bell; and the memoirs of Vanessa’s daughter Angelica and her daughter Henrietta, who recalls her grandmother, ‘Nessa’. It is possible to still visit Charleston. See: https://www.charleston.org.uk/ for details of opening times.

1930 to 1960s

The Boyds by Brenda Niall 2002/ 2007

The Boyd family is a very famous artistic dynasty in Australia, founded by Emma Minnie à Beckett (1858-1936) and her husband Arthur Merric Boyd (1862-1940), whose children also pursued art: William Merric (1888-1959) became a potter; Theodore Penleigh (1890-1923); and Helen à Beckett (1903-1999) were both painters and son, Martin à Beckett (1893-1972) became a writer.

William married a painter, Doris Gough, and raised five talented artists: a potter, Lucy (1916 -2009); sculptor, Guy (1923-1988); and three painters: Arthur (1920-1999); David (1924-2011); and Mary (1926-2017).

They in turn have raised artists like Lucy’s potter son, Robert; Guy’s sculptor daughters, Lenore, Sally and Charlotte; Arthur’s children, Polly, Jamie and Lucy; David’s daughters, Amanda, Lucinda and Cassandra; and Mary’s children by her first husband, John Perceval: Matthew, Tessa, Celia and Alice Perceval, as well as musicians and writers.

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In her fascinating book, Brenda Niall traces the family biography from 1840s Melbourne with convict heiress Emma Mills, who married William, the son of Victoria’s first Chief Justice; her daughter, Emma Minnie, and son-in-law, Arthur Merric Boyd; their children, who grew up at Open Country, Murrumbeena, and  Boyd grand-children, all of whom were famous, especially Arthur.

See the Table of Contents of this book at: https://web.archive.org/web/20060618070355/http://www.mup.unimelb.edu.au/catalogue/0-522-84871-0.html.

This book is so well-written and hard to put down and features many photos of the family and their homes, as well as colour-plates of their artworks!

Open Country, now obliterated by Melbourne suburbia, was the meeting place for many prominent Australian artists in the 1940s and 1950s. See : http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/boyd-familys-murrumbeena-gatherings-a-fount-of-inspiration-for-australian-artists-20141124-11ss2n.html.

Another famous Boyd landmark , which can still be visited, is Arthur Boyd’s property at Bundanon, on the Shoalhaven River, near Nowra, which he bought in 1979 and donated to the Australian people in 1993 and which we visited years ago. It is well worth making the effort to visit, even though opening times are limited and there is a long narrow drive in. It’s wonderful to see his house and studios and the landscape, which inspired him.

It  also includes a huge art collection of over 3 800 items, with more than 1 300 works by Arthur Boyd, over 1 200 works from five generations of the Boyd family dynasty and a number of works by Arthur Boyd’s contemporaries, such as Sidney Nolan, John Perceval, Joy Hester and Charles Blackman, from which regular exhibitions are held,  as well as hosting an artist-in-residence program each year. See: https://bundanon.com.au/ for visiting times.

Olive Cotton by Helen Ennis and the Art Gallery of New South Wales 2000

I love Olive Cotton’s work! Olive Cotton (1911-2003) was one of Australia’s leading twentieth century photographers, whose career spanned six decades from the 1930s to the 1980s. The front cover of the book shows her delightfully titled photograph: Only to Taste the Warmth, the Light, the Wind 1939: BlogArtBooksReszd40%Image (682) This small book, which was produced to accompany an exhibition of her work by the Art Gallery of NSW in 2000,  contains photographs from the 1930s to mid 1940s, when she worked with her first husband, Max Dupain, at his studio in Sydney, as well as work from the 1980s, when she revisited her negatives and her passion for ‘drawing with light’. I love this photograph of a dandelion head, titled: Seedhead 1990 from page 59.BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 17.53.50Her photographs display her great love for nature, as seen in her landscapes and flower studies; her keen observational powers; her wide range of subject matter; her fluidity of style, moving freely between Pictorialism, the style perfected by her predecessor, Harold Cazneaux (see above), and Modernism; and her great love of the photographic medium.

BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 17.55.03Her photographs are so beautiful and almost like paintings eg Interior (My Room) 1933, shown above, from page 13, and Cardboard Design 1935, shown below from page 25:

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I also love Tea Cup Ballet 1935, a different take on the same subject matter of Margaret Preston’s  Implement Blue 1927, shown below, from page 24;BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-30 17.54.50

Jean-Lorraine By Candlelight 1943, from page 37;

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and The Sleeper 1939, shown below from page 31:

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Margaret Olley by Barry Pearce 1996

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Another famous Australian artist, Margaret Olley (1923-2011) came to fame from the 1950s and 1960s on and is still very popular today. The book cover features one of her early works: Portrait in the Mirror 1948. The photo below is of one of her very famous paintings: Afternoon Interior with Cornflowers 1990, from page 103.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.06.33 I adore her still-lifes and rich, cluttered interiors, full of colour, vases of flowers and vintage objects and furniture. I just love the colours in her painting Chianti Bottle and Pomegranates 1994-1995 (photograph from page 112):BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.05.59 This book traces her life, her travels and her work, reproduced in the numerous full colour plates in this lovely book. The mask in the photo below, painted in her Interior IV 1970, page 59 of the book, bears testament to her three trips to Papua New Guinea between 1965 and 1968.

BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.07.50 I love the lemons tumbling out of the basket in  Lemons 1964, the photo from page 51. BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.08.23 They were such comfortable homey interiors too like Yellow Tablecloth with Cornflowers 1995, photograph taken from page 126 of the book.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.05.27 In fact, I could own any one of her works. They are all so beautiful, as well as probably being very pricey these days! Another favourite for its rich warm colours is Clivias 1984, photograph from page 97 of the book. I just love that kelim!!!BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.06.53Fortunately, she left her possessions to the Tweed Regional Gallery at Murwillimbah, so we were able to visit the Margaret Olley Art Centre during our recent trip to Brisbane, a wonderful treat! The first photo below is The Chinese Screen 1994-1995 from page 10, while the last photo is Yellow Room with Lupins II 1994-1995 from page 122.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.08.47 The centre also includes a recreation of key areas of her famous home studio at 48 Duxford Street, Paddington, Sydney : the Hat Factory (living room, dining room and  kitchen) and Yellow Room, all built to scale, with original architectural elements like windows, doors and fireplaces, and over 20 000 items, collected by Margaret over many years as subject matter for her paintings. See: http://artgallery.tweed.nsw.gov.au/VisitUs and http://artgallery.tweed.nsw.gov.au/MargaretOlleyArtCentre.

BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.05.17Finally, some books about some contemporary artists among the Baby Boomers, all of whom have a deep affection for Australia and its amazing flora and fauna!

Criss Canning: The Pursuit of Beauty by David Thomas 2008BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (688)

The book cover above features Still Life with Poppy Cedric Morris 2007.

Criss Canning’s art is very similar in style, talent and subject matter to Margaret Olley. In fact, Margaret Olley was a close friend and supportive mentor and in 1999, Margaret actually bought one of Criss’s paintings : Waratah in a Green Jug 1999, seen below from page 139 in the book and donated it to the Art Gallery of New South Wales.  See: http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/4417688/olleys-living-legacy/ and https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/61.2000/.

BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-31 11.01.42I first discovered Criss Canning, when she visited my garden club in Armidale with her husband David Glenn, of Lambley Nursery fame. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/03/08/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-nursery-gardens-in-victoria/.

Her love of native Australian flora can be seen in her painting titled: Winter Banksia 2001 from page 155.BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-31 11.02.09This beautiful coffee table book was written and published to coincide with her retrospective exhibition at Ballarat Fine Art Gallery in 2007 and it certainly does justice to all her wonderful sumptuous paintings with full page colour plates in glossy paper. Below is another ode to Australian flora: Gum Blossom 1995, photo from page 123.BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-31 11.01.25David Thomas traces her life from her birth in 1947, exactly one month before my husband (!), and childhood in Laburnum, near Blackburn, a suburb of Melbourne, which was then rural acreage; her struggles as a single mother of two young children; her sojourn on the island of Rhodes in Greece, inspired by Charmaine Clift; her marriage and life with David Glenn in Ascot, near Ballarat, and her later more minimalist works, influenced by  her love of  Japanese artseen in Freesia’s and Japanese Tea Service 1996 from page 175 and the geometric designs of Charles Rennie Mackintosh.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.01.11I adore her beautiful floral studies: their rich colour; bold composition; strong patterns and dramatic contrast and flowing textile backdrops, as can be seen in her paintings titled: Black and White 1999, the first photo below from page 77 and Arthur Merric Boyd Coffee Set 2003, the second photo below from page 160.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.00.52BlogArtBooksReszd20%IMG_0044I love her talented portrayal of metal surfaces and her patterned backgrounds, as seen in the first photo below: Silver Reflections 2003 from page 162 and the silver tray in the second photo below: Native Flowers and Silver Tray 2001 from page 149,BlogArtBooksReszd20%IMG_0045BlogArtBooksReszd2517-07-31 11.01.54As well as her wonderful sense of colour, as seen in Poppies 1987 from page 43.BlogArtBooksReszd25%IMG_0047 To see more of her work, visit her site at: http://crisscanning.com.au/.

