Christmas 2018

A short post this time, looking back on the past year and forward to the future in 2019! We started the year camping on New Years Eve at Wyanbene Caves, Deua National Park, then sliding down the slippery-slide rocks at Tuross Falls, Wadbilliga National Park.BlogXmas2018post2517-12-31 16.50.54BlogXmas2018post2518-01-01 13.43.41 Summer is Agapanthus time and filled with the deafening noise of cicadas, so I loved this photo of the combination- pure Summer!BlogXmas2018post2518-01-02 08.52.34 We said a temporary goodbye to eldest daughter Jen, back to Berlin and the rugged German Winter,BlogXmas2018post3018-01-03 13.51.24 but welcomed Caroline’s husky puppy, Floki, into the family.BlogXmas20182018-01-21 18.41.36

The long hot days continued into February with swimming at Bithry Inlet,BlogXmas2018post2518-02-14 06.59.27 beautiful roses like William Morris,BlogXmas2018post3018-01-23 14.54.42 and harvest feasts for body and soul!BlogXmas2018post2518-01-31 18.21.06BlogXmas2018post2518-02-06 09.22.08BlogXmas2018post3018-02-10 09.49.15-1In March, we explored Brogo Dam by kayak.BlogXmas2018post4018-03-03 13.01.18-1 The floral extravaganzas continued…,BlogXmas2018post2518-04-03 08.39.26BlogXmas2018post2518-03-11 10.41.43-2 and we had a week’s holiday in Victoria, celebrating my friend’s birthday, viewing the Marimekko exhibition at Bendigo Art GalleryBlogXmas201820%DSCN0487 and visiting many beautiful gardens like The Witches’ Garden and Frogmore Gardens.BlogXmas2018post3018-03-17 17.02.18BlogXmas201820%DSCN0530 April saw the arrival of materials to finally start lining the ceiling of our old shed and evict the possum squatter forever (though he has pushed his way through the gutter wire to squeeze into the cavity between the roof and the new ceiling- all very cosy with the insulation as well!);BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-24BlogXmas2018post5018-04-26 08.24.59 the installation of solar panels on the roof, another longheld desire;BlogXmas2018post2518-04-05 15.13.55 a holiday origami workshop with Zoe;BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-18 (2) and the creation of a beautiful felt cushion and card for my Mum’s birthday and based on my favourite Pinks, which were just starting to come into flower.BlogXmas2018post3018-04-25 12.10.06 By May, we were well and truly into Autumn and the changing of the guard in the foliage of our borrowed landscape and backdrop to our garden.BlogXmas2018post3018-05-12 10.50.48-1 The Little Corellas briefly returned, as well as huge flocks of very hungry King Parrots grazing on the lawn and feasting on tomatoes, cumquats and anything else they could find!BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-48 We visited Picnic Point and Wapengo Lake…BlogXmas2018post2518-05-24 10.02.44BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-168 and explored the top end of Brogo Dam.BlogXmas2018post30%Ross mob ph 024BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-105We did the big trip north with daughter Caroline to visit my Mum in Brisbane in June, a welcome break from the Winter cold and a wonderful opportunity to view the Winter flowers of Mt Annan (Australian natives) and Mt Tomah (South African and Australian Proteacaea family) Botanical Gardens…

BlogXmas2018post2518-06-09 10.09.53 and the camellias of the EG Waterhouse Gardens and Eryldene, the camellia mecca and home of the great man himself.BlogXmas2018post2518-06-11 11.36.55BlogXmas20182016-01-01 01.00.00-134 In the Blue Mountains, we heard the wonderfully haunting strains of a didgeridoo echoing across the valley from Pulpit Rock on our bushwalk in Blackheath.BlogXmas201820%DSCN2422 On our arrival home, Ross started lining the shed ceiling with builder Tony.BlogXmas201820%DSCN1952 July saw lots of activity in the sewing room, making embroidery and crochet rolls, toy mice and rabbits, lady beetle purses and a Mama chook, Henny Penny, with her brood of juggling chickens.BlogXmas2018post2518-07-29 20.51.00BlogXmas2018post2518-07-21 16.41.22BlogXmas2018post2518-08-04 19.00.52 The Winter was bracingly cold, the icy skies filled with snow-laden clouds,BlogXmas2018post2518-07-23 16.53.36 but it didn’t stop Caroline performing at Bodalla Dairy with her biggest fan!2018-07-09 00.30.37 August is hellebore time and the start of the Spring bulbs like these Tête à Tête daffodils.BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_5345BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_5311 A major fire started to the north-east of Bega, its smoke billowing for months with burning back work. BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_5146It was also the month of the eclipse and a blood-red moon.BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_5301 Floki turned into a beautiful hound, who is not afraid to take the odd liberty, but with such a complimentary colour scheme, how could I scold him! He also started Caro off on her career as an animal portraitist. It still blows me away that she used pencils!BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_6046BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_5317 And our Jen returned from Germany to live back in Australia permanently- at least, we hope so! It is so wonderful having her back!

The garden started to wake up in September with hyacinths, grape hyacinths, daffodils, English primroses and Dutch crocus.BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_5645BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_5819BlogXmas201820%DSCN3473 All blooms were later than usual, because of the prolonged drought, and we found this phenomenon replicated in the natural environment, when we introduced Jen to one of our favourite walks from Bittangabee Bay to Hegarty’s Bay, expecting to admire the annual Spring wildflower display, which was non-existent!BlogXmas201820%DSCN3667 It is so lovely to finally have some blooms for flower arranging and decorating Caro’s birthday cake.BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_5685 By October, Spring had well and truly sprung, starting with the Bearded and Dutch Iris, the former flowering for the first time.BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_7818BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_7772 The intersectional and tree peony blooms were also firsts,BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_7797BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_7115 then it was the start of the rose season with Souvenir de la Malmaison in full perfect bloom! How I love this rose, especially when she is behaving!BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_7633 We had a quick trip to Sydney in early October to diagnose Ross’s eye problem- the sight in his left eye had dramatically reduced to 5/30, so we called into Canberra en route to view the Cook and The Pacific exhibition at the National Library and the 60 000 wonderful crocheted and knitted poppies in the lawns of the Australian War Memorial (Honour Their Spirit).IMG_6933 The weather started to warm up in November with a trip to Wonboyn with a visiting friend;BlogXmas201820%DSCN4344 the first blooming of our Shady Lady Waratah;BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_8325 a glut of strawberries;BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_7931 and an explosion of colour in the garden with lavenders, roses and poppies of every description!BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_8508BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_8505BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_8974 I was spoilt for choice with flower arranging!BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_9553BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_8729 In preparation for the shed opening in December, there was a final burst of creative activity with my felt cushions,BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9747BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_9772 as well as sign writing (Jenny) and publicity for the opening day, which included an open garden tour with Ross and music provided by my two gorgeous girls.BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9417BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9441BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_9773IMG_9832 Even the shed roses came to the party: Fritz Nobis on the front beside the side doorBlogXmas2018post40%IMG_9447 and Albertine on the frame on the back wall of the shed.BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9538BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_9488 And finally, December with the big shed opening on the Candelo Market Sunday, the 2nd December, a wonderful occasion with lots of positive feedback and good will from over 100 visitors.GTOD9695BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_0118BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_0091BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_9988 The shed looked beautiful with lots of wonderful handmade goodies, flowers, Caroline’s cards and Kirsten’s handmade ceramics and calendula soap balls for sale.BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_9983BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_0169BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9903 - CopyBlogXmas201820%DSCN4568BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9984 - CopyBlogXmas2018post30%IMG_0184 A tawny frogmouth mum and baby visited the garden for the occasion, while Oliver is a regular fixture.BlogXmas201820%DSCN4580BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_0178 The Little Corellas are also back with their huge raucous flyovers waking us up at 5am each morning.BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_0468IMG_0189 It has been super-busy ever since with a whirlwind visit to the Sydney Eye Hospital for microsurgery to remove numerous eye cancers in his left eye- a legacy of farming days and a salient reminder to all of us to wear sunglasses!

