Books on Papercraft: Part Two: Origami and Paperfolding; Making Models/ Flowers/ Toys and Decorations; Papier-mâché and Papermaking

Last week, we examined some of the wonderful books describing general paper craft, in particular, those involving cutting : Papercutting; Silhouettes and Découpage. This week, we are focusing on Paper folding and origami; Constructing models, toys, games and decorations from paper, Papier-mâché and finally, the craft of making handmade paper!

Origami and Paper Folding

When one thinks of paper crafts, one of the first ones which springs to mind is the art of origami, which derives from the Japanese words: ‘ori’ meaning ‘to fold ‘and ‘kami’ ‘meaning ‘paper’. While paper folding itself probably started earlier in China, origami originated in Japan in the 6th Century, after paper was introduced to Japan by Buddhist monks. In 1797, the first known origami book was published in Japan: Senbazuru Orikata by Akisato Rito, though it was more about cultural customs and the Legend of the Thousand Cranes, in which the maker of 1000 paper cranes will have their heart’s desire come true.BlogPaperPost2514-03-22 09.14.09 I didn’t quite get there with my paper crane mobile, which I made out of Japanese papers, seen in the photo below, and hung from an old shuttle for my friend Heather to celebrate the launch of her Saori weaving business, Art Weaver, in March 2014.BlogPaperPost2514-03-22 08.42.36 Saori weaving  also originated in Japan and Heather is the Melbourne agent. See: http://artweaverstudio.com.au/. Here are some photos of the finished mobile!

The modern form of origami was developed and popularised by Akira Yoshizawa (1911-2005), including the technique of wet-folding and the use of a set of universally recognised symbols for instruction, the Yoshizawa–Randlett system. Dotted and dashed lines represented mountain and valley folds, and Yoshizawa also created symbols for ‘inflate’ and ‘round’. These symbols and folding techniques are discussed in the next book, also written by a Japanese origami expert, who originally studied under Yoshizawa, but progressed to develop his own style.

Creative Origami by Kunihiko Kasahara 1967

My first book of origami, this is a great basic guide to the artform, with 100 patterns for creating birds, animals, insects, marine life, flora, masks and people. I have used it quite a bit over the years. In the back of the book, Kasahara also discusses the nature of creativity, especially in relation to origami, as well as the basic folds, framework and compounds. For more on the author, see: http://www.britishorigami.info/academic/lister/kasahara.php.

You can also find excellent patterns online at sites like: https://www.origami-resource-center.com/free-origami-instructions.html; http://www.origami-fun.com/free-origami-instructions.html and https://origami.me/diagrams/.

It is also well worth looking at the art of  origami masters like Robert J Lang at : http://www.langorigami.com/, especially: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NYKcOFQCeno. Absolutely mind-blowing!

The artwork of other contemporary practitioners can be seen on: https://mymodernmet.com/contemporary-origami-artists/.

I would also love to see the documentary Between the Folds one day. See: https://www.betweenthefolds.com/.

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The Ultimate Papercraft and Origami Book by Paul Jackson and Angela A’Court 1992

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Children may find the origami patterns in this book slightly easier to follow, as this particular book is very much directed at a younger audience. My children used this book to develop their paper craft skills, including making wrapping paper, gift boxes, gift tags, cards (see photo of my daughter’s homemade cards below) and envelopes, party hats, masks, desk sets, kites, mobiles and decorations, pantins and paper dolls, paper flowers, papier-mâché models and even Easter baskets, Christmas crackers and Advent calendars.BlogPaperPost5012-12-20 19.27.09BlogPaperPost5012-12-20 19.27.34There are also some wonderful websites on origami and YouTube clips make it all so much easier! I had a lovely day teaching Zoë to make an origami cat, fox and mice bookmarks, which can be found on the following websites:

http://make-origami.com/easy-origami-cat/;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGJv9eHwoMs;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajPnqLqvqqM.

BlogPapercraft2016-01-01 01.00.00-23 (2)Folded Secrets: Paper Folding Projects Books One to Four.

I also own a series of books based on Chinese paper folding by Ruth Smith, who describes how to make ‘Zhen Xian Bao’ or Needle Thread Pockets, an ancient traditional art in South West China practised by the Miao, Dong and other minorities. See: http://www.tribaltextiles.info/community/viewtopic.php?t=1249&sid=dba0d7a0a57d924a2077acf54ca74eb0.

Ruth has an article about these pockets on: http://www.foldingdidactics.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/zhen_xian_beyo.pdf, but it is well worth purchasing her books, so you can work your way through all her projects of increasing complexity. I had to email Ruth to buy this books at : eruthsmith@btinternet.com. Hopefully, the email address is still current.

I found these little pockets fascinating and the instructions very clear and easy to follow. After practising the basic technique with brown paper and making this Folded Secrets Book with 15 Compartments,BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 11.06.06

I made Square Mini Books for Christmas gifts (Book One),BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.12.49BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.13.40BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.13.52 my skills culminating in the Folded Secrets Advent Calendar for 2012 (Book Four).BlogPaperPost5012-12-01 06.59.52

Each pocket held a tiny gift or a rhyming clue for a treasure hunt to locate larger objects.BlogPaperPost5012-11-27 11.49.03

There are also instructions for making interesting cards and beautiful gift boxes in Book Two.  I would love to try making the Star Fold Pockets one day!

Paper Toys, Games, Models and  Decorations

Childhood Games and Toys

Some of our earliest experiences with paper, at least when I was growing up, are paper chains and dressing up paper dolls, so I have included the following three books.

Vanishing Animal Paper Chains: A Complete Kit by Stewart and Sally Walton 1996

Using 12 animal stencils and patterned paper provided in the book, the authors give simple instructions for making paper chains, which can then be used to make cards, masks, calendars, games, wall friezes, t-shirt stencils and even a safari game park. The inset boxes teach children about the different rare animals from rhinos, mountain gorillas and snow leopards to giant anteaters, Arabian oryx and dhole, the wild dog of East Asia and India.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.41.37

I also used to love dressing paper dolls, with their little tabs which bent over the background figure, usually at the shoulders. I don’t know that they are available anymore or if kids would still enjoy them. Remember we are talking about pre-computer days!!!

Fashion Paper Dolls From ‘ Godey’s Lady’s Book’ 1840-1854 by Susan Johnston 1977

Godey’s Lady’s Book was published in America and was the most influential women’s magazine of  the 19th century. See: http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/serial?id=godeylady and  http://www.accessible-archives.com/collections/godeys-ladys-book/.

It provided its readers with needlework projects, household hints and recipes, as well as hand-tinted fold-outs, showing the latest fashions. This book contains seven fashion paper dolls, each with its own wardrobe, with 50 costumes in all.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.42.19

Paper Doll Portrait: Antique German Bisque Dolls by Peggy Jo Rosamond 1985

Peggy Jo Rosamond is a serious antique doll collector, including the German Bisque dolls, as well as paper dolls. This book combines her interests, featuring six original paper dolls with authentic period costumes from the 1920s. Once made and dressed, they can be assembled in a ‘Portrait in the Park’ tableau.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 09.42.13

As children, we also used to make houses out of shoe boxes, cutting doors and four-paned windows and decorating the insides with patterned paper and homemade furniture made from matchboxes. Making cardboard models and dioramas is an excellent way to develop children’s  imagination and creativity, as well as their eye-hand coordination skills. The following two books have taken on this concept, though really are an extension of the paper doll world. I still prefer the originality of homemade versions, even though these miniature worlds are very cute!!

Mouse’s Christmas Tree : A Cutout Model Book  by Michelle Cartlidge 1985

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Instead of dressing paper dolls, this book decorates a Christmas tree for carol-singing mice, complete with decorations, candles, stockings, paper chains and gift boxes, while

Little Boxes: A Cutout Model Book by Michelle Cartlidge 1983

Is based on a collection of little boxes, each containing a miniature stand-up scene: a puppet show; sweet shop; rabbits playing by moonlight; a ballet class for mice; sailing boats on the sea; bunnies in bed; and a mouse house with four rooms.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.42.33

Having developed box-making skills with the latter book, the next two books extends the artform with 15 very beautiful gift boxes of a variety of unusual shapes and 8 mathematical models to cut out and assemble.

The Gift Box Book by Gerald Jenkins and Anne Wild 1999

This lovely book, aimed at 9 to 12 year olds, but really appropriate for any age group, contains 11 gift boxes, including a Flower Basket; a hexagonal English Rose Box; Pandora’s Box; Black Diamond Box; a pentagonal Mosaic Box; a triangular Lilac Box; Green Crystal Box; Rocket Box; Tent of Paradise Box; Lady Eleanor’s Casket; and the Fibonacci Box, and four boxes to colour yourself : Cottage Box; Sailing Ship Box; Rainbow Box; and Butterfly Box; as well as instructions for designing and making your own gift boxes, including cube-shaped boxes with attached lids; treasure chests; tent boxes (like Toblerone chocolate boxes); circular boxes with a separate lid and boxes with sloping sides.

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Make Shapes: Series No. 2: 8 Mathematical Models to Cut Out, Glue and Decorate by Gerald Jenkins and Anne Wild  1978

If your appetite is whetted for making increasingly complex shapes, this book is ideal for you! Plans are provided for a Great Dodecahedron; a Great Stellated Dodecahedron, a Rhombicosidodecahedron; an Icosidodecahedron;  a Compound of Five Tetrahedra; an Octahedran Cross; a Third Stellation of Icosahedron; and a Faceted Cube. In the back are notes about decorating these shapes. I must admit, we never did get round to making these models, but they look stunning and maybe, I will make up the Third Stellation of Icosahedron, the Great Dodecahedron or a Great Stellated Dodecahedron for Christmas one day! There is an earlier book in the series with slightly simpler models, which might be a bit easier for us!!!BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.42.49

Another childhood activity was making huge concertina-folded crepe paper flowers and may have more appeal than mathematical models! While my childhood blooms were very dramatic and simple, the following book has a more modern and sophisticated approach with a huge variety of paper flowers.

Fanciful Paper Flowers: Creative Techniques for Crafting an Enchanted Garden by Sandra Evertson 2007

Using 10 different techniques and the beautiful vintage papers and ephemera provided, Sandra has instructions for 30 projects from simple bouquets, garlands and wreaths, and floral baubles and window decorations; to tiaras and brooches and even shoe clips and hat pins.BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 09.42.56The next two books are wonderful sources of inspiration for adults with the paper bug!

Paper Bliss: Projects and Musings on Life in the Paper Lane by Skye Rogers 2012

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Using 10 templates printed on the inside of the book cover, 8 handmade specialty papers, specially designed by Skye, and recycled waste paper, this lovely book describes 29 projects, including milk carton vases; papier-mâché bowls; book sculptures; paper boxes and houses; mobiles and wreaths; books, envelopes and cards; stamp artwork; paper dolls and roses; articulated figures; twirling hearts; découpage drawers; and shadow treasure boxes. Here is a photo of my decoupaged drawers, which hold all my treasures!BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.03.48

In the front are notes on the basic tool kit, basic techniques and a recipe for homemade glue, while inspiring books and magazines, websites and paper artists and Australian supply sources are listed in the back. A relatively recent purchase, I look forward to making some of these projects! For more about Skye, see her website at: https://www.skyesthelimit.com.au/.

Playing With Books: The Art of Upcycling, Deconstructing, and Reimagining The Book by Jason Thompson 2010

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As an avid reader and book collector, I am in two minds about Altered Books, sometimes known as bibliovandalism, or indeed using books as a material for any paper project! My feelings are  a bit akin to the same thoughts I have about tearing colour-plates out of old vintage books and framing them as separate pictures!

Nevertheless, I still have a sneaky admiration for artworks created from old books and given the huge numbers of books, which might otherwise be tossed in the dump, especially during our love affair and transition to the digital world, it is a way of recycling them and giving them a second life. Here are some photos of the recycled paper objects I own: a flower and bird made from old music scores and wrapped pencils.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 08.32.45BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 08.34.11BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 08.33.27The introductory pages describe:

Materials: Adhesives, tapes and cutting tools;

Basic Techniques: Laminating; papier-mâché; decoupage; folding books; rolling and beading;

Anatomy of the Book; and Sources of Books.

After the introduction, there are instructions for 28 projects, including:

Gift Boxes, Gift Wrapping Paper, Ribbons and Bows, Gift Tags, Cards, Postcards and Letters;

Book Bags, Pocket Books, Business Card Holders and Book Jacket Wallets;

Paper Houses; Beads; Necklaces,  Flowers and Wreaths;

Coasters;

Pencil Holders and Woven Basket Cases;

Ornaments and Mobiles;

Papier-mâché Mushrooms and Birds;

And Sculptured Apples, though I own a Paper Pear.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 08.36.15 The final section of the book showcases the profiles and work of a number of Paper Artists, Some of my favourites are:

Nicholas Jones: http://www.bibliopath.org/;

Su Blackwell: https://www.sublackwell.co.uk/;

Brian Dettmer: http://briandettmer.com/;

Guy Laramee: http://www.guylaramee.com/ and http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2017/05/magnificent-new-carved-book-landscapes-and-architecture-by-guy-laramee/;

Jennifer Khoshmin: http://www.jenkhoshbin.com/;

Kelly Murray: https://mymodernmet.com/kelly-murray-jolis-paons-paper-dress/;  and

Tracey Bush: http://www.traceybush.com/home.

Papier- mâché and Paper Pulping

Paper into Pots And Other Fun Objects: Using Hand-made Recycled Paper And Papier- mâché  Techniques by Gerry Copp 1994

Papier-mâché is the ultimate recycling technique. It differs to sculpting with paper pulp in that it is a laminating technique, in which layers of torn pasted paper are slowly built up on a mould to create the object, where as with paper pulping, paper is shredded, soaked, blended and combined with wallpaper paste, then pressed or shaped over a mould. I love the papier-mâché dragon, which my youngest daughter made at school.BlogPaperPost2518-02-25 12.20.09The author discusses both  the layering and pulp methods to cast from a mould and create a base, as well as making colourful handmade paper for creating surface pattern. There are some beautiful projects in this inspiring book, including bowls, goblets, jewellery, mirrors and frames, clocks and boxes and sculptures.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.43.09

Hand-Made Paper Making

Finally, a book on making handmade paper itself !