Salvatore Zofrea: Days of Summer by Anne Ryan 2009BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (693)

This lovely book features the work of Salvatore Zoffrea, an Italian-Australian printmaker, who produces beautiful woodcuts of Australian flora and the bush. The book cover features his woodcut: Mountain Devil Grevillea with Eggs and Bacon Pea, Native Iris and Kunzea, while the photo below shows Bowerbirds with Native Irises and Eggs and Bacon Pea from page 43.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 10.59.57 Like Criss Canning, he was also influenced heavily by Japanese art, especially its traditional Japanese woodcuts, as well as European art. I love his delightful work: Tea Tree with Bronze Pigeon in the photo below, taken from page 39.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.00.06 I love his attention to detail, the busyness of his designs, his use of colour or lack of colour, his sense of wonder at the beauty and abundance of the Australian bush and his underlying message of the importance of conservation and sustainability. The photo below is a closeup of a double page spread, page 62 and 63, featuring his large woodcut, 3 metres long, titled: Bellbirds at Kurrajong, which was made by carving nine blocks of marine plywood and was his artistic response to a local incident at Mandeni, near Merimbula, where a bellbird population was culled due to their destruction of eucalyptus trees. Little did we realize that five years later we would be living in the area!BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.00.25 We felt so lucky to see these wonderful prints by chance when passing through Wagga Wagga in 2010. See: http://www.wagga.nsw.gov.au/art-gallery/exhibitions-landing/past-exhibitions/exhibitions-2010/salvatore-zofrea-days-of-summer); http://mrag.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/ZofreaProposal_sml.pdf and http://mrag.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/ZofreaEdKit_11_01_10.pdf.

Byron Portfolio: An Artist’s Response to the Byron Shire  by Karen Wynn-Moylan 1989BlogArtBooksReszd25%Image (691)Another environmental artist, whose work I love is Karen Wynn-Moylan, also known as Karena Wynn-Moylan. Her book cover features her watercolour, View From Honeysuckle to Tallows Beach, a familiar scene from coastal holidays in the area many years ago.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 10.58.11Karen works in a variety of media: watercolours, oils, acrylics and pastels – to record and celebrate the beauty of the unique flora and fauna of her subtropical home environment in the Byron Shire, as well as encourage an appreciation of the environment and the need for conservation. Her love of her local rainforest can be seen in the photo above of her watercolour painting, The Clearing, page 43, while her pastel, Sunsoaked, on page 7, portrays a subject matter typical of the local area!BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 10.59.35 I love The Flowering Beach, a mixed media painting on page 21, the fine dots of colour so typical of the Australian bush.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 10.59.11 Nasturtiums (Mullumbimby Laneway), labelled The Nasturtians in the book on page 29 and seen in the photo below, reminds me of our holidays at Hat Head with its old-fashioned dirt lane ways, lined with bougainvillea and frangipanis, wooden sheds and garages and leaning wooden fences, trailing with nasturtiums.

BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 10.58.56 For a look at her work, see: http://www.karenawynn-moylan.bravehost.com/.  As a Tasmanian, I really loved her new oil: Summer Above the Snowline: Mt Wellington, at: http://www.karenawynn-moylan.bravehost.com/newwork.html.

The final artist in this post, Michael Leunig, also has much to say about our treatment of the environment, as well as each other, as can be seen in the following book:

The Michael Leunig Collection: Favourite Paintings and Drawings by Michael Leunig 1991BlogArtBooksReszd30%Image (695)Born in 1945, Michael Leunig is a much-loved and well-known cartoonist with delightfully quirky characters, who highlight the absurdities of life, and wonderfully whimsical poetry. The book cover features his well-known cartoon, The Kiss 1985.BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.04.10His work is just so much fun and he addresses serious issues with a humorous light-hearted approach, which is very effective, as seen in the photo above of his cartoon, Plastic Shopping Bags in Autumn 1989 from page 22, though we are only just starting to address the issue in 2017! BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.03.57I love his characters, Mr Curly and Vasco Pyjama, as well as the small things of life:  his ducks, houses, teapots and angels. The photo above is Mr Curly Comes Home 1973, from page 30, while the colour photograph below is the book cover for The Travelling Leunig, published by Penguin in 1990, and reproduced on page 112 of this book. BlogArtBooksReszd2017-07-31 11.04.58This book is a taster to some of his most famous drawings. We own a number of his books, and his work also appears regularly in the Melbourne Age and the Sydney Morning Herald, as well as a free annual calendar. For more on his work, see: http://www.leunig.com.au/.

I will finish this post  with one of his delightful prayers from his website :

Dear God,

We rejoice and give thanks for earthworms,
bees, ladybirds and broody hens;
for humans tending their gardens, talking to animals,
cleaning their homes and singing to themselves;
for rising of the sap, the fragrance of growth,
the invention of the wheelbarrow and the existence of the teapot,
we give thanks. We celebrate and give thanks.

Amen.