We made the most of the unexpectedly free morning before the operation to visit Nutcote, the beautiful old home of May Gibbs of Snugglepot and Cuddlepie fame, featured recently in the film, Ladies in Black, set in 1959 Sydney.BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_0449 We are now preparing for Christmas, as well as continuing to open the shed on Sundays. It is such a fun time of year and the blooms reflect it!BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9876BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_9857 We are also loving the dogwood, dahlias, lilies and alstroemeria at the moment.BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_0054BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_0053BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_0398BlogXmas2018post40%IMG_0396So, plans for the future?!! Having thoroughly enjoyed the whole process, we will continue to open the shed on Sundays, replenishing handmade items as they are sold, as well as fulfilling a few commissions.BlogXmas2018post50%IMG_0448 I will also be holding hand sewing workshops for children every month. Jen painted the sign and flyers for my workshop too.BlogXmas201820%DSCN4562 Ross will be busy in the garden, building a garden shed and a chook house, as well as re-terracing the future lavender bank and…BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_0034maintaining the garden for general enjoyment, garden visitors and my floristry!BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_6641 This increased workload will however necessitate restructuring my time next year and alas, I am sorry to say that I will only be posting once a month, if that, in order to be able to fulfill my work obligations. Time is so precious!BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_7286 I have thoroughly enjoyed writing the blog over the past three years, so the journey is not over- more a temporary respite! I loved this quote from Goethe on a sign on the steep staircase leading up to Nutcote from Kurraba Point in Neutral Bay, Sydney.BlogXmas2018post30%IMG_0445Wishing you all a very happy, healthy and safe Christmas and 2019.

All our Love and Best Wishes, Jane and Ross xxxBlogXmas2018post25%IMG_0519BlogXmas2018post25%IMG_0562

Winter Gardens to Visit: Part Two: Native Gardens

We are so lucky here in Australia that much of our native flora, as well as South African natives, bloom in the Winter. Here are two wonderful native gardens we visited last June!

The Australian Botanic Garden Mount Annan

Narellan Rd Mt Annan 2567

Spring/Autumn and Winter: 8am to 5pm; Summer 8am to 7pm every day of the year

Visitor Centre 9am to 4pm daily except Christmas Day

Free entrance

https://www.australianbotanicgarden.com.au/

I had wanted to visit this botanic garden for a long time, so it was wonderful to finally achieve this goal! Right on the doorstep of Sydney, this 416 hectare (1028 acres) garden is a wonderful asset to the city with its wide open spaces; over 4000 species of Australian native flora; and themed gardens, as well as the lakeside lawns, picnic areas and 20 km (12 miles) of walking tracks and mountain bike trails.

It is the largest botanic garden in Australia and is one of the three gardens of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, which also includes the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney and the Blue Mountains Botanic Garden Mt Tomah. See: https://australianbg.gardenexplorer.org/ for a map of the different areas.BlogWinterGardens2518-06-07 09.23.05We were so impressed with this garden! It is so well planned and so interesting! We started out at the Visitor Centre, where I loved the paths inset with leaves (photo above), then crossed to the 4.5 ha Connections Garden, a fabulous showpiece with great colour (the pink Kangaroo Paw is Anigozanthos Bush Pearl)BlogWinterGardens2518-06-07 10.17.49and a fascinating journey through the evolution of  Australia’s native flora from the Triassic conifers cycads and ferns 250 Million years ago…

Clockwise from top left: The cycad with the tall stem is Cycas megacarpa; Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis; Lepidozamia peroffskyana and Cycas platyphylla;

to the Cretaceous angiosperms 129 Million years ago and Gondwanan rainforests 40 Million years ago;BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2208BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2088BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2144 and the drying out of the continent over the last 70 000 years. Here are some of the plants in bloom: Snow Wood, Pararchidendron pruinosum; Golden Wattle, Acacia pycnantha; Scribbly Gum, Eucalyptus haemastoma; and Hakea cristata;

I loved the fig forest;BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2135 the banksia collection  (from the the tall Acorn or Orange Banksia, Banksia prionotes, to the prostrate Creeping Banksia, Banksia repens;BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2115BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2118 and the amazing stonework. The first photo is Banksia integrifolia Roller Coaster falling over a dry stone wall in the Grevillea section of the Banksia Garden, while I loved the patterns in the rough sandstone slab in the Connections Garden in the second photo.  BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2280BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2128 The pond and waterfall was a beautiful and refreshing centre piece,BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2068BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2083 as well as a great learning facility.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2176BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2170 And we loved the colourful entrance garden, showing the unlimited potential of Australian native wildflowers, particularly in Winter!

 

Clockwise from top left: Bush Gem, Anigozanthos Bush Tenacity; pink Gomphrena canescens with Golden Everlasting and blue Scaveola; Banksia spinulosa and gold and red Strawflowers.

We then drove round the one-way route to the different themed areas, each complete with picnic tables, lawns and ablution blocks. We loved the analemmatic Sundial of Human Involvement set within a planting of Araucarias (Kauri; Bunya Bunya; Hoop and Norfolk Island Pines).BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2220BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2215 The 360 degree view from the top of the hill was magnificent, if not a little distressing seeing the encroachment of Sydney and the main highway teaming with traffic! The first photo looks east over the Princes Highway to Campbelltown, while the second photo looks north over the garden to Narellan and then Penrith.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2222BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2213The Big Idea Garden had some wonderful suggestions to help reduce, reuse and recycle valuable resources into your garden from developing waterwise gardens (water tanks, drip irrigation and planting waterwise plants) to mulching and composting, correct pruning, turf care and fertilising. Some of the plants included Banksia spinulosa spinulosa Birthday Candles and Sturts Desert Pea, Swainsona formosa.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2231BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2232The Wattle Garden features many of the 950 species of Acacia, many just coming into bloom- such a variety in plant size; leaf shape and flower colour and shape!BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2256 Their peak flowering season however is in August! Here are some of the more unusual species: the prostrate Acacia saligna Springtime Cascade; Leafless Rock Wattle, Acacia aphylla; and Acacia cognata Fettuccine;BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2268BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2270BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2248I love Banksias and other Proteaceae (including Grevilleas, Waratahs and Hakeas), so could easily spend more time in this area. Here are two photos from the Grevillea section: Grevillea pilosa and Diels Grevillea, Grevillea dielsiana; BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2278BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2289But alas, time was still limited and we had to make it up to our accommodation in the Blue Mountains before the school pickup traffic, so we look forward to future visits to explore all those areas we missed – the Callitris Grove; the Kurrajong Arboretum; the Western Garden; the Ironbark woodland; and the Eucalypt Arboreta, as well as the Australian Plant Bank (https://www.australianbotanicgarden.com.au/Science-Conservation/Australian-PlantBank).

Blue Mountains Botanic Garden Mt Tomah

Bells Line of Road Via Bilpin 2758

Open daily except Christmas Day

Monday – Friday: Gardens 9.00 am to 5.30 pm ; Visitor Centre 9am to 4.30pm

Saturday, Sunday and public holidays: Gardens and Visitor Centre 9.30 am to 5.30 pm

Free Entrance

https://www.bluemountainsbotanicgarden.com.au/

https://www.bluemountainsbotanicgarden.com.au/MtTomah/media/Tomah/Visit/PDFs/BMBG-Visitors-Guide-Map-pdf.PDF

I have discussed this wonderful botanic garden before in my post on Botanic Gardens. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/01/07/favourite-late-20th-century-botanic-gardens/.

BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-11BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-37BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-85BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-81In fact, we call in every time we visit the Blue Mountains and there is always something new to see and discover, like our beautiful native banksias, waratahs and Xanthorrhea or the giant Puya from the Chilean Andes in full bloom.BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-33BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2095BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-83BlogWinterGardens5017-11-09 12.56.04 This time, it was the South African native flora: the Proteaceae family, as well as gerberas of warm and cool colour ranges, aloes, geraniums and gazanias, all of which were in full bloom and which totally captivated us! BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-105BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-110BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-64BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-96BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-70The cyclamen under the trees in the Pergola Garden were a visual treat!BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-101BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-100There was even one of my favourite Sasanqua camellias, Star-above-Star Camellia, a fitting way to finish this double post of Winter Gardens!BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-125BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-128

 

Winter Gardens to Visit: Part One: Camellia Gardens

Well, Spring has officially sprung and the long hard Winter is over, even though I accept that we have it much easier than some other areas inland or at lower latitudes and higher altitudes! The frosts are pretty persistent though, especially this last Winter!!

To celebrate the demise of Winter, I have written two posts about a few gardens worth visiting next Winter! Last June, we headed north to see my mum in Queensland, so we wanted to visit a few bucket-list gardens along the way, particularly those who shone in Winter!

Here in Australia, they include camellia gardens and those devoted to Australian and South African natives. While July is probably the peak time to view camellias, it is also school holiday time with accommodation in short supply and lots of holidaymakers, so we decided to travel in June and take our chances and we were not disappointed! This week, I am featuring two very special camellia gardens, while next week, we will visit two native gardens.