Handmade Papermaking For Beginners by Kayes Van Bodegraven 1977/1981BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 09.43.37

I bought this book and my mould and deckle after a hobby course in handmade paper making during my university studies. It was great fun and very satisfying turning recycled waste paper into new handmade paper. We used an attachment to an electric drill to create paper pulp, then used a mould and deckle to collect and sieve the paper pulp out of the water to form a thin wet layer of paper, which is then dried.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 09.44.16

We learnt how to emboss the paper and create watermarks, as well as incorporate other natural fibres or confetti to decorate the surface.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.34.50 My only reservation was the texture created by the chux superwipes we used between the papers!BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.34.59 Here are more photos of some of the papers I made.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.33.05BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.31.17In his book, Kayes discusses the history of papermaking; the raw materials required; how to make the pulp; using a mould and deckle and pressing and drying the paper; embossing and incorporating other fibres; polishing paper; watermarks; paper absorbency; paper sizes, making envelopes (see photo of envelope moulds below); testing paper for wood components; and care of equipment, as well as including a glossary of papermaking terms.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.12.00Next week, it’s back to our monthly feature plants with a post on one of my favourite plants: Dianthus.

Books on Papercraft: Part One: General Papercraft; Papercutting and Silhouettes; and Découpage

The art of papercraft originated in China, where paper was invented in 105 AD and encompasses a huge variety of forms from papercutting and silhouettes to collage and découpage, card and book making, quilling, altered books, origami and paperfolding, making models/ flowers/ toys and decorations, papier-mâché and even handmade papermaking itself. This enormous diversity, coupled with the relative cheapness of and the sheer beauty of  the materials themselves, makes it a very popular art form with many people, including myself, so I possess a number of general and specific paper-oriented books in my craft library, which I have divided into two posts:

Part One: General Papercraft; Papercutting and Silhouettes; and Découpage; and

Part Two: Origami and Paperfolding; Making models/ flowers/ toys and decorations, Papier-mâché and Papermaking.

Please note both spellings: papercutting and paper cutting are used to describe this artform. In this post, I have tended to use the same spelling as used in each book on the subject.

Below is a photo of some of the beautiful textured papers available these days for papercraft! They inspire one to start making paper projects immediately!BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.11.20General Papercraft

A Complete Guide to Papercraft by Carson Ritchie 1978

This fascinating small guide traces the History of Papercrafts from Chinese, Turkish and European papercuts;  Victorian silhouettes and Mary Delaney’s floral collages to model theatres and paper sculpture. The author covers paper types and storage; tools (scissors, craft knives; punches; tweezers; rulers, set squares, compasses and brushes); and adhesives and paints in his chapter on Studio, Materials and Equipment.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.08.52Our first experiences with paper occur in childhood and Chapter Three describes a variety of Paper Toys, which you may remember: Thaumatropes (spinning pictures); Swingers and Spinners; Pantins ( with movable limbs) like the Paper Owl, which my daughter sent me from Germany, in the photo below; Trick and Illusion Pictures, including Three Way Pictures; Shadowgraphs; Pop-Up Books; and Peep Shows.

Next is a series of chapters dedicated to describing specific papercrafts in more detail:

Silhouettes ; Chinese Papercuts; Western Papercuts, which are totally different to the Chinese forms, in that they are usually symmetrical and often multi-coloured, including French Découpage and Polish Wycinanki; and Collage (Assemblages: Montages and Gravure Assemblages; Tinsel Prints; Flower Mosaics and miniature Amelias; Found Paper Collages) and Stamping.

Further chapters feature: Pin Prick; Quilling (or Rolled Paper Craft); and Tole (3-D Papercraft) eg Peep Shows; Model Theatres and Shadow Boxes.

The final chapter discusses Specialised Techniques like Paper Dyeing; Marbling; Gilding; Paper Tearing; Frottage; Paper Sculpture and Models; and Stencil Work.

While being an old book now, it is an excellent introduction to papercraft, with clear instructions, black-and-white photographs and diagrams and lots of inspiration for further exploration! It is also valuable as a guide to older, more historical techniques.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.37.50

The New Encyclopaedia of Origami and Papercraft Techniques by Ayako Brodek and Claire Waite Brown 2011

This more modern guide to papercraft is more extensive in the range of paper crafts it describes, as well as having colour photographs; examples by contemporary  paper artists; and more detailed step-by-step instructions for specific projects.

After an introduction covering the different kinds of papers for each technique and a discussion of paper weight and grain, the book is divided into 11 units, each containing a brief history, a description of paper types and materials required, specific methods and variations, examples of each technique in the artwork of contemporary artists and a project to practice the technique. They include:

Origami: Symbols; Basic Folds; Geometric Divisions; Bases; Decorative/ Functional/ Modular and Action Designs. Projects include: Cranes; Iris; Balloon; Boat; Butterflies; Snails; Egg Stand; Picture Frame; Antiprisms; Flapping Bird and Hungry Crow. Below is a photo of some paper cranes, which I made from this book, as a practice run for the paper crane mobile, which I describe in my post next week.BlogPaperPost2514-03-22 09.08.25

Pop-Ups: Incised; Multi-Pieced; and Boxes. Project: Pop-Up Spider Card;

Paper Sculpture: Cones and Cylinders; Decorative Forms; Assembly and Armatures. Project: Owl;

Bookbinding: Book Block; Hard and Soft Covers; Single Section/ Multi-Section/ and Stab Binding; Project: Concertina Book;

Quilling: Shapes; Applications: Flowers; Combining Elements; and Glueing. Project: Keepsake Box;

Weaving: Designs: Plain/Irregular/Tumbling Block and 3-D. Project: Woven Paper Bowl;

Papercutting: Techniques: Symmetrical Cutting; Detailed Shapes; Layering; and Shadow Silhouetting. Project: Paper Cut Window Hanging;

Collage: Cutting and Pasting; Composition; and Overlayering. Project: Painted Paper Collage;

Papier-mâché: Casting From Found/ Modelling Clay and Plaster Moulds; Decorative Ideas: Sealing with Primer; Varnishes; Texture; and Gold Leaf;

Paper Pulping: Preparing Pulp; Applications: Using Cardboard Base; Casting a Plate; or Using Other Moulds; and even…

Paper-Making: Making Pulp: Recycled Paper; Plant Fibre; and Pulp Pigmentation; Making Paper: Couching Pad; Pulling a Sheet; and Couching; Pressing and Drying; and Decorative Techniques: Embedding: Laminating and Inclusions; Embossing and Painting with Pulp; and finally, Papermaking Recipes: Recycled Paper Samplers; Paper from Home; Pigmenting Papers; Embedding (Laminating and Inclusions); Embosssing; Painting with Pulp; and Plant Pulps, including grass and carrot tops!BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 09.37.37Papercutting and Silhouettes

I have always loved the look of papercutting, ever since we were introduced to this ancient craft in the early 1990s by the exquisite art works of Brigitte Stoddart, a number of which we bought during our time in Tasmania. I love her symmetry, intricate fine detail, her traditional style, heavily influenced by Polish, German and French papercutting, with its distinctive Australian flavour and her portrayal of the innocence of childhood, as can be seen in the photo below.BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 11.23.43Brigitte used a scalpel and small scissors to cut her design from a single piece of black acid fast paper, occasionally using coloured paper behind the black and then, she, her husband and two daughters would each take a corner and very carefully lay it flat on the glued surface of the mount! Such painstakingly precise work requiring so much patience! I adored her papercut of the three children, who mirrored the interests of and thus represented our three children, who were at a similar age at the time of purchase.

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Brigitte’s papercut designs are also featured in a book we bought for our children:  Okra and Acacia: The Story of the Wattle Pattern Plate by Libby Hathorn  2002.BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 09.38.03While I could not find much of an online presence, she does have some work on Etsy:  https://www.etsy.com/listing/236698379/boxed-set-of-8-papercut-print-cards, which we also own and which show some of her coloured work.BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 11.20.50She has also written her own book on the subject: Papercutting 1973, unfortunately now out-of-print, but available at: https://www.amazon.com/Papercutting-Brigitte-Stoddart/dp/0800862473.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 11.21.24

The photos above and below are some more of her cards, which we also own:BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 11.19.40Other  contemporary artists are featured in my first book on this subject:

Paper Cutting: Contemporary Artists; Timeless Craft Compiled by Laura Heyenga 2011

Paper cutting started in China after 600 CE and was used to decorate doors and windows with assymetrical designs of animals; flowers; landscapes and narratives. It really developed as an art form in Japan’s Edo period (1615-1868), with symmetrical mon kiri, as well as in 11th century Turkey, where it was used to create shadow theatres. It was also practised in Poland (Wycinanki), Germany (Scherenschnitte); Holland (Knippen) and Switzerland (Marques) and is closely related to art of Silhouettes, popular in the 17th and 18th century.

It has experienced a revival worldwide with the work of the contemporary artists showcased in this lovely book, with their biographies in the back. While all of them are amazing, my particular favourites include:

Peter Callesen http://www.petercallesen.com/;

Heather Moore https://skinnylaminx.com/2008/02/12/a-cut-tut/ and http://www.molliemakes.com/interview-2/mollie-makes-meets-heather-moore-of-skinny-laminx/;

Nicky McClure http://nikkimcclure.com/;

Su Blackwell  https://www.sublackwell.co.uk/;

Cindy Ferguson  http://papercutting.blogspot.com.au/ and http://www.hedgehogwelfare.org/newsletters/volume48.pdf;

Helen Musselwhite http://helenmusselwhite.com/;

Rob Ryan http://robryanstudio.com/;

Beatrice Coron http://www.beatricecoron.com/;

Emily Hogarth http://emilyhogarth.com/;      and

Elsa Mora http://www.elsamora.net/  (current website )and http://elsita.typepad.com/elsita/papercuts-by-elsa-mora.html (older work).

Other excellent sites about paper cutting by Elsa Mora  include: http://www.allaboutpapercutting.com/;

https://www.flickr.com/photos/planetelsita/sets/72157665847183751/with/25758401536/ and

http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2013/11/cut-paper-sculptures-and-illustrations-by-elsa-mora/.

BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.38.12While this book and websites are so inspirational, it is also good to have some practical how-to guides on the subject and I have four suggestions for you:

Cut Paper Silhouettes and Stencils: An Instruction Book by Christian Rubi 1970

Featuring many traditional designs, floral motifs, woven designs, beautiful silhouettes and stencil designs, this lovely old book provides patterns and instructions for papercutting designs to be used for door plates and knockers; coats of arms; covers and opening pages of books and photo albums; invitations, letter paper and cards; invoices, bequests and birth certificates; and calligraphy; as well as information on sharpening mat knives; the principles of silhouette composition; and making, transferring and fixing stencils, preparing transparent glazes, stencil paintings, multi-coloured stencils and  using letters and numerals.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.38.25

I love the unusual designs and sense of history conveyed by this book. Below is a photo of one of the intricate designs I drew from this book.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.38.40The Craft of Paper Cutting by Angelika Hahn 1996

More modern in feel, this simple little book discusses the History, Materials and Basic Skills, including :

Cutting from Folded Paper;

Medallion Cuts;

Repeat-Pattern Cuts;

Negative Paper Cutting;

Silhouette Cuts; and

Framing.

It also features a Gallery of Paper Cuts with Designs for Children; Fairy Tales; Circus and Theatre; Impressions of Nature; City and Countryside; Famous Heads; People at Work; On Land and Water; Festivals; Chinese Paper Cuts; Romance; Ornamental Patterns, including rosettes, brooches and borders; Contemporary Paper Cuts; Miniatures and the Animal World.

In the back of the book are over 100 designs to trace and cut to make life easy!BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.39.11Silhouettes by Sharyn Sowell 2009

Another excellent guide covering the Basics: Tools; Supplies; Getting Started; Design Basics; and Mounting and Making Silhouettes, using four simple methods: Casting a Shadow; Using a Digital Camera; Cutting or Drawing Your Own Freehand Design and Using Pre-exisiting Patterns.

The rest of the book contains 88 patterns and instructions for 24 projects, including: Cushion covers, lampshades and curtains; Napkin rings, place mats and coasters; Clock faces, storage jars and serving trays; Coat hooks and chalkboards; Wall and shelf friezes; Artworks and photo mats; Storage boxes; Cards and ribbon; Book pages and travel logs; Office décor; and even, Christmas ornaments. It is a great book for ideas for using silhouette designs.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.39.17And finally, the newest addition to my craft library concerning this subject:

Cut Up This Book: Special Occasions: Step-by-Step Instruction for Festive Occasions, Invitations and More by Emily Hogarth 2013

Written by one of my favourite contemporary artists featured in my first book on this topic, this book is also the most comprehensive, covering basic techniques, projects and 60 templates on patterned paper to be cut up, as the title implies, or photocopied for repeated use!

The first section, Getting Started, introduces basic concepts, with photographs demonstrating technique and diagrams, which illustrate important points, key skills and common pitfalls. They include:

Essential tools and useful extras;

Choosing paper;

Cutting with a craft knife or scissors: Cutting techniques, changing blades and safety tips;

Cutting multiples: Accordion folding; and stacking techniques;

Transferring templates;

Single and multi-fold designs;

Scoring and indenting;

Layering and intercutting;

Thinking backward– especially important when cutting letters and numbers or doing directional designs;

Colour;  and

Themed motifs.