Camellia Gardens

EG Waterhouse National Camellia Gardens

104 President Avenue Caringbah South NSW 2229

Monday to Friday 9am to 4pm; Weekends and Public holidays 9.30am to 5 pm.

Closed on Good Friday; Christmas Day and Boxing Day

Free entrance

http://www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au/Outdoors/Parks-and-Playgrounds/Parks/Camellia-Gardens-Caringbah-South

Named after Professor Eben Gowrie Waterhouse (1881-1977), an international camellia expert and linguist, who was the first President of the International Camellia Society in 1962, this 2 hectare camellia garden was opened in July 1970. It was a Bicentenary project of the Sutherland Shire Council to commemorate the landing of Captain James Cook at Kurnell in 1770.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN1981It was established on the site of the old Matson Pleasure Grounds, a recreational complex, which was developed by Frederick Francis Matson in 1902 on the shores of Ewey (now Yowie) Bay and hosted many picnics, dances and boating events until its closure in World War One.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2022We parked on President Avenue and entered from the top of the gardens, but they can also be accessed via a lower gate and parking area off Kareena Rd. It was a wet day, but fortunately we were able to wander round the garden between showers, even enjoying some welcome Winter sunshine, before retreating to the tea house with the next downpour! The Devonshire tea and scones were an added bonus!BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN1966Outside the tea room is a fountain dedicated to Captain Cook’s wife Elizabeth (1742-1835), who is often in the shadows, so it was great to learn a little about her life. She certainly was a stayer! I was amazed to read that she really only spent 4 years of her married life of 17 years with Cook and that she outlasted him by 56 years, dying at the age of 93 on 13 May 1835. She also outlasted all her six children, including two of which died in infancy, with her last surviving son dying in 1794.

She would have seen so many changes in her lifetime from the defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Jacobites at Culloden in 1746; the Seven Years War between Britain and France from 1756 to 1763; the Boston Tea Party 1773 and the American War of Independence 1775 to 1783; the storming of the Bastille in Paris and the French Revolution in July 1789; the Battle of Trafalgar 1805 and the Battle of Waterloo 1815; and the reigns of Mad King George (George 111) and his sons George IV 1820 and William IV 1830. It was also the age of slavery and its eventual abolition; the start of the Industrial Revolution (1760 to 1820) and the development of the first railway between Stockton and Darlington in 1825; and the start of Australia’s colonial history with the first fleet of convicts arriving in May 1787.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN2026But back to the camellias! There are over 600 camellias in the garden with over 450 individual species and cultivars, which can also be seen in the digital catalogue on the Camellias Australia website, as well as in a register kept at Sutherland Library. See: http://camelliasaustralia.com.au/gardens/e-g-waterhouse-national-camellia-gardens/.

Many of the camellias are quite old and rare, forming a Camellia Ark of 75 endangered cultivars and species. For more about this project, see: http://camelliasaustralia.com.au/gardens/camellia-ark/. It is a fabulous initiative!

In March 2014, the gardens were awarded the International Camellia Garden of Excellence by the International Camellia Society and they are only one of forty such gardens in the world and the only one in New South Wales. See: https://internationalcamellia.org/about-this-programme.

While we were a little early for the full spectacular display, we still saw a number of them in flower. The camellia season starts in Autumn with the blooming of Camellia sasanqua (Autumn to early Winter), followed by Camellia japonica varieties from late Autumn to Winter and Camellia reticulata from midwinter to September/ October.

They are in turn followed by Spring annuals, then roses during the Summer months. Paths meander through the garden, leading to lush lawns, a creek and two duck ponds. It really is a lovely small garden and is popular with picnickers and wedding parties.BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN1990BlogWinterGardens20%DSCN1986If you love camellias and your appetite still needs satisfying, then a visit to the old home of the great man himself is essential!

Eryldene Historic Home and Garden

17 McIntosh Street Gordon NSW 2072

Ph (02) 9498 2271

Open every second weekend from April to September from 10am to 4pm.

Adults $12; Children (6 to 16 years) $5; Family (2 adults and 2 children) $30; Concession (Seniors and students) $10; Eryldene and National Trust members Free.

https://www.eryldene.org.au/

This is the camellia lovers’ mecca! We adored this garden for its camellias naturally, but also its history, architecture and oriental aesthetics. Built for Gowrie and Janet Waterhouse in 1914 in collaboration with neo-colonial architect William Hardy Wilson, ‘Eryldene’ was named after Janet Waterhouse’s family home in Kilmarnock, Scotland. It is a beautiful house and guided tours are conducted on the hour, but again because of the rain, we explored the garden first up!BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-134The one-acre garden is a series of garden rooms, which contain a number of delightful architectural features including a temple, built from six recycled ionic columns, and flanked by two specimens of the camellia, La Pace Rubra, both planted back in 1914 ;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-136 an outdoor study, the professor’s retreat from the hectic bedlam of four boisterous sons;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-181 a walled fountain;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-176 a Georgian-style pigeon house with a gilded tympanum;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-175 a Moon Gate and tennis court;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-188BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-196 an oriental Tea House with gold-tipped vermilion flagpoles for blue and red dragon flags;BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-182BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-200 a meditation garden with a sculptured rock pool and a Georgian-style timber screen.BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-225There are also many beautiful large old camellias, as well as Japanese maples, azaleas and rhododendrons, datura and windflowers.

During our visit, I discovered that apparently, camellias had fallen out of favour at the end of the 19th Century. Nevertheless, Professor Waterhouse still planted six camellias in 1914, four of which still survive today: two specimens of La Pace Rubra at the entrance to the Temple and a Contessa Collini and Iris either side of the front gate. By the time of his death in 1977, aged 97, he had collected 700 camellias, many growing in tubs.BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-203In between exploring the garden and the old house, we enjoyed a cuppa in the one of the two loggias, originally the boys’ bedrooms. Mrs Waterhouse was a strong believer in the health benefits of bracing cold fresh air!BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-144BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-231Eryledene is listed on the National Estate and the NSW Heritage Register and it is worth reading the following website for more detail about the property: https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItemDetails.aspx?ID=5045350.

It is now managed by the Eryldene Trust and maintained by the Friends of Eryldene, many of whom belong to NSW Branch of the Australian Camellia Research Society (http://www.camelliasnsw.org/), as well as Camellias Australia (http://camelliasaustralia.com.au/).

They are such a friendly and informative group and we thoroughly enjoyed our afternoon with them. They also recommended a future visit to another local camellia garden, Lisgar Gardens (http://www.hornsby.nsw.gov.au/lifestyle/sports-and-recreation/parks-and-playgrounds/lisgar-gardens). Maybe next time!BlogWinterGardens2016-01-01 01.00.00-141Next week, we will be visiting two wonderful inspiring native gardens, the Australian Botanic Garden at Mt Annan and the Blue Mountains Garden at Mt Tomah.

Oldhouseintheshires

 

Feature Plants for June: Australian Natives in Our Garden

Even though the garden slows down in the cooler months, we are lucky here in Australia that many of our native flora bloom in the Winter, so it makes eminent sense to include a few Australian native plants in our garden for their colour, scent and bird food to tide us all over till the garden awakening in Spring!BlogOzNatives2017-07-07 09.25.12 Some of the plants, which we are growing, include  iconic Australian native species like Wattles and Eucalypts, Banksias and Grevilleas, and Correas and Westringias.BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2442 That splash of gold provided by the wattle certainly lifts the Winter spirits (photo above), especially in our garden against the backdrop of bare trees ! BlogOzNatives2017-08-11 13.31.09I will be featuring each plant group with a brief introduction, followed by more detail on the particular plant specimens in our garden. The Eastern Spinebill in the photo below loves our Lady O grevillea flowers, which bloom all year round!BlogOzNatives20%IMG_1351Most of them are planted in the garden on the southern side of our house, bound by some very tall old cypress on the fence line, which form a contrasting dark green backdrop to the flowers of the native species. The photo below shows the view from the street with the Banksia in the agapanthus bed in the centre and the main native area to the left on the hill above the Tea Garden.BlogOzNatives2017-01-17 14.49.36This photo is the view of the native area from the house with a hedge of grevilleas on the left and a waratah on the right.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-16Wattles

Wattles and gum trees are two of the most iconic Australian symbols.BlogOzNatives2015-07-29 15.54.35 The Golden Wattle, Acacia pycnantha, is Australia’s national floral emblem, our sporting teams are instantly recognisable in the famous green-and-gold, and Wattle Day is on the 1st September every year. I love their golden display and their distinctive scent!BlogOzNatives2017-08-08 17.46.04 Wattles belong to the genus Acacia and the family Mimosaceae, with 1350 species worldwide, 1000 of which are Australian. It is in fact the largest genus of vascular plants in Australia and has a wide range of habitats, leaf forms, flowers and blooming times. Wattles are very fast-growing, but short-lived, being very effective pioneer plants in disturbed or fire-ravaged areas. The photo below shows a selection of Acacias, which grow on the Far South Coast of New South Wales.

While we have seen many different species in our local area, one species which is indigenous to Southern NSW is the Cootamundra Wattle, A. baileyana. It is a hardy evergreen with silvery-green fern-like leaves and golden-yellow fluffy spheres of stamens in Winter. It has a magnificent display and its pollen-rich golden blooms are highly attractive, not only to birds and bees, but also florists.BlogOzNatives2016-05-27 15.54.08BlogOzNatives2016-05-27 15.54.13We are growing the purple-leafed form, Acacia baileyana purpurea, which has leaves with a bright purple to burgundy tint, being another very attractive foliage filler in vases. See: http://www.thetreeplantation.com/afgan-pine.html.

It is a good screening plant, 5 to 8m tall and wide, which is very tolerant of soils, extremes in temperatures and coastal exposure. It is also frost hardy and can be grown in full sun or part shade. BlogOzNatives2518-05-16 16.04.34BlogOzNatives2518-05-16 16.04.41We are growing it beside the house, whose purplish-pink walls should contrast well with the darker foliage. It will also screen the carport and car and be able to tolerate the afternoon sun.

Eucalypts

Eucalypts or gums are another symbol of Australia, being the main food source of koalas; the reason for the blue haze of the Blue Mountains in NSW; and the source of the antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and decongestant eucalyptus oil.BlogOzNatives25%IMG_0796Eucalypts are immortalised in popular songs like ‘Kookaburra Sits in the Old Gum Tree’ (http://alldownunder.com/australian-music-songs/kookaburra-song.htm) and ‘Home Among the Gum Trees’ (http://alldownunder.com/australian-music-songs/home-among-the-gum-trees.htm) and the paintings of Hans Heysen (1877-1968) and Namatjira (1902-1959).BlogOzNatives20%midMar 2014 026Old gum hollows are so important for providing homes for our native fauna and birds. The Guildford Tree (photo 1) in Victoria was already a giant when the early settlers arrived in the 1840s and hosts a variety of birds from kookaburras, magpies, wood ducks, honeyeaters, rosellas, boobook owls, lorikeets (photo 2), corellas (photo 3) and parrots, as well as insects, native bees and possums.BlogOzNatives50%late sept 251BlogOzNatives50%late sept 262BlogOzNatives50%late sept 268Eucalypt trees  are also an important food source for honeyeaters and lorikeets like this varied lorikeet at Riversleigh, North Queensland.BlogOzNatives25%IMG_2786The Eucalyptus genus belongs to the family Myrtaceae and has over 700 species, most of which are native to Australia and which vary in height, plant form, foliage, flowers and seedpods. Here are some photos, showing the diversity in their flowers and gumnuts.

Eucalypt identification can often be quite challenging, as their taxonomy is always changing, and often, gums share common names in different states. The Blue Gum is a classic example and can be any of a dozen species, depending on where you live (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_gum)!

Another case, shown in the photos above and below, is the eucalypt we grow, E. cinerea, which goes by the common name of Argyle Apple, Blue Peppermint or Silver Dollar Tree, the latter also the common name of E. polyanthemos.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-9 The silver dollar describes the decorative soft blue-grey round leaves, which makes it so attractive to florists! It makes a great filler, which is the reason that I am growing it. I also love the smell of eucalypts!BlogOzNatives50%late sep 2011 092It is a hardy fast growing evergreen tree, up to 10 m tall and 7 m wide, which retains its lower branches to near ground level, making it an excellent screen or windbreak.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-12 It bears masses of creamy-white flowers in late Winter and Spring, attracting plenty of nectar-feeding birds and bees. It is tolerant of frost, wet or dry conditions and salt-laden winds.

Banksias

Known as Australian Honeysuckle, the genus Banksia belongs to the Proteaceae Family and includes 173 species, ranging from prostrate woody shrubs to trees over 30m tall.

They were named after Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), who was the first European to collect them in 1770 on James Cook’s first voyage in the Endeavour. He collected four species on that first trip: B.serrata (Saw Banksia), B.integrifolia (Coastal Banksia), B. ericifolia (Heath-Leafed Banksia) and B. robur (Swamp banksia). All but one living Banksia species is endemic to Australia, the exception being the Tropical Banksia B. dentata, which occurs throughout Northern Australia, as well as Papua New Guinea and the Aru Islands.

South-Western Australia has the largest biodiversity, as seen in the photo above, with 60 species only occurring there from Exmouth in the north to Esperance on the Southern coast. Eastern Australia has far fewer species, but have widespread distribution of B. integrifolia (Coastal Banksia- seen in the photo below) and B. spinulosa (Hairpin Banksia).BlogOzNatives2016-06-26 16.53.23 The fossil record includes pollen 65-59 Million years old; leaves 59-56 Million years old and cones 41-47 Million years old.BlogOzNatives50%IMG_3434BlogOzNatives25%IMG_4171Banksia foliage varies with the species from the tiny 1-1.5 cm needle-like leaves of Heath-Leafed banksia (B. ericifolia) to the 45 cm large leaves of the Bull Banksia B. grandis. Most species have leaves with serrated edges, though B. integrifolia does not. The next two photos show B. integrifolia (entire leaf margins)and B. serrata (serrated leaf margins).BlogOzNatives2016-06-18 17.32.56BlogOzNatives20%IMG_5987Banksias all have long flowering spikes and woody cones, which were immortalised in Australian children’s book, Snugglepot and Cuddlepie by May Gibbs, where the Big Bad Banksia men were based on the cones of Banksia serrata (Old Man or Saw Banksia).BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0192BlogOzNatives2016-06-01 15.06.57 The flowering spikes are mostly yellow, but also orange, red, pink and even violet.

All are heavy producers of nectar, so are very attractive to a wide range of birds (honeyeaters, lorikeets, wattlebirds and cockatoos), mammals (antechinus and bush rats, honey possums and pygmy possums, gliders and bats) and invertebrates (Dryandra moth larvae, stingless bees and weevils), which also act as pollinators. The Noisy Miner below certainly was enjoying its feast on the flowers of the Acorn Banksia B. prionotes. BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2122Indigenous Australians even used to soak the flowering spikes in water for a sweet drink. Rainbow Lorikeets love drinking the nectar of the flowers of the Coastal Banksia, B. integrifolia,BlogOzNatives2015-06-14 11.23.05while Baudin’s Black Cockatoos enjoy breaking open the banksia cones on the southern coast of Western Australia.BlogOzNatives25%IMG_5361BlogOzNatives25%IMG_4178Most banksias grow in sandy or gravelly soils, though B. spinulosa can often be found in heavier, more clay-like soils.BlogOzNatives50%Image (9) - Copy Most are found in heathland and low woodlands, while B. integrifolia forms forests.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_5984Banksias are adapted to bush fire, the latter stimulating the opening of seed-bearing follicles in the cones and the release of seeds, which quickly grow and regenerate burnt areas. Some banksia species can also resprout after fire from lignotubers.BlogOzNatives2016-06-26 15.34.24While we have a number of different species growing wild here in Southern New South Wales, as seen in the photos below from our recent Winter visit to the Blue Mountains, west of Sydney,BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2231BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2333BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2337BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2339I believe our specimen is probably called ‘Giant Candles’, a naturally-occuring hybrid of B. ericifolia and B. spinulosa collina.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-46 (2) It will grow to 5m tall and bears 40 cm large bronze-orange flowering spikes from late Autumn to Winter.BlogOzNatives2017-07-07 13.46.16 It likes well-drained soil in full sun, both conditions which are fulfilled in its position and it is certainly thriving!BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-13 I love banksias for their golden candles and attractive seed cones and this hybrid is a real beauty!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-11 17.14.18BlogOzNatives2017-07-07 13.47.23Stenocarpus

A member of the Proteaceae family, the Stenocarpus genus has 25 species of trees and woody shrubs, 10 of which grow in Australia in the Subtropical Eastern Rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland and the northern tropical monsoonal forests of Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-1One of the most well-known species in Australia is the Wheel of Fire, Stenocarpus sinuatus, which originates from Nambucca, Northern NSW to the Atherton Tablelands, Qld. It is also known as Firewheel Tree and interestingly White Silky Oak, due to its widespread planting as an ornamental street tree in subtropical, tropical and temperate climates.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-2Growing from 10 to 30 m tall, this evergreen tree has dark green leaves and large ornamental bright red flowers in Summer (February to March) in the form of umbels in a circular arrangement, hence the name. The flowers are followed by 5 to 10 cm long boat-shaped pods with many thin seeds.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-49A slow grower, it can be grown in full sun or part shade, and is hardy to frost once established, so it is important to protect young trees. We have lost two specimens to frost, so this time, we have bought a more mature tree and are crossing our fingers! I just adore the decorative flowers, made so famous by printmaker, Margaret Preston (1875-1963). See: https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/collection/works/204.1977/.