There are step-by-step instructions with photographs and templates for 25 projects, with boxes indicating tool kit, materials and templates; symbols for skill level ; graphics identifying the trickiest areas to cut or take special care; and tips, variations and finishing touches.

Projects include: Invitations, cards and gift tags; gift and favour bags; Hanging, window and table decorations, party garlands and pin wheels; Lanterns; Paper wreaths and corsages; Napkin holders, place mats, coasters and place cards; Food flags and cake toppers and wrappers; and Dress-up props, birthday buttons and hair bands. There are some lovely designs and I particularly look forward to making some of the cards and the window, pompom and rosette decorations.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.39.31

Collage and Découpage

A talented exponent of collage was Mary Delaney, who I have already mentioned in two  previous posts: https://candeloblooms.com/2015/09/08/ambassadors-of-spring/

and  https://candeloblooms.com/2017/04/18/inspirational-and-dreamy-garden-books-part-one-inspiring-books-and-garden-travel-books/.

I love her work and would love to own one of her books one day, but in the meantime, her images can be appreciated on:

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/search.aspx?searchText=Mary+Delany;

And   http://littlegreennotebook.com/2010/04/botanicals-on-black-paper-and-mary.html/. As I describe in my posts, I have used her work to inspire my own paper collage floral cards.BlogPaperPost2013-06-26 18.18.25During my embroidery studies, we had to make paper collages as preliminary studies for embroidery designs like the work featured in the photos below.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.48.15BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.48.27 Here is another photograph of my paper collages.BlogPaperPost2518-02-18 11.46.43

However, I do own two books on Découpage, a specialised form of papercutting, used to decorate the surfaces of objects with printed scraps of paper, like the hat box in the photographs below.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.16.38BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.17.17 Découpage originated in France, the name being the French word meaning ‘to cut out’, and was very popular in the Victorian Era with prints of seaside holidays, angels, children and flowers covering screens, photo frames and jewellery boxes.BlogPaperPost2518-02-17 11.16.52 Used today, it gives objects an old-fashioned feel and I have two books, both based on fairies, another popular theme in the 18th century.

Nerida Singleton’s Découpage Fairies Project Book, Featuring Peg Maltby’s Fairy Images 1995

Using a specified découpage kit and the delightful colourful images created by Peg Maltby and reproduced in this book on glossy paper, Nerida gives detailed instructions for a variety of projects, including boxes, letter holders, pencil holders and albums, to illustrate the basic principles of proper surface preparation; background colour; sealing; cutting and placing; glueing the fairy images; trimming, tidying and repairing; gilding the edges; varnishing (using water-based and oil-based varnishes) and sanding; painting faux linings; and finishing with beeswax or micro mesh.

Peg Maltby (1899-1984), born Agnes Newberry Orchard in Ashby-de-la-Zouche, UK, in 1899, studied at engineering college in England, before marrying George Bradley Maltby in 1917 and having four children. They migrated to Victoria, Australia, in 1924. While living in Coburg during the Great Depression, Maltby supplemented the family income by painting commercial items such as chocolate box lids and birthday cards. She became a member of the Victorian Artists’ Society and had some successful exhibitions of her fairy paintings. She also illustrated a number of children’s books, including: Nutchen of the Forest; Meet Mr Cobbledick; Nursery Rhymes; Pip and Pepita; Ben and Bella; and

 Peg’s Fairy Book by Peg Maltby 1944, which can be viewed at :  http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-2600932/view?partId=nla.obj-2656867#page/n0/mode/1up.

BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.39.38

The Flower Fairies Découpage Book  Based on the Original Flower Fairies Books by Cicely Mary Barker 1997

A similar book with a similar subject matter, whose  illustrations and style I personally prefer, having been reared on her books in my early childhood. While some of the projects are the same, there are also a number of different projects in this book.

Cicely Mary Barker (1895-1973) was also born in England at a similar time to Peg Maltby and published her first flower fairy book, Flower Fairies of the Spring, in 1923. She painted in watercolours from life, using plant specimens from Kew Gardens and modelling the fairies on the children at her sister’s nursery school. Primary influences included Kate Greenaway and the Pre-Raphaelites.

In this book, there is a wide selection of her images, reproduced on glossy paper, for cutting out and step-by-step instructions for 10 projects, including: Letter racks and pencil holders and pencils; Photograph album and photo frame; Dressing table set (hand mirror, comb, hair clip and powder compact); Decorative fan; Lampshade; Name plates for bedroom doors; Jewellery box; Biscuit tin and tray; and a wall clock.BlogPaperPost3018-02-17 09.39.45

There are also a number of books of papers, specifically designed for use in découpage:  BlogPaperPost4018-02-17 11.08.41Next week, I will be describing origami and paper folding; paper toys, models and decorations; and papier-mâché and papermaking.

Books on Natural Dyeing: Part Three: Dyeing Down Under

My final two books focus on Antipodean Dyeing and it’s interesting that my two books  cover both ends of the time spectrum, the early days of the revival of natural dyeing post synthetic dyes and contemporary textile dyeing using the latest innovative new techniques and ecological considerations.

Dyes From Plants of Australia and New Zealand: A Practical Guide for Craftworkers by Joyce Lloyd 1971/1978

This old book, almost fifty years old now, was one of the early guides to this artform, a time when the brighter synthetic aniline dyes were all the rage! It was written to complement the revival of interest in spinning and hand weaving during the 1960s. After introductory chapters on the ancient history of natural dyes, equipment, fabric preparation and mordants, the book focuses on :

Dye Plants Native to New Zealand;

Dye Plants Native to Australia;

Flower and Vegetable Garden Subjects;

Miscellaneous Dye Subjects; and

Weeds, Herbs and Lichens.

There is a section on using ancient dyes (indigo/ logwood/ madder/ cochineal and woad), as well as brief notes on chemical dyes, general hints and tie-dye techniques. The tiny size of both the latter subject and the source list for ancient dyes (only one supplier in Australia and one in New Zealand and only mail addresses), as well as the presentation of the book and dearth of colour photos and swatches, is an indicator of the age of this book and the infancy stage of this revival of interest in natural dyes, however this book is still valuable for its emphasis on our own native flora, as well as the inclusion of a number of dyestuffs, not mentioned in the other books. For example: Asters, Begonias, Buddleias, Gazanias, Bearded Iris, Rhododendrons, Beetroot, Mint, Passionfruit, Silver Beet, Tamarillos, Grass, Bamboo, Medlars, Pine Trees, Privet, Yew, Seaweed and Tobacco! Really the world’s your oyster!BlogNatlDyeing30%Image (6)

We have come such a long way since then! The efforts of Jenny Dean and Rita Buchanan have been responsible for a large part of this renewal, while India Flint has really popularized contemporary natural dyeing for a new generation of textile artists with her wonderful inspiring workshops and book:

Eco Colour: Botanical Dyes for Beautiful Textiles by India Flint 2008.

India is an Australian artist, writer, teacher, sheep farmer, fashion (Prophet of Bloom) and theatre costume designer, and sustainable eco-dyer with over thirty years of experience and artworks in collections and museums in Australia, Latvia and Germany. Every contemporary textile artist should own a copy of this comprehensive and detailed book.

Part One embraces the important concepts of Organic Natural Dyes vs. Toxic Synthetic Chemicals, Regionalism, Renewable Resources, Exploitation in the Logwood and Indigo Trades; Sustainable Harvesting and Recycling of Waste Products (Garbage and Windfalls).

Part Two discusses the work environment, equipment, much of which can be acquired from charity shops, and harvesting and storage of plant materials, as well as occupational health and safety rules.

Part Three focuses on Traditional Dye Materials, presented in table form on thick brown paper with Common and Taxonomic Names and the Parts Used. The use of different paper makes this section  quick and easy to find , its entries organised by colour: Black and Greys; Purples: Flora/ Fauna; Blues; Greens; Yellows and Golds (at three pages, the largest section!); Oranges; Reds: Flora/ Fauna; Pinks: Flora/ Fauna; and Browns. There are also notes about Poisonous Plants; Edible Dye Plants and Edible Plant Dyes for Culinary Magic! I much prefer the thought of using beetroot, onion, calendula, rose leaves, violets and pansies to colour cakes and biscuits rather than synthetic Azo dyes, which have been proven to cause liver cancer and are banned in Europe.

The next section, Part Four, is by far the largest in the book and covers:

Fibre Preparation: 

Wool and Other Animal Fibres, including Cashmere and Mohair (Goats); Angora (Rabbits); Alpaca; Camel; Llama; Yak; Horsehair; Dog and Cat; and even Shatoosh (an Endangered Tibetan Antelope); as well as luxurious Silk ;

Plant Fibres: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum); Linen (Flax, Linum); Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), Nettle (Urtica), Jute, Sisal (Agave Cactus), Raffia, Pineapple, Reed, Banana and Hemp.

Mordants:

Applied at different stages of the dyeing process (Pre-Mordanting; Co-Mordanting and Post-Mordanting) to fix and enhance colour, improve colour fastness to light, washing and perspiration, prevent colour bleeding and extend the colour range of a dyepot, most mordants are highly toxic and their disposal thereby difficult. Not only is ingestion harmful, but the success of aromatherapy suggests that the presence of harmful chemical residues against our skin is also worth considering.

While alum (usually in the form of Potassium aluminium sulphate) is one of the least harmful of the traditional mordants, being used in pickling and baking powder, India has gone to great lengths to explore alternatives, which include: Urine; Blood; Gelatine; Yoghurt; Tins; Eggs; Ash; Soy Milk; Sea Water; Fermented Fruit Vinegars; Lemon Juice; Compost; Oxidized Wine; Iron Teas; Copper Coins; Cow and Sheep manure; Aqueous Paint Solutions and Seed Oils.

Any plants with ‘tinctoria’  (dyemaking); ‘officinalis’ (medicinal use) as the species name or words like oxalis (oxalic acid) and salix (salicyclic acid eg willow) are worth investigating, as well as plants rich in tannins like oak, pomegranate, spruce, chestnut, wattle,  bracken and mangroves, as well as dock, sorrel, and acorns.

Processing Plant Dyes:

After discussing the disadvantages of traditional boiling, India summarizes the following methods:

Hot Extraction-Hot Processing: Simmer and steep; Multiple extractions; Single extractions by boiling; Concentrated tinctures;

Hot extraction-Cold Processing: Solar dyeing; and Snaplock bag;

Cold Extraction-Cold Processing: Compost dyeing; Ice-flower dyeing; Cold-bundling; and Hapa-zome beating;

Cold Extraction-Hot Processing: Streaming in bundles; Long soaking and steeping; Dry extraction by fermentation before hot processing.

She also discusses Nomadic dyeing; and Plants for sequential extractions (St. John’s Wort; Safflower and Eucalyptus).

Part Five examines some very Special Dye Plant Groups:

Eucalyptus Dyes;

Other Australian Flora:

Mistletoes, Amyema;

Kangaroo Paw, Anigozanthos;

Indigofera australis;

Insects from the Eriococcus family;

Wattle, Acacia;

Kennedia nigricans;

Callistemons;

 Grevilleas;

Quandong, Santalum acuminatum;

Sandalwood, Santalum lanceolatum;

Bracken Fern, Pteridium esculentum;

Morinda citrifolia; and

Thryptomene calycina.

Ice-Flower Dyes:

Freezing flowers in snap-lock bags, then immersing them in lukewarm water with the addition of ash or alum (for blues),  vinegar (for reds) or washing soda, sodium carbonate (for greenish-blues). Suitable flowers include: Petunias, pansies, violets and violas; iris; delphiniums and pelargoniums, while berries include: blackberries, elderberries, raspberries, cherries and Berberis darwinii.

Fruits and Berries: Cold Berry Dyes: The afore-mentioned berries, as well as Mulberries; Blueberries and Solanum nigrum.

Part Six investigates Special Effects:

Cold Bundled Eco-Prints eg Eucalyptus and mistletoe foliage, acacia pods, onion skins; beetroot peelings; bark; tea leaves; coffee grounds; wilted flowers; citrus slices and even, blackberry jelly pulp!

Hot Bundled Ecoprints: Latvian Easter Egg Dyeing;

Hapa-zome Beating Colour into Cloth;

Dyeing Wool Yarn and Sliver, including Ikat Dyeing;

Multicoloured Yarns;

Printing with Plant Dyes;

Shibori and Layered Dyeing: Hexagon (Honeycomb), Tartan and Chequerboard Patterns; and Multicoloured Fabrics;

Resists: Block Printing; Batik; Flour and Egg Resists;

Solar Dyeing; and

Cow and Mud Patties.BlogNatlDyeing2518-04-18 17.01.22In the photos above and below are two scarves dyed using the bundling method. Because I did not dye them myself, I cannot tell you much about the plant matter used, except there was definitely the inclusion of some eucalypt leaves in the silk scarf below!BlogNatlDyeing2518-04-18 17.01.34BlogNatlDyeing2518-04-18 17.01.43Part Seven returns to the importance of ecological sustainability  in Some Other Considerations, with essays on the importance of water, time, safe waste disposal and  the correct care of silk, wool, cotton and other fabrics , so they last as long as possible. The final section, Part Eight, contains a bibliography and useful websites.BlogNatlDyeing3018-02-07 15.23.13I  really love this book, not just for its innovative approach and emphasis on the environment and sustainability, but also its thoroughness, its attention to detail, its invitation to experimentation, its simple and thoughtful explanations and above all, India’s  engaging story-telling style. If you would like to know more about her and her ecodyeing techniques, see:  https://theplanthunter.com.au/people/india-flint/, with her fashion label blog at: http://prophet-of-bloom.blogspot.com.au/.

In response to Tony last week and other readers, who may be wondering about the range of colours produced by eucalypts, here are two interesting and informative websites: https://sallyblake.com/eucalyptus-dyes-1/ and http://anpsa.org.au/APOL8/dec97-6.html!