Pittosporum

We are also growing a Pittosporum undulatum, as well as an exceedingly slow cycad (Macrozamia communis), but I have discussed both plants in detail in my post on Bush Harvest. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/03/01/march-feature-plants-bush-harvest/.

BlogBush Harvest20%Reszd2016-02-10 10.12.09BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-10Grevilleas

Named after Charles Francis Greville (1749-1809), a close friend of Sir Joseph Banks, Grevilleas or Spider Flowers also belong to the Proteaceae family and are the third largest genus in Australia.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0102 (2) It includes 365 species and 100 subspecies, with 350 species endemic to Australia, and has a huge range of habitats, sizes (from ground covers and prostrate shrubs to 35m tall trees), and flower colour and a long flowering period. The photo below features a grand old Silky Oak in our local park at Candelo and a dwarf grevillea growing in coastal heathland at Green Cape on the Far South Coast of New South Wales.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-10 11.28.43BlogOzNatives2017-08-29 15.03.19Birds, especially honeyeaters, and the larvae of Lepidoptera love their nectar-filled flowers, which are basically a long calyx split into four lobes. They are such attractive flowers! Below are photos of a Rainbow Lorikeet, an Eastern Spinebill, a Helmeted Friar Bird and a Bar-breasted Honeyeater all enjoying Grevillea feasts!

Cold and frost tolerance varies between species. They do best in well-drained soil in full sun. They interbreed freely, making extensive hybridization possible and resulting in a huge number of cultivars.BlogOzNatives25%IMG_0947 Many cultivars can be seen at Grevillea Park, Bulli, NSW, just north of Wollongong, but opening times are limited. See: http://www.grevilleapark.org/ and http://www.grevilleapark.org/GrevilleaCultivars.html.BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2239BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2237 The Australian Botanic Garden at Mt Annan, just south of Sydney (https://www.australianbotanicgarden.com.au/) is also an excellent place to see Grevilleas, as well as a huge range of banksias and other Australian natives, and is open every day of the year. BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2286BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2242We grow three types of grevilleas in our garden. The photo below shows a hedge of Fireworks on the left and Lady O on the right.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-20Grevillea robusta, the Silky Oak tree, is the largest Grevillea species at 35 m tall. BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-24This fast-growing ornamental evergreen tree, which grows on the East Coast of Australia, has ferny green leaves and orange-gold bottlebrush-like honey-laden blooms.BlogOzNatives2017-06-05 15.00.42Lady O, a cross between a G. victoriae hybrid and G. rhyolitica, is a hardy medium evergreen shrub, 1 to 1.5 m tall and 2 to 2.5m wide, which flowers most of the year with 5 cm long terminal clusters of spidery red blooms, rich in nectar and a magnet for honeyeaters like the Eastern Spinebill. It requires minimal care and is cold- and frost-tolerant.BlogJulyGarden20%Reszd2016-07-10 11.51.07BlogOzNatives2016-09-14 11.36.09Fireworks is a slightly smaller, more compact shrub, 1 to 1.2 m tall and wide, with blue-green foliage and attractive red and yellow flowers from Autumn, through Winter and Spring. It was bred by introducing the pollen of G. alpina to flowers of Grevillea ‘Pink Pixie’.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0192Other grevillea cultivars, which I would dearly to grow include:

Honey Gem’ (http://anpsa.org.au/g-honey1.html);

‘Peaches and Cream’ (https://www.gardenia.net/plant/Grevillea-Peaches-and-Cream);

and  ‘Pink Surprise’ (https://www.grevilleas.com.au/grev31.html).

Waratahs

Another very well-known Australian symbol used in decorative art and architecture, with T. speciosissum being the State flower of NSW, and not to be confused with the name of a prominent New South Wales rugby team, Waratahs belong to the genus Telopea and the Proteaceae family.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Telopea comes from the Greek word meaning ‘seen from afar’, referring to the bright red dramatic flower heads, which can be seen from a distance. They are so spectacular and always exciting to see in the wild!BlogOzNatives50%Image (7) - CopyBlogOzNatives50%Image (8) - CopyTelopea are large shrubs and small trees, endemic to South-East Australia, with 5 species:

T. aspera, the Gibraltar Range or New England Waratah, which we saw in the wild on a Spring camping trip. See photos above;

T. speciosissima, the New South Wales Waratah, the species name deriving from the superlative form of the Greek ‘speciosus’, meaning ‘beautiful’ or ‘handsome’. See next three photos below;

T. oreades, Gippsland or Victorian Waratah;

T. truncata, Tasmanian Waratah; and

T. mongaensis, Braidwood or Mongo Waratah.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAll are long-lived woody perennials up to 4 metres in height, with dark green alternate leathery coarsely-toothed leaves and small red nectar-rich flowers, densely packed into rounded compact heads, surrounded by crimson bracts, though there are white and yellow cultivars.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0078 (2) They bloom from September to October, are pollinated by nectar-loving birds and butterflies and produce woody seedpods, packed with winged seeds in Autumn.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0074 (2)Good drainage and aeration is essential. All five species readily hybridize in cultivation.BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2573BlogOzNatives20%DSCN2095We have recently planted Shady Lady, a crimson hybrid of T. speciosissima and T. oreades. A hardy vigorous dense shrub 3m tall and 1.5 m wide, it has grey-green foliage and spectacular large red flat flowerheads from late Winter to Spring.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-48 It likes well-drained acidic soil in sun or part shade, with protection from the afternoon sun, so should do well in front of the large pine trees, as well as dramatically contrasting with their dark green foliage.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-21 It has moderate frost tolerance once established,  though we may have to protect it from the frost while still young. It makes a great bird attracting screen plant and is an excellent cut flower. I am very excited to see the opening of its first flower!BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-22Correas

Named after Portuguese botanist, Jose Correia de Serra (1751-1823), Correas belong to the family Rutaceae (along with citrus fruit), with 11 species and 26 subspecies, all endemic to Australia, and hundreds of cultivars.BlogOzNatives20%IMG_0191 There is huge variability in size (from ground covers to large shrubs) and colour (from white to deep burgundy), the nectar-rich flowers falling into two types:

Bell eg White Correa, C. alba, and cultivar Dusky Bells; andblogsummer-gardenreszd20%2017-02-09-10-09-41Fuchsia eg Chefs Hat Correa C. baeuerlenii and Native Fuchsia C. reflexa (red and green).Blog Summer dreamg20%ReszdIMG_9021BlogOzNatives2017-08-29 16.54.20Perfect for the temperate garden, they provide lots of nectar in the cooler months for nectar-loving pollinating birds and are frost hardy, pest free, low maintenance and tough, their wide shallow root system allowing them to survive under trees, including gums, as well as drought. The hybrids are more compact and heavy flowering than the wild species.

Maria Hitchcock holds the National Living Collection of Correas. See: https://www.gardenclinic.com.au/how-to-grow-article/star-of-the-season-correa and https://correacollection.weebly.com/.

I love their dainty bells and am growing a cultivar called Dusky Bells, which is thought to be a cross between C. reflexa and C. pulchella.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-17 This attractive evergreen shrub is 1m high and 2 to 4m wide and has pale carmine pink 2.5 cm long bell-shaped flowers from March to September (Autumn to Winter), though it still flowers sporadically at other times of the year.BlogOzNatives7016-01-01 01.00.00-17 (2) It likes moist well-drained soil and prefers shade to full sun and is drought and frost tolerant, so should thrive in our garden. We have planted our correa to the left of the grevillea hedge in the photo below.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-26Westringia

Named after Swedish lichen authority and royal physician, Johan Peter Westring(1753-1833), Westringias belong to the Lamiaceae (Mint) family, has 31 species and is endemic to Australia, growing in all states except for the Northern Territory.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-5An identification key to the different species can be found online at: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=gn&name=Westringia.