Next week, I am featuring Flowering Salvias, whose dainty and colourful flowers could be ideal subjects for eco-printing! I have some experimentation ahead of me!!! Until then, Happy Dyeing…naturally, of course!

Books on Textile Printing

Textile printing is defined as the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns and designs, whereas in dyeing, the whole fabric is uniformly coloured with one colour. While related to dyeing, there are many differences, as are very well portrayed in the following website: https://textilestudycenter.com/textile-printing/.

The colour bonds with the fibre, so it resists washing and friction and retains the colour, design and pattern. Some of the printing techniques on textiles include:

Direct Printing, using hand blocks (wood blocks/ engraved plates/ silkscreen) or machine rollers and dyes and mordants to fix colour on the cloth;

Resist Techniques, using wax or other resistant material to prevent uptake of the dye by specific areas of the material (eg: Batik, shibori and tie-dyeing);

Discharge Techniques, using bleaching agents to remove colour from previously dyed fabric; and

Special Techniques like Flock, Dyed or Burnt Out Styles; Blotching; Air Brushing; and Photo Transfers.

The following books are all concerned with printing and painting fabrics and creating surface designs on cloth, rather than dyeing fabric, which I will cover in a separate post.

Hand-Printed Fabrics by KG Herder 1968

This simple little booklet is still worthy of inclusion, despite its age, because of its very simplicity and clear easy instructions, as well as its quaint designs! It mainly covers stencilling on fabric and block printing with potato stamps and linoleum blocks and suggests a variety of projects from checked aprons and tablecloths to placemats, cushion covers, oven gloves, teacosies and Christmas stockings, tea-towels, banners and scarves.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.18.49Print Pattern and Colour : For Paper and Fabric by Ruth Issett 2007

This comprehensive guide is a must-have for the textile artist, discussing a range of techniques from simple monoprinting and roller printing to screen printing, printing with found objects, using stencils and rubbing and dyeing effects. There are four main sections:

Getting Started, which describes the workspace and equipment required, including their advantages and disadvantages;

Printing on Paper: Monoprinting; Roller Printing; Print Block (Lino, Foamcore, Found Objects, String Blocks, Cut Print Blocks, Heat and Press and Press Print); Paper Types; Colour Combinations; Using Two Plastic Sheets; Creating Texture; and Geometric Patterns;

Printing on Fabric: Choosing, Preparing and Fixing Fabrics; Print Mediums (including a table detailing their description, use, qualities, fixing and suitable fabric type); and Printing Techniques: Mono Printing, Roller Printing and Block Printing; Using Markal Paint Sticks, Masks and Discharge Paste; Screen Printing and Stencilling; and Stitching and Dyeing;  and

Design Ideas and Development: Building a design from simple blocks; Experimenting with lines; Drawing shapes; Print blocks; and Finding, collecting and organizing design ideas.

The book finishes with a list of suppliers and further reading. It’s a terrific book for encouraging experimentation and play with textile design and so satisfying to create original patterns and cloth.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.19.46

Create Your Own Hand-Printed Cloth: Stamp, Screen and Stencil with Everyday Objects by Rayna Gillman 2008

Another inspiring book, that makes you want to race out there and starting textile printing! I feel it has a more informal style to the previous book and it covers slightly different techniques. It covers: Stamping and stencilling with found objects; Random screen printing with stencils made from masking tape, newspaper, freezer paper, found objects, glue resists and soy wax resists ; Gelatin plate printing; Screen printing with thickened dyes, with lots of recipes and step-by-step instructions; Discharge printing with chlorine bleach, bleach gels, thiox and discharge paste; Soy wax batik;  Rubbings with paintstiks and oil sticks, oil pastels and paint; and Thermofax screens.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.19.16

The Creative Guide to Fabric Screen Printing: Creative Designs for Fabric Printing at Home by Pam Stallebrass 1990

This book was one of my first guides to screen printing and it is an excellent basic guide with some lovely designs for paper, handcut film and light-sensitive stencils and painted screens, with patterns in the back. The chapter on basics includes equipment (screen, squeegee, printing table, inks and fabrics) and instructions for making screens, colour mixing, fabric registration, borders and all over designs, multicolour printing, screen printing, cleaning the screen and heat-setting. Projects include braids, quilts,  jackets and skirts, cushions, rugs and curtains. Instructions to both technique and project are clear and precise from making the stencil and screen to textile printing and assembly of the product.

BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.19.58

Design and Practice For Printed Textiles by Andrea McNamara and Patrick Snelling 2004

The bible for serious students of textile design, it contains everything you could possibly need to know about the craft! From the glossary of terms at the start and the introductory chapter on the design process, including examples of textile designers, it progresses to chapters on :

Design Resources:  Concept and story boards; swatchbooks; and design briefs;

Colour: Language of colour; Colourways in textile design; Choice of colour; electronic colour;

Mark Making Materials and Techniques:

A.Materials:

Dry media (pencils, charcoal, conte and wax crayons, pastels and chalks and markers);

Wet media (ink, gouache, poster paint, watercolour, oils and acrylic paints, and bleach);

Tools (brushes, airbrush, atomiser, masks/films and stencils, technical drawing and ruling pens, ruler, eraser, cutting tools and boards, scissors, set squares, compass and protractor, adhesives and tapes); and

Surfaces (butcher’s paper, cartridge paper, specialist papers, cardboard, detail paper, graph paper, typography, hybrid tools).

B.Techniques:

Line Work; Solid Form; Cut or Torn Paper; Textural Effects ; Lino or Block Printing; Resists (wax or masking fluid); Wash-Off Technique; Masks and Stencils; Monoprint; Frottage; Photocopies and Overlays; Collage and Mixed Media; and Decoupage.

Computer-Aided Design: Scanning; Drawing onto screen, Repeating motifs to create a pattern; Electronic colour; Using the printout; and Designing a tile;

Pattern: Repeat systems and layouts; Croquis designs; Language of pattern, design styles; Incorporating motifs or designs into a repeat; Production considerations; Colouring the design; Repeat mirrors; and Troubleshooting;

Finishing and Presenting Designs: Painting up the design; Colour chips; Using masks and resists; Cut paper designs; Colour photocopies and computer printouts; Mounting designs; Portfolios; and Record keeping;

Fabrics: Sources, selection and types; Fabric characteristics and uses; Fabric finishes and treatment; Dye or pigment; the Burn test;  and Fabric care;

Setting up a Print Workshop: Overview of textile printing; Print tables; Screen frames; Mesh and squeegees; Exposure units; Pressure and staple guns; and Cooling troughs and drying cupboards;

Printing Fabrics: Preparation and techniques: Artwork preparation; Screen preparation; Laying out fabric; and Printing;

Alternative Methods: Screen preparation (Paper stencils; wax crayon and hydrographs); Resists (wax/ gutta); Polychromatic printing and Direct handpainting;and  Monoprinting (Lino and wood blocks; direct stencils; airbrush; heat transfer; and fabric crayons;

Recipes: Pigments and dyes; Dyebaths; Reactive dyes; and Fixing dyed fabric; and finally,

Careers in Textile Design: Studio assistant; Studio designer/manager; Stylist; Colourist; Freelance textile Designer; Consultant/Predictor; Textile Artist/ Designer/ Maker; Surface Pattern Designer; Textile Agent; Textile Buyer;  Textile Conservation; Textile Chemist; and Education.

Throughout the book, there are also many exercises and briefs to backup the text, stimulate thought and develop creativity and technical skills. While probably contains far too much information and expertise for my amateur needs, it’s great to have such an expert overall guide! In the back are appendices for troubleshooting with symptoms, possible causes and treatments, as well as a bibliography and a list of suppliers in Australia.

BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.20.30

The Surface Designer’s Handbook: Dyeing, Printing, Painting, and Creating Resists on Fabric by Holly Brackmann 2006

Another excellent and very practical guide to surface design. It has a very logical layout and impressively starts with Studio Practices and Safety Guidelines, which is so important when handling dyes and other chemicals.

In Chapter Two, the different types of dyes (Fiber-Reactive/ Acid/ Vat and Disperse groups) are discussed in great detail, with a table specifying dye groups and their brand names, suitable fibres, their advantages and disadvantages and their fastness to washing and light. Fibres and fabrics are also discussed, including cellulose fibres (cotton, hemp, flax, jute, ramie, sisal, lyocell, viscose rayon and basketry wicker and grass); protein fibres (wool, mohair, alpaca, cashmere, angora, and silk); and synthetic fibres (nylon, polyester), as well as the Burn test and Water-drop test.

Colour is the primary focus in the next short chapter- its mixing and inspiration, while Chapters Four to Eight give an in-depth look at Fiber-Reactive Dyes (especially Procion and Cibacron); Acid Dyes (Kiton, Lanaset, Washfast and Union dyes); Vat Dyes (Indigo, Inkodye, Tie-Dye, and Heliographic printing) and Discharge Dyes (Disperse Immersion, Transfer Printing and variations), including their chemistry, safety precautions, examples of use, techniques, factors to consider, recipes for dyebaths; and fixing dyes.

The remainder of the book looks at specialised techniques:

Discharging: Thiox; Jacquard Discharge Paste; Sodium hydrosulphite; Liquid Bleach; and Monagum;

Screen Printing: Freezer/ Contact Paper/ Plastic Screen and Thermofax Screen techniques;

Monoprinting: Thickened Fiber-Reactive Dyes or Textile Paint; and Disperse Dye Transfer;

Stamping: Commercial and improvised stamps and techniques;

Stencilling: Applicators; Cutting stencils; Interfaceing-and-net stencils; Clear plastic stencils and technique;

Resists: Water-soluble resists; Cold Wax; Tie-Dye and Shibori techniques (Bounding/ Clamping/Pole wrapping/ Stitching); and Resist-Scouring Silk ;

Devoré, which I adore, but which is incredibly toxic!: Devoré Paste and Discharge Dyeing;

Textile Paints: Types, use, lustre, heat setting or fixation and Heliographic or Sun Printing;

Embellishments: Foiling; Embroidery; Beadwork and Collage.

Appendices include a Dye Worksheet for record keeping; Steps for preparing fabric for dyeing/ rinsing, washing and drying fabric; Calculations for stock solutions, dye quantities and colour mixing; Thickeners and printing; Steaming; and Weights, measures and water temperatures, as well as a Glossary of Terms, Bibliography and Resource List.

I cannot recommend this book highly enough, especially when it comes to the use of the different types of dyes, as the marketplace is deluged with such a wide variety that it is hard to get a handle on them all!BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.20.16Handpainting Fabric: Easy Elegant Techniques by Michelle Newman and Margaret Allyson 2003

If none of the books so far appeal, you might prefer this older book, which despite its title really covers much of the same techniques with a few minor differences. Here is a list of the contents:

Materials and Tools: Fabric (Silk, velvet and velveteen); Paints and Dyes (Acrylics and silk dyes); Brushes; and Fabric Stretchers (Padded table; sawhorses; and embroidery hoops and frames).

Design: Sources of Inspiration (Mark Making; Photos; Magazines; Doodles and Drawings; Sketchbooks; Travel, Architecture and Nature); Elements and Principles (In particular: Colour; Repetition; Variety; Rhythm; Balance; Emphasis; Economy; Proportion); and Laying Out a Design.

Freehand Painting: Wet and Dry Fabric; Zones of Patterns; Monochromatic; and Colouring-Book Method.

Dyeing: Immersion, Scrunch and Dip-Dyeing Techniques and Working with Thickened Dyes.

 Discharge Process: Preparation; Bleach and Bleach Thickeners; and Velvet Mudcloth.

Making Multiples: Stamping; Monoprinting; Stencilling; and Silkscreen Printing.

Using Resists: Preparation; Stamping; Using a Tjanting; Colouring Book; and Other resists and Steaming.

Special Effects: Salt; Alcohol; Shortcut Shibori; Hidden Objects; Fortuny Pleating; Faux Airbrush; Basting; Layering; Quilting; and Collage. This section is where this book comes into its own!BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.19.24

Artcloth: Engaging New Visions Curated by Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Fairfield City Museum and Stein Gallery 2009

We were lucky to catch this inaugural international exhibition in 2010, when our visit to Orange coincided with Artcloth at the Orange Regional Gallery, which often holds wonderful textile exhibitions. See: https://org.nsw.gov.au/.

I have included this catalogue as it showcases twenty-one artworks created using many of these textile art techniques, ranging from digital technology, dye sublimation and snow and hydrosulfite discharge to glazes and patinations, deconstructed screen printing, paper and cloth lamination, shibori, batik and natural dyes. Artists came from England, Germany, Lithuania, The Netherlands, United States of America, Japan and Australia, including the aboriginal Ernabella Arts, which I particularly loved. See: http://www.ernabellaarts.com.au/.

In the back are artist biographies, including their exhibitions and residencies, publications and awards. This small booklet gives a wonderful idea of the huge range and potential within this creative field.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-07 15.23.02

The Painted Quilt: Paint and Print Techniques for Colour on Quilts by Linda and Laura Kemshall 2008

While written specifically for quilters, this book is really for all textile artists! It discusses Elements of Design, Sources of Inspiration, Drawing and Collage Skills, Printing Blocks, Oil Pastel and Wash and Stencilling on Paper, and that’s just the first chapter! Health and safety, fabric types and their preparation for dyeing, low water immersion dyeing and making thick dye pastes are the subject of the next chapter, followed by step-by-step instructions for applying colour pre and post quilting.

Colour Before Printing includes: Stencilling on fabric; Rubbings with Fabric Pastels; Block Printing; Basic Screen Printing; and Monoprinting, while techniques for Colour After Printing include: Applying Pastel; Painting; Rollering and Spraying. Removing Colour is often just as exciting as applying it and this section examines the use of bleach and discharge paste, bleach pens and removing or replacing colour after quilting.

Detail can be added with Painted Fusible Web; Gel and other Fabric Pens; Dimensional Paints and Text. Newer techniques include Ink-Jet Printing and Photocopy Transfers. In the back is an indepth examination of some of the author’s works as examples of techniques discussed. It’s a good book for dipping into for inspirational ideas and suggestions rather than an exhaustive guide to textile printing.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.20.06

Not to be outdone, embroiders also have their own handbooks for textile printing! While many embroidery books include chapters on fabric painting, here are two specific examples:

Fabric Painting For Embroidery by Valerie Campbell-Harding 2001

In this book, Valerie looks at a wide variety of Materials: Fabric Paints, Crayons and Pens; Transfer Crayons and Paints, Metallic Powders, Sponges and Brushes, and Techniques: Sticky Paper, Starch, , Gutta, Wax,  Gathered and Stitched, and Thread Wrapping Resists; Thread Painting; Flicking and Dribbling; Rolling; Scrunching and Spraying; Fabric Painting; Stencilling and Screen Printing, including Photographic Screen Printing; Block Printing with cards and card blocks, potatoes, objects, and stamps; Transferring Photocopies, Discharge Dyeing, and Marbling, with photographs of works employing these techniques in the back of the book, as well as a guide to resurrecting disasters, though really nothing is ever a mistake, as it can be added to your fabric stash and if nothing else, serves as a learning tool!!! This book is a veritable cornucopia of ideas and suggestions!BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.18.41From Print to Stitch: Tips and Techniques for Hand-painting and Stitching on Fabric by Janet Edmonds 2010

This book is probably a more comprehensive guide with a more logical ordered approach to block printing, lino and soft-cut lino printing, monoprinting and printing with found objects than the previous book, which is really a grab bag of different ideas. Janet discusses the materials and tools she uses; how she develops a theme and creates a motif and pattern, giving five different examples; colour; and the different types of printing techniques, before specifically focusing on :

Block Printing: Making Foam and Card Blocks; Printing on Paper and Fabric; Overprinting; and Eraser Blocks;

Lino and Soft-Cut Lino Printing: Cutting the Lino; Printing with Lino Blocks; and Creating Texture Using Lino Blocks;

Monoprinting: Creating Texture, Pattern and Line; Mixed Colour; and Using Resists;

Using Found Objects: Potatoes; Washers; Cardboard; Sponge Printing; Collagraphs; and Textured Rollers.

And of course, a large section on Stitching: Hand and Machine Stitching; Embroidery stitches and a Stitch Gallery!

Along the way, she also has instructions and suggestions for specific projects like Origami Boxes; Gathered Bags and Book Covers. I really liked this book, especially its logical progression and its clear simple explanations of each technique.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.19.39

Finally, no library of books on fabric painting or surface design would be complete without books on batik, a wax resist method used extensively in Indonesia and South-east Asia.  I first studied batik in my final year of school, then revisited it in 2003 with a TAFE workshop on Textile Design (Batik; Stencilling and Tie-Dye and Shibori) with Jenny Evelyn. It was so inspiring and I produced the lovely tablecloth below! Here are some photos showing my rough design, cloth and tools (Drimarene-K dyes and tjantings):BlogPrintingBks3018-02-07 14.45.30BlogPrintingBks5018-02-07 14.44.55BlogPrintingBks2518-02-07 14.59.39 I was so inspired that my husband bought me this beautiful book that Christmas:

Batik for Artists and Quilters by Eloise Piper 2001

While historically, batik is associated with traditional Indonesian designs, this book contains many beautiful contemporary artworks, which really highlight the potential of this medium. It is also a very practical book with comprehensive chapters on :

Equipment, Tools and Materials;

Waxing Methods: Using Brush; Tjanting; Stamps and Incising Tools;

Using Colour :Additive/ Subtractive Systems; Colour Wheel and Properties; Colour Temperature; and Colour Theory;

Using Dyes : Natural; Batik; Aniline; Fiber Reactive; Chemical Dyes with a Dye Chart specifying the brand names, characteristics and suitable fabrics for each; a recipe for Marigold Dye; and in-depth sections on dyeing in the washing machine, direct painting with activated dyes, discharge dyeing and the all-important storage and disposal of dyes.

Removing Wax and Setting Colour:  Ironing Out; Boiling Out; and Steaming.

The final chapters focus on the use of Batik for Surface Design (Art and design considerations; elements and principles of design; and uses for clothing and home décor); Fine Art: Portfolio examples of Landscapes; Still Lifes; Site-Specific Art; People; Photo Realism; and Abstraction; and Quilting.

This is a beautiful and very inspiring book, as well as being providing very practical instruction!BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.20.52

Batik Design by Pepin van Roojen 1994/ 2001

This book however is totally theoretical, exploring the history and different types and patterns of both Classical (originally from the Javan keraton, or royal courts, thus free from foreign influences with a more limited colour palette and highly symbolic motifs) and Pasisir (or Coastal) batik design (which was produced in coastal areas of northern Java and Madura, that were exposed to sea trading and foreign influences eg Indo-European and Chinese influences, so more colourful with motifs from nature), as well as the batik patterns of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.20.41 It is a fascinating read with lots of beautiful historical black-and-white and colour photographs, but it is definitely for the batik enthusiast, as well as people interested in the history and traditions of the Malay Peninsula or textile history! Here are an interesting link on Pasisir and Classical Batik: http://www.thelanguageofcloth.com/2015/05/17/batik-pesisir-yesterday-and-today/ .

Shibori For Textile Artists by Janice Gunner 2007

Another very practical guide to the ancient Japanese art of Shibori, the dye-resist technique of binding, clamping, pole wrapping and gathering or stitching cloth, so that the dye cannot reach certain parts, thus creating interesting patterns and designs. This technique has also been used in Africa, India and South America and in her introductory chapter, Janice explores the history of the craft in all these countries with some beautiful photographs of examples.

She examines all the different types of resist techniques, complete with in-depth instructions and suggestions for variations, in the following chapters:

Tied-Resist: Tying cloth around pinched cloth or objects like cowries (Nigeria) or beads, nuts and bolts, corks,  marbles or screws: Rasen, Spiral or Shell; Kumo, Spider Web; Ne-maki; and Honeycomb;

Stitched Resist: Uses stitching on cloth: Mokume, Wood Grain; Karamatsu, Larch; Ori-nui, Running Stitch; Maki-nui, Oversewn Stitch; and Maki-age, Stitched-and-Tied;

Arashi: Wrapping around a pole: Hosoita ichido kairyo, Diagonal Stripes; and Hosoita yoko kairyo, Horizontal Stripes;

 Itajime: Folded and Bound/ Clamp Resist: Naname Goshi, Lattice; and

Tesuji: Pleated and Bound: Tesuji; and Yanagi, Willow,

They are followed by a comprehensive chapter on Dyeing techniques: Immersion; Space and Indigo Dyeing with recipes and comprehensive instructions. The book finishes with instructions for a Shibori Sampler Wallhanging to showcase all the techniques, as well as a list of suppliers of fabrics; dyes; threads; and antique and Japanese textiles.

Having practised many of these techniques at a wonderful Indigo workshop with my friend, Heather, I can highly recommend this book!BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.20.58

In my next craft book post, we enter the wonderful related world of textile dyeing, the magical and exciting art of transforming the colour of cloth!

Books on Printing

The word ‘Printing’ is a word from Middle English (1250-1300), denoting the impression made by a stamp or seal and deriving from Old French preinte ‘pressed’, feminine past participle of preindre, from Latin word premere meaning ‘to press’, thereby implying a process that uses pressure.

Printing is defined as the process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. It started with wood block printing in China before 220 AD, the technique accelerating with the development of the Gutenberg Printing Press in 1450, resulting in the proliferation of books and great strides in communication and education.

I own a number of books on printing in my craft library, however, their content refers more to two specific types of printing:

Printmaking, the process of making artworks by printing; and

Textile Printing, the technique of applying surface pattern to fabric.

This post will focus on Printmaking, with subsequent posts featuring Textile Printing, followed by Textile Dyeing.

Printmaking

The process of making artworks by printing to create a series of impressions (edition) from an original or a specially prepared surface. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to paper and textiles. Techniques include:

Relief Printing: Ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix, with any parts of the design not to be printed being cut away, leaving the image raised in relief eg woodcuts and wood blocks; wood engravings; linocut and metalcut;

Intaglio: Ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix, usually a metal plate, with the design incised or etched into the surface eg engraving and etching; mezzotint, aquatint and drypoint;

Planographic: The matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow transfer of the image eg lithography, monotyping and digital techniques; and

Stencil: The ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen eg screenprinting and pochoir;

Collagraphy: Textured material is adhered to the printing matrix.

These processes are all explained very well in the following theoretical book:

The Encyclopedia of Printmaking Techniques: A Step-by-Step Visual Directory of Printmaking Techniques, Plus Practical Projects and an Inspirational Gallery of Finished Prints by Judy Martin 1993

After an introduction explaining the different techniques; the work environment; printing presses; inks and papers; and proofing and printing, the book explores each technique in detail from Monoprints (one-off impressions); Linocuts; Woodcuts; and Wood Engraving; to Screen Printing (and the use of stencils); Drypoint; Mezzotint; Aquatint; Etching; and Lithography.

Each chapter explains the tools and materials required; their maintenance and / or sharpening; planning the design and cutting the block; proofing and printing; and colour printing, as well as the specialised aspects of each technique, with step-by-step illustrations describing each part of the process.

The final section of the book focuses on design elements common to all artmaking, with the themes of:  Line and Tone; Graphic Impact; Pattern and Texture; Colour; Composition; Mood and Atmosphere; and Style and Content, with lots of photos of artworks produced by a wide variety of printing processes. It is an excellent book for explaining all the basics of print making.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.17.22I love art prints, but it is quite a specialized field and inevitably requires the purchase of a printing press, quite an expensive outlay requiring serious dedication to the craft. Fortunately, it is still possible to enjoy more simplified printing techniques, with relief printing being one of the easiest techniques to practice at home for the child or beginner, yet still being highly effective. The following swag of books focus on this simple form of printmaking:

Print Making: Practical Techniques for All Junior Printmakers by Elisabeth Harden 1995

A good starting point for children and adults alike!

After a brief look at materials (papers, tools and paints and inks), the book suggests printing mediums from :

Body Parts: Footprints ; Finger and Hand prints and Lip Prints;

Fruit and Vegetables:  Potato prints; Apples; and Broccoli;

Natural Objects: Leaves and Stems; Ferns; and Feathers;

Found Objects: Paper Doilies; Corrugated Cardboard; Collage Blocks; and Coiled String and Wire; and

Rubber Stamps and Cork Seals.

It also touches on: Printing with Bleach; Marbling; Stencilling; Using Photocopiers (to transfer images); Linocutting; Embossing; Rubbings; Etching; Silkscreen Printing and Fabric Printing.

It has lots of fun ideas for making prints cheaply and easily, with lots of suggestions for using these prints as well, including wrapping paper; paper bags and cardboard boxes; cards and envelopes; artworks; book covers; t-shirts, tea towels and cushions.BlogPrintingBks25%Image

Simple Printmaking: A Beginner’s Guide to Making Relief Prints with Linoleum Blocks, Wood Blocks, Rubber Stamps, Found Objects and More by Gwen Diehn 2000

This book has three main sections:

Developing a Design: How to Find Ideas; Doodles; Found Objects; Rubbings; Lettering; Nature Tracings; Photographs; Colour Tracings; Wood Grains; and Tips on Drawing.

Materials and Tools:

Printing Blocks: Wood; Linoleum; Erasers and Soft Rubber Sheets; and Cardboard;

Cutting Tools: Knives; Gouges; Veiners; Chisels; Mallets; Sharpening Stones; Bench Hooks and Clamps;

Printing Materials and Tools: Paper; Inks; Spatulas and Skin Papers; Brayers; Ink Slab or Tray; Barens and  Other Burnishing Tools; and Printing Presses;

Cleaning Supplies and Tools: Razor Scraper or Putty Knife; Rags; and Vegetable Oil.

Techniques:

Transferring a Design to the Block (Photocopy; Charcoal or Graphite; and Transfer Paper); Repairs to Blocks; Printing with Found Objects; Distressed Blocks; Negative and Positive Carving; Multiple Block Prints; Reduction Block Technique; Sawn Blocks; and Collagraphs.

Each section details materials and tools and the process, including different methods and variations, with step-by-step illustrations.

There are sidebars throughout the book with information on the history and traditions of printmaking, including famous printmakers, as well as gallery sections showcasing the work of other printmakers to inspire the imagination and display the potential of the medium.

There are also a number of printing projects with detailed instructions from cards, envelopes and wrapping paper; personalized labels and posters; and book covers  to  children’s books, calendars and jigsaws; paper bag lights, paper fans and lampshades; and materials and cushions.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.16.56Every learning style is different, with people responding very differently to different approaches, so I have included the next three books, as they all slightly differ in style and presentation.

Lotta Prints: How To Print With Anything, From Potatoes to Linoleum by Lotta Jansdotter 2008

Lotta is a Swedish designer, whose lovely prints adorn textiles, leather, shower curtains, bedding, tableware, gifts, stationery, ceramics and product packaging.

After an introduction including notes on inspiration; working environment; printing surfaces; printing materials; inks;  and preparation, she provides step-by-step instructions to a wide variety of techniques and projects, each discussed with the headings: What You Need; What to Do; Tips; and Inspiration.