Tough and hardy, this dense fast-growing shrub has grey-green foliage and mauve, blue-lilac or white flowers throughout the year.BlogOzNatives2518-05-16 16.04.15 Like other members of the Mint Family (eg Salvias), the upper petal of the flower is divided into two lobes. The upper two stamens are fertile, while the lower two stamens have been reduced to staminoides. Bees and butterflies love them!BlogOzNatives2016-06-14 17.36.29They are low maintenance, have very low water requirements and tolerant of drought, cold, frost and coastal conditions (salt-laden winds, sun and dry sandy soils).BlogOzNatives2017-08-29 16.26.09 They are also used for a wide variety of purposes in the garden from ground covers to formal hedges and screens, box garden edgings and ornamental shrubs.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-3Coastal or Native Rosemary, W. fruticosa is one of the most common forms, grows wild on the New South Wales coast and is used in many cultivars, including Westringea fruticosa ‘Wynyabbie Gem’, which we grow in our garden.BlogJulyGarden20%Reszd2016-07-24 10.44.41Hailing from Wynyabbie Nursery, Jindalee, Queensland, it is a hybrid between W. fruticosa and the mauve form of W. eremicola, the Slender Western Rosemary.BlogOzNatives2016-01-01 01.00.00-6A very hardy compact shrub, 1.5 to 2 m high and wide, it bears lilac flowers for most of the year, though it is most prolific in Spring. It can be grown in full sun or part shade and is tolerant of most soils and conditions, though it grows best in well-drained soil in a sunny open position.  I love using the dainty blooms in floral arrangements.BlogTinyTreasures20%Reszd2016-07-06 17.33.14I would dearly love to grow more natives over time- boronias, eriostemons and croweas for their beautiful flowers, hakeas for their interesting woody pods and tree ferns for their beautiful fronds!BlogOzNatives2015-12-14 18.12.50 I still yearn to grow New South Wales Christmas Bush (Ceratopetalum gummiferum), which bloomed briefly for one season, as seen in the photo above, and Native Frangipanis (Hymenosporum flavum), but having already lost two specimens of each, I will wait and see whether I have any success with my third Wheel of Fire!!BlogOzNatives2017-01-17 14.49.47 The photo above shows the position of my second Native Frangipani in the corner of the Tea Garden, where it was growing so well until killed by frost last Winter. BlogOzNatives50%Image (12) - CopyIt bears beautiful golden scented blooms (photo above) and attractive seedpods (photo below) from our tree at Dorrigo, New South Wales. I have seen tall specimens down on the river at Geelong, Victoria, so am very tempted to try a mature specimen in the future!BlogOzNatives70%Image (11) - CopyNext week, it’s back to the fireside with the next three posts featuring some of my favourite knitting and crochet books!BlogOzNatives25%IMG_5652

Oldhouseintheshires

 

Victorian Foraging

In late March, we had a short minibreak for a few days to celebrate my friend’s birthday and revisit Victoria, our first trip back in three years! We crossed the Snowy Mountains through Dead Horse Gap, stopping for a picnic lunch on the upper reaches of the Murray River at Tom Groggin (first photo) and a spectacular view of the western fall of the Main Range at Scammell’s Lookout (second photo).BlogVicForaging2518-03-17 12.04.48-1BlogVicForaging2518-03-17 13.35.42By late afternoon, we reached our first destination, The Witches Garden, deep in the Mitta Mitta Valley (http://thewitchesgarden.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TheWitchesGarden-Brochure.pdf and http://thewitchesgarden.com/). I had wanted to visit this garden for years, as the owners, Felicity and Lew, grow many herbs and medicinal plants. It’s a delightfully informal spot with many interesting corners and features, including a Lake and Monet Bridge, a Gallery, full of Felicity’s beautiful oils and pastels, a huge covered Vegetable Garden and a Witches’ Cottage, of course, complete with an extensive collection of broomsticks, lots of dust and cobwebs and a weird and wonderful assortment of magical accoutrements!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0363BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0370 We particularly loved the Parterre Garden with its Islamic design, its bright colours and all its arches covered with huge old climbing roses and the blowsy, romantic and informal Flower Garden, overflowing with bright colours and Autumn abundance.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0373BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0387BlogVicForaging2518-03-17 17.02.07 I was able to identify my Clerodendron bungei, which I grew from a cutting from my sister’s garden (first photo below) and was happy to see that the Abutilon (second photo below) could still be grown in a frosty climate.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0396BlogVicForaging2518-03-17 16.54.10 The chooks and dogs accompanied us on our rounds, then we had a long chat to Felicity and Lew at the end. They very kindly gave us some seeds for orange cosmos (second photo) and the delightfully named Polygonum, Kiss-Me-Over-The-Garden-Gate (third photo).BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0410BlogVicForaging2518-03-17 17.02.18-1BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0395The next day, we visited the Bendigo Art Gallery to view the Marimekko Exhibition, which proved to be one of the most relaxing and enjoyable gallery experiences we have ever had. See: http://www.bendigoartgallery.com.au/Exhibitions/Now_showing/Marimekko_Design_Icon_1951_to_2018. The bright colours and bold designs of the huge fabric panels, clothing and homeware were wonderful!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0505BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0487 Being three weeks in for a three month exhibition, there was only a small audience and having booked a one-hour time slot, we were able to take our time and really appreciate it all, revisiting each section at least three times.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0501BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0428 We were also allowed to take as many photographs as we liked, so long as we didn’t use a flash, an added bonus! I adored these two panels!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0472BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0514After lunch, we visited Frogmore Gardens (https://www.frogmoregardens.com.au/), an amazing boutique mail order nursery at Lerderberg in the Central Highlands of Victoria. Their perennial display gardens are only open in Autumn from the 9th March to the 30th April each year and are well worth exploring!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0539BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0525 The Sunset Borders were jam-packed with dahlias and zinnias, calendulas and yarrow, coreopsis and rudbeckias, and celosias and lobelias, with tall red hot pokers, cannas and verbascums at the back.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0540BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0543 The garden beds were bursting with colour: hot oranges, rich golds and bright reds, which contrasted well with the purple self-sown verbena, the formal green hedges and paths, and the serene backdrop of the Wombat State Forest behind.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0531BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0530 The Bishop’s Border was a study in deep purples and velvety reds, soft pinks, blues and mauves with berberis, amaranth, dahlias, zinnias and asters.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0565BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0551 I was quite taken with the Succisella inflexa ‘Frosted Pearls’. BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0563The ethereal Pale Garden was dedicated to white and lemon blooms: Gaura and white Cosmos and Centaurea americana ‘Aloha Blanca’, Beach Sunflowers Helianthus debilis ‘Vanilla Ice’ and a variety of asters and gysophila.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0570BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0568 The informal Prairie Garden was just wonderful and full of beautiful wavy grasses and structural teasel!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0578BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0585 The owners, Jack Marshall and Zena Bethell were so generous with their time and chatted with us long after closing time! For more about this beautiful garden, please read: http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/factsheets/a-cornucopia-of-colour/9435514.

The following day, after a quick visit to the inspiring and highly imaginative and creative Winterwood (https://www.winterwoodtoys.com.au/), where I investigated the different types of Steiner wool felt and drooled over the toys, books and other craft supplies, we celebrated my friend’s birthday with an equally inspiring visit to Alowyn Gardens (http://www.alowyngardens.com.au/).

BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0609BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0613BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0643I adored this place from its long shady Japanese Wisteria arbours (first photo above), formal Parterre (second photo above) and French Provincial Gardens (third photo above) to its Prairie Display Gardens, Birch Forest with its underplantings of bulbs, cyclamen and hellebores and succulent dry creek bed, and beautiful perennial borders, as can be seen in the photos below! There’s Birthday Girl, blending in with the amaranth!BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0630BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0647BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0709BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0721 However, the highlight for us was the bountiful Edible Garden with avenues of olive trees, underplanted with rosemary; quinces (first photo below) and persimmons; apples and pears; and crab apples, including the gorgeous Golden Hornet (second photo below),BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0680BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0663BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0704 sunflowers (third photo above) and fantastical gourds; and vegetables of every kind, including some rather  stunning Royal Purple and Danish Jester chillies.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0666BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0674BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0676BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0653BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0654 Here are some more photos of the entrance area.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0734BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0601BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0599The next day was a planthunter’s heaven with a driving tour of the nurseries beyond the Dandenong Ranges. First up, a visit to the wholesale tube stock nursery,  Larkman’s Nursery (http://www.larkmannurseries.com.au/www/home/), which fortunately sells to the public through the mail order nursery, Di’s Delightful Plants (http://www.disdelightfulplants.com.au/), from which we purchased a range of tiny lavender tubestocks, future parents of lavender plants for our future Lavender Bank: English Lavender L. angustifolia ssp angustifolia; and Dwarf English Lavender L. angustifolia ‘Hidcote’; French Lavender L. dentata ‘Monet’; Mitchum Lavender L. x allardi and a range of lavandins: L. x intermedia ‘Grosso’, ‘Seal’ and ‘Super’.BlogVicForaging2518-04-07 08.43.52It was wonderful to acquaint ourselves with all the nurseries in this area, as we had missed out on them during our time in Victoria as we were renting at that stage, so gardening was not on the agenda! We called into my favourite source of bulbs,  Tesselaars (https://www.tesselaar.net.au/);  the Wishing Well Nursery (https://wishingwellmonbulk.wordpress.com/) and Yamina Rare Plants in  (http://www.yaminarareplants.com.au/) before finishing the day with an interesting visit to the Salvia Study Group Display Gardens at Nobelius Heritage Park, Emerald.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0753BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0739And then,  it was homeward bound, calling into the wonderful rambly Jindivick Country Gardener Rare Plant Nursery, at Jindivick, south-west of Neerim South, en route (http://www.jindivickcountrygardener.com.au/)! Specialising in rare plants, David Musker and Philip Hunter will be moving the nursery to their home at the beautiful Broughton Hall nearby. See: http://www.jindivickcountrygardener.com.au/broughton-hall/ and their Instagram photos at: https://www.instagram.com/thegardenatbroughtonhall/.

As they share my love of Old Roses, I will definitely try to visit their garden on the Melbourne Cup weekend one year, when the Old Roses will be in full bloom! David suggested we pop in to say hello to Stan Nieuwesteeg of Kurinda Rose Nursery (http://www.warragulgardenclub.com/339592389),  just to the south at Warragul (photo above), but unfortunately he was not there, though we did enjoy looking at his selection of potted roses. BlogVicForaging2518-03-22 11.46.35My birthday friend had recommended a sidetrip to Mossvale Park, between Leongatha and Mirboo North in South Gippsland  (https://www.visitpromcountry.com.au/attractions/mossvale-park),  so we stopped there for a picnic lunch.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0796 This beautiful park contains some of the oldest and tallest elm trees in the Southern Hemisphere (photo above) and its sound shell (photo below) makes it a popular music venue.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0783 There is a list of all the park trees at: https://www.visitpromcountry.com.au/uploads_files/mossvale-park-2.pdf and the photo of the park board below lists the significant trees.BlogVicForaging20%DSCN0770 Fortunately, we only had one overnight stop at Marlo on the mouth of the Snowy River, a wonderful spot for birdwatching and a definite return visit one day! The photos below show the mouth of the Snowy River, where it enters the sea, and the East Cape of Cape Conran, just to the east of Marlo. BlogVicForaging2518-03-23 09.00.40BlogVicForaging2518-03-23 10.05.05 It certainly was a lovely mini-break away to recharge our batteries and discover some beautiful Autumn gardens! Next week, we are back to my craft book library with a post on some of my favourite paper-craft books!

The Old Roses of Red Cow Farm

After visiting this beautiful garden at Sutton’s Forest, just south of Mossvale, in the Southern Highlands in Summer and Autumn, we were determined to time our next visit during the peak blooming season of all its Old Roses (early November) and it certainly was a wonderful display and well worth making the effort!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI have already written a general post about this amazing garden at: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/12/20/a-garden-weekend-in-the-southern-highlands-part-1/  and it is also worth referring to its own website at: http://www.redcowfarm.com.au/home.html.

At risk of repeating myself, here are the contact details!

Red Cow Farm (Owners: Ali Mentesh and Wayne Morrisey)

7480 Illawarra Highway Sutton Forest, 5 km south of Mossvale    2.5 hectares (6 acres)

1.5 hours drive from Canberra and Sydney

Phone: (02) 4868 1842; 0448 677647

Open 8 months of the year from late September to the end of May, 10am – 4 pm. Closed Christmas Day.

$10 Adults; $8 Seniors and $4 children (4 to 14 years old)

Red Cow Farm is such an artistic garden. I love the colour combinations used; the diversity of both colour, texture and form; and the play of light and shade. However, for this post, I am focusing on the old roses in all their full glory! Where I can identify them, I mention their names, having quizzed Ali in great depth after exploring the garden, but for many of the roses, it was merely enough to enjoy the total picture and breathe in their beautiful scents.

I am also including the garden map again, so it is easier to discuss the location of the roses! As in my previous post on Red Cow Farm, I am following a similar path from the entrance to the cottage garden, curved pergola and Apollo Walk to the Abbess’s Garden and beyond, following the numbers on the map.blogsth-highlds50reszdimage-193Front of the Cottage

The highly fragrant Kordes rose, Cinderella, greets you on the left as you enter the front gate.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn front of the cottage on the left is a huge bush of Mutabilis (photo of shrub in the background below) and behind it, adorning the house, is Awakening, a sport of Hybrid Wichurana, New Dawn, itself a sport of another Hybrid Wichurana, Dr W Van Fleet. Awakening is the rose, being held in the hand, on the far right of the photo below.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACottage Garden and Camellia Walk  (Areas 3 and 4):

I loved the contrast between these tidy clipped balls and the blowsy, overgrown shrub roses.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The next photo is taken under the start of the curved pergola with the start of the Apollo Walk to the Abbess’s Garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACurved Pergola and Courtyard (Areas 5 and 1):

The curved pergola is stunning from either direction, looking down to the courtyard and circular driveway:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and back to the Apollo Walk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The golden roses look so good against the old weathered timber beams, stone walls and brick pillars.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the attention to detail and the mixed plantings- soft blue campanulas and lemon Sisyringium strictum in a carpet of pinks.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The courtyard behind the cottage is a delightful spot to sit.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARoses were often planted in monastery gardens during the Middle Ages, so it was very appropriate to find many of the old roses in the Abbesses Garden and the Monastery Garden.

Abbess’s Garden (Area 7), leading into the Beech Walk (Area 8):

The first bed on the right as you enter the Abbess’s Garden from the Apollo Walk is full of yellows and golds with English Rose, Comte de Champagne (2nd photo below), in a sea of lemon-yellow aquilegia.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI love all the colour combinations, both complimentary:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and contrasting:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The wide variety of plantings ensures constant colour and interest throughout the seasons.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I particularly loved the Alliums.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOn her pillar in the third bed on the right, Hybrid Multiflora, Laure Davoust, rises from a sea of pink.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAs you approach the chapel, Hybrid Spinosissima, Golden Wings, is on the right:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while golden David Austins, Wildflower (single, gold to white with gold stamens) and heavy, globular Charles Darwin grace the left bed.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe riotous colour of the Abbess’s Garden is in dramatic contrast with the calming green living walls of the next garden room, the Beech Walk (Area 8),OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA which leads to the Hazelnut Walk (Area 9) and the Lake (Area 11), complete with island and bridge (Area 20).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the twisted red stems of the hazelnut trees and the intensity of the colours, backlit by sun, as you emerge from the shade they cast.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlowsy Hybrid Wichurana, Albertine, falls into the water from the banks,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while Noisette climber, Lamarque, graces the island end of the bridge.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love this view of the wooden bridge from the Bog Garden (Area 10).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWoodland (Area 19)

The woodland area is a study in contrast in colour, tone, form and texture.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere are a few roses in the herbaceous borders of the Obelisk Walk (Area 23),OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA including Hybrid Rugosa rose, Jens Munk, which was also in bloom last January (first photo) and this unidentified pink rose.