These techniques and projects include:

Rubber Stamping: Wrapping paper and Ribbon; Labels; and Pant Hems;

Iron-On Transfer paper: Skirts and Shirts;

Leaf Printing: Curtains; Pillow Cases and Cushions;

Stencil Printing: Tote Bags; Runners; Walls; Umbrellas and Scarves;

Potato Printing: Skirt borders; Pillow Cases and Tea-Towels;

Lino Block Printing: Cards; Tags; and Wall Hangings;

Screen Printing: Contact paper/ Screen Filler and Photo Emulsion Methods: Table Linen and Aprons; bags; Ties and Socks;

The book finishes with a List of Websites and Books, as well as an Appendix of Lotta’s Stencils for use in her projects. The presentation is very modern with discrete, long, vertical, grey- coloured bands of text, which I found a little difficult to read, but which did nevertheless separate the different sections quite effectively.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.17.31Printed Pattern: A Guide to Printing by Hand From Potatoes to Silk Screens by Rebecca Drury and Yvonne Drury 2010

Written by the mother-daughter team behind MissPrint, English textile designers, Yvonne and Rebecca Drury (https://www.missprint.co.uk/), this book has a similar size and shape, contemporary feel and presentation and teaching technique, including seven of their own stencil designs for reader use and a list of suppliers in the back. However,  their style is different to Lotta’s Prints and they only show photos of potential products rather than providing step-by-step instructions to specific projects. They founded their company in 2005 and now produce printed wallpapers, fabrics, cushions, notebooks, lampshades and window films.

The first section of the book is devoted to:

Inspiration: Collating imagery; Composing Mood Boards and Making Sketchbooks; and Design Composition and Layout; and

Getting Started: Printing Surfaces; Basic Equipment; Materials; and  Inks and Colours.

The rest of the book discusses different types of relief and stencil printing techniques, under the general headings of: Materials List; Making Your Print; and Useful Tips, though some of the techniques have extra headings like: Preparing Your Stencil, Screen or Medium.

The techniques (with product samples) include:

Relief Printing:

Potato Prints: Bags and Table Mats;

Lino Printing: Book Covers and Pant Hems;

Rubber/ Eraser Printing: Ribbons, Labels and Tags; and

Vintage Woodblock Printing: Wrapping Paper and Blinds;  and

Stencil Printing:

Stencils: Lampshade, Wall Panel, Cushion and Bag;

Screen Printing: Stencil Method; Stencil Filler Method and Photo Emulsion Method:  Runners, Aprons and Upholstery Fabric.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.17.38Printing by Hand: A Modern Guide to Printing with Handmade Stamps, Stencils and Silk Screens by Lena Corwin 2008

My favourite book of the three, this lovely spiral bound book is divided into four main sections:

Getting Ready to Print:

Materials:

Printing Surfaces: Smooth and Textured Paper and Fabrics; Wood; and Sheetrock or Plaster Walls;

Inks and Paints: Liquid Ink; Ink pads; Acrylic Ink; Block-Printing Ink; Screen-Printing Ink; Spray Paint; and Latex Wall paint; as well as tips on thinning and thickening water-based inks; printing in more than one colour and achieving the desired colour;

Design: Sources of Ideas; Drawing; Transferring a Design; and Pattern Repeats; and

Printing Methods: Their optimal surfaces and artworks; and their surface and artwork restrictions.

Each method is then explored in detail with project suggestions and instructions including a Boxed List of Materials and the Headings: Have Stamp Made; Prepare Work Surface; Test Print; Print; and Clean Up. They focus on Stamping, Stencilling and Screen Printing:

Stamping:

Tools and Materials:

Custom Machine-Made Rubber Stamps; Acrylic Mounts; Foam Sheets; Rubber Blocks; Carving Tool; Soft-Lead Pencil; Bone Folder; and Inks.

Techniques:

Design Transfer; Carved Away vs. Built Up;  Making the Stamp; Mixing the Ink; and Stamping Tips for Printing.

Projects:

Custom Rubber Stamps: Stationery: Cards; Letter Paper and Envelopes; and Traveller Pouches;

Foam Stamps: Japanese Furoshiki Gift Wrap Material; and Notebook Covers;

Carved Rubber Block Stamps: Tablecloth and Napkins; and T-Shirt.

Stencilling:

Tools and Materials:

Freezer Paper (I save the wrapper from the large packets of A4 photocopying paper); Contact Paper; Mylar (polyester film); Hole Punch and Mallet; Scissors and Utility Knife; Soft-Lead Pencil and Bone Folder; Stencil Brush; Inks and Paints; and Spray Mount and Dry Mount.

Techniques:

Standard vs Reverse Stencils; Loading and Stippling; Making the Stencil; and Printing with Stencils.

Projects:

Freezer Paper Stencils: Chair Cushion Fabric; and Handkerchief;

Contact Paper Stencils: Dresser Fronts; and Linen Lampshade;

Mylar Stencils: Walls; and Canvas Tote Bags.

Screen Printing:

Tools and Materials:

Stencils (Paper; Drawing Fluid, Screen Filler Stencils and Photographic Emulsion Stencils); Silk Screen Frame; Mesh; Squeegee; Scraper; and Inks and Retarder.

Techniques:

Making Stencils; Setting Up the Screen -Printing Area; Taping a Screen; Screen Printing; Cleaning the Screen; Artwork for Screen Printing; Repeating Patterns; and Troubleshooting.

Projects:

Paper Stencils: Baby Quilt; and Dog Bed;

Drawing Fluid and Screen Filler Stencils: Artwork;  and Apron;

Photographic Emulsion Stencils: Sheet Set; and Upholstered Chair.

In the back of the book are lists for supply sources and recommended reading, including sources of copyright-free artwork and an envelope of project designs and patterns.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.17.05And finally, some very specific books on printing with natural materials and stamps and Screen Printing!

Hand Printing From Nature: Create Unique Prints for Fabric, Paper, and Other Surfaces Using Natural and Found Materials by Laura Bethmann 2011

While specifically using on natural objects to provide direct impressions of life, this book is similar to the last one in that it also offers plenty of projects to get you started! This ancient art form requires no special equipment or training , just an appreciation of different patterns and shapes, design and colour and textures. In this book, Laura discusses:

Materials:

Natural Objects: Including Vegetation: Leaves; Flowers; Fruits and Vegetables; Seeds; Feathers. She discusses their collection, transport, storage and record keeping, as well as Pressing Plants;

Pigments and Inks: Ink pads; Water-Soluble Block-Printing Inks; Mixing Mediums (Acrylic Retarder or Extender); Flat Sheet Palettes (Glass or Freezer Paper); Fabric Paints; Acrylic Paints; Pigment Applicators (Dabbers; Brayers and Brushes);

Paper: Art Paper; Paper Terminology; Other Printing Surfaces: Fabric, Wood, Terracotta, Ceramics and Walls; and

Other Supplies: Pigment Mixers; Tweezers; Cover Sheets; Watercolour and Coloured Pencils; Spray Finishes; Workable Fixatives; Acrylic Clear Coatings; Fabric and Upholstery Protectors; Pressing Tools; Printing Presses; and Hand Stitching Supplies (threads, needles, scissors, pins, markers, iron).

Printing Methods and Projects: Like the previous book, the author believes in Learning by Doing and provides plenty of practical projects to illustrate and develop direct printing techniques. She starts each description with a checklist of materials and general hints on the use of tools and mediums.

These include:

Printing with Ink Pads and Felt Markers: Personalized Stationery and Note Cards;

Printing with Ink on Paper with a Dabber or a Brayer: Nature Notebooks;

Indirect Printing with Ink: Coordinated Desk Set: Message Board; Lampshade; Tape Dispenser; Pencil Cup; Notecard Holder; and Receipt Box;

Printing with Paint or Ink on Fabric: Apple-Starred Hassock; and Shirt. She also discusses Design and Colour;

Single and Repeated Motifs: Printed-Pocket Tote Bags; Key Holder; Cushions, Pillowcases, Lampshades and Aprons; Boxes and Frames; Furniture: Chairs and Tables; and Ceramic Containers and Plates;

Creating Patterns and Printing Yardage: Shell Hamper; Curtains; Lampshades; Pot Holders; Sheets; Table Runners; Tablecloths and Napkins; Tables and Upholstered Chairs and Footstools; and

Printing Scenes: Wall Hangings; Covered Tin Holders; Screens; Cushions; Art Prints and Wall Murals.

She also has sections on Design and Colour Principles and Lists of Resources and Other References and a Bibliography in the back.BlogPrintingBks4018-02-06 10.16.38Making an Impression: Designing and Creating Artful Stamps by Genine D. Zlatkis 2012

Genina is a wonderful artist, as can be seen if you follow her blog at: http://blogdelanine.blogspot.com.au/. She is also a Stamping Maestro, designing and hand-carving some highly original and delightful stamps. This book shows you how!

She starts with Stamping Basics:

Sources of Design Ideas: Nature; Books; and Internet. She also provides a number of design motifs and project templates in the back of the book.

Tools and Materials:

Rubber Carving Blocks;

Transfer Materials: Tracing paper; Soft-Lead Pencil; and a Bone Folder or Small Spoon;

Cutting and Carving Tools: Paper Scissors; Craft Knife; Lino Tools (Nos. 1, 2 and 5 cutters);

Inks: Pigment Ink Pads for Paper; and  Textile Ink Pads for cloth;

Printing Surfaces: Paper; Fabric; and Painted Surfaces; and

Other Tools and Materials: PVA Glue; Sewing Machine; Embroidery Threads; Beads and Charms; and Cording.

Techniques:

Transferring the Design;  and Cutting the Block.

Design:

Texture; Repetition; Positive and Negative Space; Pattern and Rhythm; Composition; Colour; and Hand Embroidery Stitches.

The majority of the book is devoted to Projects and Ideas for

Stamping on Paper: Eraser Stamps; Gift Tags; Stationery (Letter Paper and Envelopes); Bookplates; Wrapping Paper; Photo Frames; Journals and Book Covers; Postcards and Embroidered Cards; and Heart Wall Art and Posters.

Stamping on Fabric: Embroidered Bags; Coffee Cosies; Beaded Bird Brooches; and  T-shirts and Cushions;

Stamping on Other Surfaces: Clay Lids for Trinket Boxes; Terracotta Pots; Stones; and Wall Borders.

I love her style and this book makes you want to go straight out and start stamping!BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.16.48 The final book also features stamping, as well as stencilling and screenprinting.

Prints Charming: 40 Simple Sewing and Hand-Printing Projects for the Home and Family by Cath Derksema and Kirsten Junor 2010

Another lovely book with a very similar size, spiral binding and straight-forward presentation to Printing by Hand, reviewed three books ago, though a much more restricted subject matter (screen printing) and an emphasis on 40 printing projects. By rights, it could also fit equally well into my next post on textile printing, since most of the projects involve fabric, but I have included it here, because of the similarities already mentioned and because it concerns a specific type of printing and lastly, as a taster and introduction for the next post!

The first section covers the Basics of Sewing and Quilting, including an Equipment List and  a Stitch Guide; and Screen Printing, including a Step-by-Step Guide to Printing; Printing Stripes; and Printing Two Colours and Overprinting.

The majority of the book covers Projects for each room of the house with an introductory page, featuring the projects for each area and a key motif, and pattern sheets in the back:

Nursery: Heart: Cot Quilt; Embroidered Heart Cushion and Mobile; Curtains and Laundry Bag.

Girl’s Room: Bird & Flower: Kimono; Hexagon Cushion; Star Quilt; Treasure Pockets; Book Covers; Bird and Brooches;

Boy’s Room: Star: Singlet; Cushion; Sheet Set; Quilt; and Pinboard

Adult’s Room: Bindi: Bedhead; Quilt; Cushions and Lampshade; Kimono and Scarf;

Living Room: Paisley: Patchwork Throw and Cushion; Footstool; and Artwork;

Kitchen: Candelabra: Tea Towels; Apron; Tablecloth; Napkins and Placemats; and Tea Cosy;  and

Outdoors: Mixed: Beach Bag; Shorts; Sun Shirt; Sun Dress; Umbrella Bunting; and Picnic Rug.

I loved this book, because it combines printing with embroidery and sewing to create highly original and beautiful functional pieces.BlogPrintingBks3018-02-06 10.17.14

I shall be exploring further books, combining all these areas in my next craft book post on Textile Printing Books, but next week, I am introducing you to our Tea Garden.

Drawing and Art Library: Part Three: Watercolour Books and Artist’s Journals

Two weeks ago, I started with a discussion of general sketching and painting books in my art library, while last week, I featured some of my favourite art books for children. Because I am enamoured with Watercolour Painting, I own a number of books about the subject and this post will be covering them, as well as a few books about creating Artist’s Journals, another favourite subject area!

Watercolour Books

An Introduction to Watercolour by Ray Smith 1993

A good beginner’s guide, this Art School publication was produced in association with the Royal Academy of Arts and published by Dorking Kindersley, the series thus often being referred to as the DK Art School Series. It provides an ‘all-visual art course’, based on painting projects and exercises and using fully annotated, photographically sequenced instructions for a range of different techniques.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.02.10

It starts with a Brief History of Watercolour and includes Gallery Pages of works throughout the book by watercolour masters and contemporary artists, which serve to inspire the reader with examples and possibilities. They include: a Gallery of Colour; Brushstrokes; Paper; Washes; and Techniques.

Projects include:  Choosing Paints, Brushes and Papers; Mixing Colours; Colour Harmony; Light and Colour; Using Gouache; Sketching and Composition, Stretching and Toning; Laying a Wash; Tone and Colour; Brushmarks and Marks by Other Tools; Building Up Layers; Sponging Out; and Scratching Out and Resist Techniques. There is a Glossary of watercolour terms in the back, as well as Qualifying Notes on colours, pigments and toxicity, and brushes and papers.

I really enjoyed this introductory book on the subject and learnt so much about watercolours, including how the paints are made; the different types of brushes and their correct care;  the different types of paper and their qualities (absorbency/ surface and weight/acidity and manufacture); as well as the different types of washes.

There are two other watercolour titles in the Art School Series, neither of which I own: Watercolour Colour; and Watercolour Landscape; as well as books about other forms of painting, including  the titles:  DK Art School : An Introduction to Art Techniques; An Introduction to Oil Painting; An Introduction to Acrylics; An Introduction to Drawing; An Introduction to Mixed Media; An Introduction to Pastels; An Introduction to Perspective; Drawing Figures;  and Oil Painting Portraits, all written by Ray Smith. See: https://www.librarything.com/author/smithray-1.

The Complete Watercolour Artist: Materials, Techniques, Colour Theory, Composition, Style and Subject  Edited by Sally Harper 1997

An excellent comprehensive guide, similar in its size and coverage to The Complete Book of Drawing and How To Paint and Draw: A Complete Course on Practical and Creative Techniques, both featured in my first post on drawing and art books. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2018/02/20/drawing-and-art-library-part-one-sketching-and-painting-books/.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.02.27

Like the previous book, it starts with a History of Watercolour Painting, then progresses to a discussion of Materials: Paints and Colours; Tubes and Paintboxes; Gouache; Brushes; Papers (including step by step instructions for stretching paper); Drawing Boards and Easels; Palettes and Recessed Wells; Other Sundries (eg sponges; blotting paper; cotton wool, tooth brushes, scalpel, and masking tape and fluid) and Indoor Lighting.

The section on Techniques is very detailed and comprehensive, each technique description being supplemented with artworks and useful artists’ tips. They are grouped in their order of application when creating a painting, moving from washes and foundation techniques through brush techniques and colour effects and finally,  to making changes and corrections. Here is a brief summary of each group:

Laying Washes and Foundations: Flat Washes; Wash on Dry/ Damp Paper; Gradated and Variegated Washes; Textures; Granulation; Backruns; Wet-In-Wet; Hard and Soft Edges; Building Up Watercolour Overpainting and Underpainting; Glazing; Using Gouache; Drawing; and Squaring Up.

Brush Techniques, Colour Effects and Alternative Techniques, and Media: Brush Drawing; Brush Marks; Dry Brush; Scumbling (another wonderful word, referring to the technique of scrubbing very dry paint unevenly over another layer of dry colour, so that the first one shows through, thereby creating texture, broken colour effects and a glowing richness to colours, especially in opaque media); Stippling; Spattering; Body Colour and Toned Ground; Blending; Broken Colour; Highlighting; Masking; Lifting Out (removing paint from paper); Surface and Imitative Textures; Sponge Painting and Blotting; Line and Wash; Scraping Back; Wash-Off; Wax Resist; Using Gum Arabic; and Mixed Media.

Making Changes: Corrections and Colour Changes.

The section on Colour and Composition examines a number of principles, common to all forms of painting, which should be learned and understood before breaking them in the pursuit of creativity. They include:

Composition: Size and Shape; Dynamics of the Rectangle; Dividing the Rectangle; Thumbnail Sketches; Similarity and Contrast; Making and Using a Viewfinder; Edges of Paintings; Viewpoints; Composing a Figure Painting/ Townscape or Landscape/ and Still-Life; Balance and Counterbalance; Centre of Interest; Directing the Eye; Tonal Values; Illusion of Depth; Making Value Sketches; Value Scales; Keying Your Values; High-Key/ Middle-Key and Low-Key Paintings; Aerial Perspective; Creating Mood in Landscapes/ Interiors/ Portraits; and Using Limited Tones and Shadows Creatively.

Colours: Choosing Colours (Blues/ Yellows and Browns/ Reds/ Greens/ Black and Greys/ Whites); Paint Qualities (Transparency; Permanence; Mixing Qualities); Colour Relationships; Flower Colours; Mixing Colours; Mixing without Muddying; and White Space.

Again, the text is supported by examples of artist’s works and projects and exercises.

The chapter on Style examines the work of other watercolourists throughout history. In the past, many artists developed their skills by copying the styles of the masters, right up until the Impressionist era, however today, modern artists  tend to make visual references in their work to other paintings, including the use of similar compositional elements or reinterpreting a particular theme. A study of the works of past masters and painting styles aids an understanding of and development of your own stylistic preferences. Art Movements, including practising artists, photographs of art works, key features and projects, include:

Impressionism: Monet, Pissaro, Degas, Renoir, Sisley, Morisot, Cassatt and Bonnard: Working directly outdoors; Relationship of Light and Colour; and Responding to Movement, using light and colour, rather than painting subjects. Projects: Capturing Immediate Impressions and Series Paintings.

Expressionism: Ensor, Munch, Nolde, Kirchner, Bacon, Schiele, Marc and Van Gogh : Composition, Distortion and Stylization; Colours as Expressions; Key Tones; Expressive Mark Making; Projects: Expressing Character and a Sense of Place.

Abstractioning from Nature and Pure Abstraction: De Stael, De Kooning, Sutherland, Davis, Avery, Sparks, Wols, O’Keefe ,Kandinsky, Mondrian, Malevich, Tothko, Pollock, Louis and Stella: Sources of Absract Imagery; Compositional Elements; Abstractional Styles; Projects: Collage from a Landscape/ Still-Life; a Painted Abstraction and Colour Drawing of the Same Collage; and Geometric and Gestural Abstraction.

The final chapter covers Subject Matter, using a similar format (artists/ photographs of artwork/ key features, artists’ hints and projects) and different techniques and approaches to portray:

Still-Life: Vermeer, Van Gogh, Cézanne, Chardin, Rembrandt, the Dutch Still-Life Painters of the 17th Century: ‘Found Groups’; Themes (Culinary/ Literary/ Pictorial Biography); Backgrounds; Setting up a Still-Life; Plants and Flowers: Composition; Indoor Arrangements; Single Specimens; and Natural Habitat. Projects: Approaches to Still-Life: Objects with personal appeal/ everyday objects/ and objects in the landscape; and Flower Arrangements (Cyclamen/ Persimmon and Plums/ and Narcissi in Sunlight).

Landscape:  English Watercolour tradition: Gainsborough, Girtin, Constable and Turner and the Norwich School: Cotman and Crome: Practical Hints for Painting Outdoors; Trees and Foliage; Fields and Hills; Rocks and Mountains; Clouds and Skies; Light and Shade; Painting Shadows; Weather: Mist and Fog/ Snow Scenes; Water: Light on Water/Moving and Still Water/Reflections; Buildings: Linear and Simple/ Complex Perspective; Inside Looking Out; and  Framing a View. Projects: Distant Hills/  Old Harry and His Wife/ Hot Sun / Moon River/ Trees and Water; and Lifting Out.

Animals: Wade, Jesty, Boys, Dawson and Willis: Sketching from Life; Birds; Domestic and Farm Animals; Wild Animals; Movement; and Textures. Projects: Horse’s Head/Squirrel/ Mackerel.

Portrait and Figure Work: Kunz, Lew, Cassels: Proportions of the Figure and Head; Head from an Angle; Flesh Tones; Shadows and Highlights; Hair and Fabrics (folds, pattern, texture, shadows,  drapery and reflected light); Capturing a Likeness; and Moving Figures; Projects: Young Skin/Hair/ Ribbed Sweater.

It is hard to imagine a more comprehensive book on the subject and I would highly recommend this book!

Now for a few specific books on using watercolours to paint one of my favourite subjects:  My Garden and its Flowers !!!

The Watercolourist’s Garden by Jill Bays 1993/ 1997

As you all know, I love my garden and this lovely book gives me the tools and techniques to portray its beautiful contents!BlogArtBooks2518-01-05 18.02.00

It begins with Basic Art Theory, common to the other art books, with notes on Materials, Colour (including a basic palette) and Complementary Colours; Drawing, Composition, Perspective and Handling Paint (watercolour techniques in a nutshell); Using Photographs and Reference and Sketch-Books; Working Outside on Location and Lighting; and Style and Inspiration.

The following chapters are divided by season and include suggestions for painting seasonal flowers and plants, as well as enlarging on specific techniques and providing step-by-step demonstrations to follow. Here are the subject headings:

Spring: Tonal Values; Wet into Wet; Painting Leaves & Vegetables; Tulips, Bearded Iris & Anemones.

Summer: Experimentation; Still-Life; Flowers in the Landscape; Wild Gardens; Summer Vegetables and Fruits; Wild Flowers, Poppies, Roses and Other Summer Flowers.

Autumn: Garden Painting; Interiors; Mood; Using Containers; Seeds and Berries, Fungi, Autumn Fruit & Vegetables; Autumn Leaves and Berries; Dahlias.

Winter: Still-Life and Landscapes; Dried Flowers; Winter Bulbs; Winter Vegetables, Early Primroses; Cyclamen and Reflections.At the end of the book are notes on Problems with Watercolour ; Exhibiting Your Work; and a Glossary of Terms.

This book was published in Britain, so the seasons are very defined, while we here in Australia have a much milder climate, though we still have seasons in the south, so we have lots of opportunities to use this book!

Learn to Paint Flowers in Watercolour by Marjorie Blamey 1984

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Even though this book covers similar subject matter, with an element of seasonality as well, I have still included it as different approaches suit different people with different learning styles and it is always useful to have advice from a variety of sources. While I personally prefer Jill’s looser style and the more informal romantic feel of her book, Marjorie’s guide probably has a more simple, straightforward presentation. She describes her background and watercolour journey, as well as her reasons for painting flowers, before getting down to the nitty-gritty with chapters on :

Materials and Equipment: Watercolour Tubes and Paintbox; Gouache; Pencils; Brushes; Papers; Mixed Media.

Drawing Techniques: Leaves; Flower Anatomy; Flowers in Perspective; Sketching Outdoors.

Colour: Greens; Flower Colour; Problem Pinks; Poppies and Cornfield Flowers; Surfaces, Shadows and Highlights; Shapes, Spots and Stripes; White Flowers; Tinted Papers; and Summer Flowers.

Painting Through the Seasons: Flowers of Spring, Summer, Autumn Tints and Winter Shades.

Further chapters include: The Broader View: Flowers in the Landscape; Keeping It Simple; and Photography and the Flower Painter.

The Watercolour Flower Painter’s Pocket Palette Volume Two : Practical Visual Advice on How to Create Flower Portraits Using Watercolours by Adelene Fletcher 2000

A lovely little pocket guide and another favourite! While I do not own the first volume, The Watercolour Flower Painter’s Pocket Palette, this companion book still provides an instant and comprehensive guide to painting over 70 different types of flowers, fruit and foliage.BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 11.39.02It starts with a guide to using the book; a useful colour chart and paint permanence ratings (see photo from Pages 4-5 above), progressing to various techniques including: Washes; Amending Colours; Creating Soft Edges; Avoiding Colour Runs; Two-Tone Brushwork; Negative Shapes; Sgraffito; and Impressing.

Flowers are categorised into their different shapes : Bells and Trumpets; Lipped and Bearded; Cup and Bowl; Rays and Pompoms; Simple Stars; Multi-Headed; and Spikes, and then grouped by colour: Yellow; Orange and Red; Pink; Purple and Blue; and White, Cream and Green, each section containing step-by-step demonstrations and concluded by an example artwork. A variety of berries and leaves are covered in the final pages.

Other titles in this series include: The Watercolour Painter’s Pocket Palette; The Watercolour Landscape Painter’s Pocket Palette and The Oil and Acrylic Painter’s Pocket Palette, all written by Adelene Fletcher.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.02.44And finally, to another favourite category of Art Books:

Artist’s Journals

I love looking at other people’s art and illustrated travel journals. They are always so interesting, highly personal, creative and inspiring and make you want to follow their example. The following three books show you how to achieve your aim and again, all three, while covering similar subject material, all have different approaches and presentations, so one of them should appeal!

Create Your Own Artist’s Journal by Erin O’Toole 2002

BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.02.53I love this hardback book with its thick matt paper pages, its chatty personal text and its logical simple approach. I also like the fact that visual journals can be produced anywhere and can include sketches and paintings of familiar home surroundings and objects, not necessarily images of exotic travels, though I do love those as well!!!  I love her use of quaint illustrations, rather than photographs, to depict her suggestions.

There is a brief history of Erin’s journey, as well as a useful metric conversion chart in the front, followed by chapters on:

Starting a Journal: First Marks; Creating a Routine; Observation Skills; Page Design and Construction.

Materials: Store-Bought and Home-Made Books; Painting and Drawing Media and Equipment; and General Kit: Shoulder Bag; Art Tackle Box; Field Guides and Maps; Camera and Binoculars; Viewfinder; Fixative; Water Bottle; and a Folding Chair. There are also instructions for Making a Book with One Sheet of Paper.

In the Garden: Flowers; Insects and Cocoons, and Birds and Creatures; as well as notes on Dark and Light; Light Angle; Colour; and Garden Plans.

About the Neighbourhood: Architecture; Public Parks; Market and the Zoo; People; Pets and Family and notes on Drawing While Waiting and Sketching in Public.

On the Road: Braving the Elements; Taking the Slow Road; Maps; Historic Places; Farm Animals; Weather; Landscapes in Watercolour; On the Water; and Drawing from Photos.

Drawing Wildlife: Subject Matter and Venues (Wildlife Sanctuaries and Natural History Museums); Line Drawing; Using Binoculars; Unexpected Animals; Wild Flowers; Natural Habitats; and Observation Skills.

Refining and Sharing Your Journals: Hand Writing ; Making Changes and Corrections; Research; Taking Notes; Story-telling; Sharing with Family (Colour Photocopies; Scanning on Computer; Use on Postcards, Cards and Letters; Websites and Blogs); and Submitting Drawings to community organizations, and natural history  groups and historical societies.

In the back is a useful list of Suggested Reading for Art Journals, as well as Books on drawing, watercolour, writing, and bookbinding. I love Erin’s informal, romantic and blowsy style.

Artist’s Journal Workshop: Creating Your Life in Words and Pictures by Cathy Johnson 2011

Another book with a more modern feel and a bold, common sense approach, which encourages experimentation.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.03.01  It has five chapters:

Getting Started:

Exploring What You Want (Reasons and Desires; Subject Matter; and When and How);

Drawing a Journal Map and Overcoming First-Page Jitters (something of which  I am commonly guilty!); Journal Name; Sharing; Errors; and Jump Right In;

Physical Journals and Other Materials and Supplies, including Different Media.

Test Drive:

Experiment with Different Media and Test Drive Graphite Pencil/ Coloured Pencil/ Pen/ Watercolour/ Gouache/Watercolour Pencils/ Collage;

Page Design and Composition: Positioning Text; Text for Balance; Eye Path; Borders and Grids; and Double Page Spreads.

Exploring Journals:

Different Types of Journal (with hints for producing each type): The Daily Journal; Travel Journal (Physical and Virtual); Memory Journal; Reportage Journal and Nature Journal.

Journals can also be used to document Dreams and Imagination; Dealing with Challenges; Spiritual Journey; Life’s Journey (Integrated Journal), as well as to plan and practice techniques.

Journaling Lifestyle:

Attitudes and Habits: Allowing Time; Developing a Habit; Important Moments and Honoring Milestones; Work Anywhere and Work Fast; Gesture Sketches and Grids; Composite Pages; Weather; Classes and Sketch Crawls; and Using a Journal as a Learning Tool.

Pulling It All Together: Favourite Media/ Style/ Subjects and Journals; Patch as a Design/ Decorative Element; Things That Don’t Work; Rules Don’t Apply; Continue to Explore; Go Online; Follow Your Inclinations; Travel Light; and Daily Practice.

The book finishes with a Section on Resources, complete with websites for further exploration: Contributors; Illustrated Journals and Diaries;  Books on Journaling and Sketching and Drawing; and Instructional CDs and DVDs and Classes.

The Decorated Journal: Creating Beautifully Expressive Journal Pages by Gwen Diehn 2005

A final beautiful hardback guide to creating artist’s journals, the subtitle says it all! It covers many areas and subjects, not covered by the previous books, and has a totally different approach and style.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.03.11The book being divided into four sections:

Materials and How To Use Them: Determined and Neutral Materials; Paper and Blank Books; Binding Styles; Pigments and Paints: Watercolour, Gouache and Acrylic; Brushes; Pen and Ink; Adhesives; Pencils and Crayons; Grounds; and Other Useful Tools: Stencils; Matt Knives and Straight Edges.

How Does Your Journal See the World: Different World Views and their Translation into Journals:

Layered World : Resulting in a Layered Journal, naturally!;

Creative World : Used as a resource of ideas and information for future creative projects;

Wabi-Sabi World: Key tenets are simplicity, humility and modesty; Nature; unconventional beauty; impermanence; and imperfections, hence these journals are simple and rough; made of natural materials, employ warm, earthy, dark colours with low intensity, and use minimal medium;

Naturalist’s World: Functional precise nature observations with maps, diagrams and sketches;

Spiritual World: Journal dimensions form golden rectangles and page elements display golden proportion and rectangles, as well as other proportions and geometric forms from sacred geometry. Journals are covered in sensuous materials and decorated with rich colours and textures, the text is laden with imagery and journals can even include a few drops of essential oils, inviting contemplation, reflection and meditation;

Symbolic World: Dreams and Symbols, Patterns and Motifs; Abstract Colours and Forms; and Collage Elements;

Inner World: Surrealism and Subconscious Imagery; Automatic Writing and Morning Pages; Doodles and Random Marks; Lists of Words; Collections of Ephemera; Patches of Texture; Fragmented Images; Thoughts and Feelings; and Memory Prompts.

Pages in Stages: Ways of Working:

Ways to Get Started: Paper; Poured Colours; Printed Forms; Maps and Diagrams; Copier Transfer; Collage; Stitching; Challenges; Altered Books and Pages; and Patterns Lost and Found.

Middles: Writing; Subtracting Text; Extending Collage; Drawing; Mapping; Painting; Relief Prints , Rubbings and Stamping.

Toppings: Writing; Watercolour Washes; Eliminating Work; Separating Layers; Journaling with Children; Collage as a Link; Collaborations and Group Journaling; and Pauses.

The Reluctant Bookbinder :

How to Make Books: Basics; Three-Minute and Six-Minute Pamplets; 30 minute Multiple Pamphlet Journal; Making a Travel Journal; Two-Hour Journal; Sewing Frames; and

Customizing a Blank Book: Removing Pages; Adding and Changing Elements ( eg Envelopes/Smaller  Piggyback Journals/ Sheets of Watercolour Paper/ Grid Paper/ Coloured Paper/ Tracing Paper/ Specialty Papers); Laminating Pages; Modifying Covers (eg. Encrustation; Collage and Lettering); Altering a Book; and Using an Old Book Cover.

Overall, I would have to say that I’ve saved the best till last, though really all the books are beautiful and have their own individual strengths and advantages. However, I did find that this last book was such an interesting read and I learned so much about a wide variety of subjects: Making ochre pigments; egg tempera, casein paints, and inks from oak galls and charcoal; Historical Inventor’s Journals; The Japanese Aesthetic of Wabi-Sabi; Making a Golden Journal; the Practices of Surrealism; Book Binding Methods and History; and Making the Physical Journal.

Next week, I will be discussing some of my favourite printing books. In the meantime, Happy Journalling and Art Making!

Drawing and Art Library: Part Two: Art Books For Children

Betty Edwards has a large section in her book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, about the creative ability of children and their development as artists as they mature. Apparently, most adults in the Western World do not progress in art skills beyond their level of development at the ages of nine or ten years old and are self-conscious and embarrassed  about their artistic abilities. At this particular age, children suddenly become very self-critical and embarrassed about their attempts to produce less than perfectly realistic depictions, often internalising the derogatory opinions of significant others and then, sadly and abruptly, abandoning their art.

She discusses the different stages of artistic development from :

Scribbling (1.5 to 4 years old) and its different stages. Symbolic and simple, it increases in complexity at 3.5 years old, reflecting the child’s growing awareness and perceptions of the world around him/her. Details of clothing are incorporated at 4 years old and between 4 and 5 years old, pictures are used to tell stories, portray feelings and work out problems.

Between 5 and 6 years old, the child has developed a set of symbols to create a landscape, usually including the ground and sky; a house or home with relevant details (door with doorknob, windows and curtains, and  a roof with chimney); a path and fence; trees and flowers, birds and insects, and maybe people or family members; mountains, clouds and a sun and/or rainbow and rain.

By 9 or 10 years old, that dreaded definitive age (!), children aim for increasing detail and realism in their art. Concern for composition diminishes and drawings are differentiated by gender, due to cultural factors. Boys begin to draw cars, weapons, fighting scenes and legendary heroes like pirates and Vikings, while girls depict flowers in vases, waterfalls, mountains reflected in still lakes, pretty girls and fashion models. Cartoons become more popular, as they enable early adolescents to avoid the feeling that their drawing is ‘babyish’!

By age 10 or 11 years, their passion for realism is in full bloom and when their drawings are less than perfectly realistic, children become discouraged and it is at this point that continued art education is so important to help them understand the artistic process and give them tools and techniques to achieve their goals.

Unfortunately, during my secondary school education, our subjects were streamed in lines and  because I followed academic subjects like languages, sciences and advanced mathematics, I did not return to art study until matriculation. In those days, most people were able to matriculate in one year with four subjects, but because physics and chemistry were studied over two years, and I had already gained results in Biology and Maths, I was able to fill the extra two lesson slots with English Literature and Art. However, because of the lack of tuition in the intervening years and my lack of self-confidence in the artistic sphere, especially compared to the amazing efforts of my fellow art students, I majored in Art History, with Batik as my medium for the practical component!

Little wonder then that I placed such a high value on developing creativity in my own children, who studied art all the way through and past the danger period, becoming very competent adult artists. In fact, my daughter Caroline has just finished illustrating her first book, a self-help publication, written by her sister’s friend, a personal life coach, Hayat Berkaoui. See: http://www.hayatcoaching.com/   and https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?q=hayat%20ber. This will be the front cover. Look out for it!BlogArtBooks70%IMG_8320Here are some of the books I used to maintain, nurture and develop my children’s artistic talent.

You Can Draw Anything by Kim Gamble 1994

We were lucky enough to attend a talk given by the creator of Tashi at my children’s primary school in Armidale. For information about Kim, see: http://tashibooks.com/Kimgamble.html about Kim, for information about the Tashi books, see: http://tashibooks.com/books.html and for Kim’s illustration process, it is especially worth watching: http://tashibooks.com/illustrating.html. Another excellent video clip can be found on http://tashibooks.com/Creators.html, as well as on YouTube at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVxuefbKqoI.

I was so sad to discover during my research for this post that Kim had died in February 2016 at the far too early age of 63 years old! See his tribute by Anna Fienberg, his co-creator of the Tashi books at: http://readingtime.com.au/vale-kim-gamble-13-july-1952-19-february-2016/.

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I loved this book with its quirky illustrations, humorous text and imaginative suggestions, using basic shapes (circles, rectangles, squares, ovals and triangles) as starting points, which make the whole drawing process look so easy.  Along the way, he covers: Using a Grid; Drawing Faces and Human Figures, including Action Men; Drawing Animals; Perspective; and Shading and Cross-Hatching.

He includes illustrated instructions for drawing favourite childhood subject matter like cars, planes and trains; fairies and flying witches; castles; forests and flowers; and dragons, dinosaurs and whales!

Drawing should be FUN and the next book by Quentin Blake and John Cassidy is another wonderful addition to your children’s art library!

Drawing for the Artistically Undiscovered by Quentin Blake and John Cassidy 1999

Quentin Blake is very well-known for his illustrations for many of Roald Dahl’s books, favourites among children, so the illustrations in this delightful sketching guide are very familiar and appealing to  children, their parents and  Roald Dahl readers. See: https://www.quentinblake.com/; https://www.quentinblake.com/tags/roald-dahl; and http://www.roalddahl.com/blog/2016/march/quentin-blake-collaborating-with-roald-dahl.

BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.37.35This book is so much fun and very child-centred in its approach, with its first page dedicated to the child owner’s signature and lots of intentional mistakes, smudges and scribbles. I love the authors’ ‘Gung-Ho approach to art’ (photo below of page 5); BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.31.56 and admonition to avoid self-criticism or listen to negative remarks! (photo of page 22).BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.33.08The authors encourage children to draw on the pages and this book is littered with my daughter Jenny’s artwork and I’m sure contributed greatly to the development of her artistic talent (see photo below of pages 28 and 29 : Clocks and Candles).BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.33.26BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.33.36 I love her illustrations of Dogs (Page 60);BlogArtBooks4018-01-07 09.35.47 Birds (Page 63); BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 09.36.20 and Pigs (Page 65). BlogArtBooks4018-01-07 09.36.10The latter photo featuring an illustration of Piglutta, a central character of the annual magazines she produced as a teenager and her first novel, The Adventures of Camel, Piggy and Hippoe 2008.BlogArtBooks3018-01-07 15.58.37 Horses, fish, crocodiles, cockatoos, emotional rabbits, human faces and figures are also covered and, despite its informal and humorous approach, the book still manages to impart valuable knowledge about perspective; light and shadow; and silhouettes.BlogArtBooks2518-01-07 09.34.46Another very effective technique involves asking children to lend their own touch of genius to unfinished drawings. See the photo above of the Greatly Fearded 14-Legged Galumposaurus, Which Needs a Back End (Pages 54 to 55) and the photo below, Mrs Thudkin’s Floppaterasis and the 3-Headed Red-Spotted Gorff (Pages 56 to 57).BlogArtBooks2518-01-07 09.35.34It is a terrific book and even comes complete with a clear pencil case, containing a red and black watercolour pencil and a black ink sketch pen, attached to the spine.

You Can Draw a Kangaroo: The Poems Tell You What To Do 1964/ 1985 Published forthe Australian Information Service by the Australian Government Publishing Service

A delightful quirky old guide to drawing Australian animals from my childhood, which I still use to create embroidery designs.BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.08.52 Using humorous rhyme, as indicated by the subtitle, and sequential drawings based on basic shapes (ovals, circles etc ), it makes it easy to produce basic recognizable line drawings of our unique Australian wildlife, including a Kangaroo, Emu, Echidna, Budgerigar, Magpie, Wombat, Platypus, Goanna, Pelican, Kookaburra, Koala, Boobook Owl, Brolga, Bandicoot, Cockatoo, Glider, Swan, Groper, Turtle, Cassowary, Mud-Skipper, Frilled Lizard and Lyrebird. Here is a sample page: The Kangaroo.BlogArtBooks4018-01-07 09.37.15How To Draw and Paint the Outdoors: Practical Techniques for All Junior Painters  by Moira Butterfield 1995

A lovely children’s book and my final book for today! As you all know, I am a great believer in forging the link between nature and children, and this book is a valuable contributor to the cause, as well as developing the child’s passion and ability for drawing and painting. It is written for children between the ages of seven and twelve, a very important make-or-break period for children’s art!BlogArtBooks3018-01-05 18.01.50

There are many wonderful practical examples and easy-to-follow instructions on perspective; light and shade; mixing colours; brush strokes and painting without a brush (stippling, dot/ dash painting, sponging, dragging and combing, waxing and scratching); working with photographs; scaling and enlarging pictures; and the realistic portrayal of a range of subject matter from landscapes, city scapes and industrial scenes to sky, water and waves, and trees and flowers, as well as information on colouring with different types of paints, pastels, chalks and crayons, and more unusual techniques like printing, finger painting, painting on glass, textured rubbings and collages. Other projects include: Making a Portfolio; a Viewfinder; a 3-D Landscape; and Maps and Models.BlogColorDesignReszd25%Image (788) - Copy - CopyPlease note that last month’s post on Design and Inspiration also featured some wonderful books for encouraging children’s art and creativity: The Usborne Book of Art Ideas and The Usborne Book of Art Projects. See: https://wordpress.com/post/candeloblooms.com/51827.

Next week, I will be looking at some of my favourite books on Watercolour Painting, as well as Artists’ Journals!