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The richness and lushness of the garden is always such a contrast to the surrounding grazed paddocks:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and I love the woodland paths.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERANovember is also Rhododendron and Azalea season. I would dearly love to find the golden Rhodendron luteum, whose scent is superb, but I also loved this deep-pink rhodo, Homebush, under the shade of the dogwood tree.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and this unidentified rhododendron with masses of light pink blooms.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The new shoots of this Gold Tipped Oriental Spruce, Picea orientalis aurea, were quite stunning as well.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGarden Shed and Circular Driveway (Area 17)

Tea Rose, Countess Bertha, also known as Comtesse de Labarthe, Comtesse Ouwaroff, Mlle de Labarthe and Duchesse de Brabant, climbs up the back wall over the door,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while the front garden facing the driveway contains Hybrid Tea, Mme Abel Chatenay, on the left, facing the shed,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and English Rose, The Alnwick Rose, on the right.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA On the left of the junction of the path back into the Flower Walk (Area 16) is a shrub of Fantin Latour.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the bright poppies of the central flowerbed in the driveway, which was filled with bright pink and orange zinnias in full bloom on our last visit in January. There was a stunning Oriental Poppy further down the driveway on our current visit in November.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMonastery Garden (Area 13)

Like the Abbess’s Garden, the Monastery Garden is full of roses. This photo shows a view of the Monastery Garden, looking back to the entrance.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAA creamy cloud of Mrs Herbert Stevens (Hybrid Tea), Devoniensis (Tea) and Souvenir de la Malmaison (Bourbon) covers the entrance wall to the garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The fallen purple petals of Portland Damask, Rose de Rescht, carpet the path on the right.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA St Fiacre, the patron saint of gardens, hides under Hybrid Perpetual, Reine des Violettes.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I loved this little Nicotiana mutabilis, complementing the pink rose behind,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and the contrast of the monastery bell with the infilled arches of variegated ivy.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAVegetable Garden (Area 12) and Nursery (Area21)

I loved the hedge of Hybrid Rugosa, Roseraie de l’Hay, behind the globe artichokes:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and the Icebergs (Hybrid Tea) dotting the vegetable garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA On the nursery side of the Wisteria Walk (Area 22) is the dramatic striped Delbard rose, Guy Savoy.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA And finally, ….

The Walled Garden (Area 2)

A riot of colour and scents!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Hybrid Macrantha, Raubritter, covers the right of the seat,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while Species Rose, Dupontii, stands tall against the end wall of the cottage.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA There is just so much colour and interest in just this section of the garden alone!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI loved the sea of poppies in the front garden around the birdbath.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARed Cow Farm would have to be one of my favourite gardens in all seasons and I would highly recommend a visit in November for maximum enjoyment! It is a photographer’s delight, so make sure that you take your camera or beg, borrow or steal one, as I had to do for this most important visit. I shall tell you more about my camera woes on Thursday!

Rose Pruning

It’s rose pruning time in the Southern Hemisphere!

Pruning can be an art form or very brutal and basic, depending on its location; your needs and your time:

If a shrub is getting too big for its location, it will need pruning to restrict growth and keep enough air flow around the plant.

If you want a large single flower: remove more wood; or a mass of small flowers: leave more growth.

I have even seen time-poor gardeners take to the shrub with a chainsaw and the plant still survives and sends out lots of flowers in the new season, but I would probably avoid this technique, as I think you have more control and can make more considered decisions using secateurs, as well as still have continual flowering if you are doing minor pruning while there is still plant growth.

However, this post is about the major prune at the end of the growing season and before the next one!

Pruning Time

In areas with mild Winters: Winter to early Spring.

There are two schools of thought! Later pruning avoids damage to new growth by late frosts, but earlier pruning of repeat-flowering roses allows them to get a head start and have a longer flowering period.

Old once-flowering roses can be pruned immediately after flowering, unless you want the decorative hips.

In areas with cold Winters: Delay pruning till the Spring growth is starting.

We tend to prune in late July to early August, because of our frosts. Here is a photo of our wild and woolly Soho rose garden, last week in the depths of Winter, followed by a photo of the garden post-pruning!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 12.44.03BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 15.02.08 Pruning Technique

Make sure your secateurs are sharp and clean. Have a pruning saw or large pruning shears handy for tougher wood.

Disinfect secateurs if plants are a bit diseased, so you don’t spread  any disease. I soaked two pairs of secateurs (so one pair could be soaking, while I used the other,  swapping them for each new rose) in solution of diluted methylated spirits: 3 parts metho to 1 part water and soak 15 minutes.

And wear strong gloves to protect your skin from vicious thorns!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.12.07Prune to an outer bud, so the new growth shoots away from the plant, rather than towards the centre; and

Cut the stem on a diagonal, just above the node, so that any pooled water runs off and downwards away from the shoot, rather than into the corner, where the new shoot branches off the main stem. Refer to the websites at the end of the post for clear explanatory diagrams!

BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.17.44Remove any spindly, ill, dying or dead shoots. Cut right back beyond the disease source, so that the surface of the cut is clean and there is no sign of disease in the stem.BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 14.05.31Remove the following :

Any stems growing inwards and overcrowding the centre of the bush, to allow for more air flow.

Any branch crossing another and rubbing against it, resulting in damage and the creation of a possible site for infection; and

Any suckers, which come from the root stock below the bud union and will rob your rose of its nourishment.

Note: Suckers are best pulled out, rather than cut, which still allows for their regrowth. Here is a sucker on my Fair Bianca:BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.40.18And above all, don’t overstress!!! Roses are tough and even Hybrid Teas will recover well after a good prune!

Pruning Amount

The amount you prune a rose is dependent on the type of rose:

Species Roses and their hybrids, Ground Cover Roses and Miniature Roses require little or no pruning, except the removal of old spent or dead  wood.

Ramblers can also be left to their own devices, unless you are growing them over an arch or pergola, in which case, remove any shoots growing in the wrong direction and cut back side shoots to 8 or 10 cm.

Modern Shrub Roses can be treated like Species Roses, unless they repeat-flower well, when they should be pruned like English Roses, cutting the main shoot back by a third and the side shoots to 8 or 10 cm. Here is Fair Bianca, a David Austin rose, before and after its haircut!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.40.23BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.44.08Old Roses also require minimal pruning, removing only dead and dying wood, and should not be touched for the first two years. After that, they can be pruned if needs be, their main shoots cut back by a third and side shoots to 8 cm. Very tall roses can be pruned to half their height if they are getting away! Cut back any dead branches hard.

Hybrid Teas and Floribundas should be pruned to 12 cm from the ground in their first year, and after that, prune the stronger shoots to half their length and the thinner side shoots to 5 or 8 cm. Here are before and after photos of Mr. Lincoln, a Hybrid Tea:BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.14.45BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 15.02.18Standards should be left with a broad head, while growth should be encouraged in Weeping Standards to ground level.

Repeat-Flowering Climbers require special pruning, depending on which wood they flower on: Noisettes (especially the larger flowering varieties), Climbing Teas, Hybrid Teas and Hybrid Perpetuals flower on wood produced in the same year, while ramblers and scramblers (R. arvensis; R. wichuraiana; R. sempervirens; R. multiflora and R. setigera) flower on wood produced in the previous year.

In the first type, the main stem should be tied or secured with wire or cleats in as many directions as possible, including a horizontal direction to encourage vertical laterals in the coming season. The side shoots, which bore last season’s flowers, should be shortened to 8 or 10 cm or to one third their length. These spurs will then produce several flowering shoots, which will then be pruned in turn the following year to produce an increasing number of flowers.

With the ramblers and scramblers, leave them be for several years, till they densely cover their supports, and only prune when necessary after flowering in early Summer. Remove dead and old non-productive wood.

Having said that, I am not allowing my Wichuraiana Rambler, Albertine, to indulge in its typically thuggish behaviour, due to lack of room, and am keeping it under tight control, treating it as a climber rather than a rambler! In the photo below, I am training its prickly stems horizontally along the wire and trellis to encourage plenty of vertical growth along the stems, so eventually I will have a wall of pink roses against the shed.BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 17.37.39After Pruning

It can be beneficial to prick over the soil with a fork to a depth of 2 to 5 cm to aerate the soil and remove weeds. Dig in a long-term fertilizer and mulch with well-rotted compost or animal manure.

If you would like more information about pruning your roses, here are three excellent sites, as well as a rose calendar:

https://www.treloarroses.com.au/index.php?route=information/information&information_id=146

http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/rose-pruning

http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2288062.htm

http://www.nsw.rose.org.au/rose-care-calendar

Propagation by Cuttings

A terrific way to enlarge your rose collection without breaking the bank, as well as conserve old roses found in old abandoned homestead gardens, cemeteries and roadsides. It is also a great way to share your roses and swap cuttings. And finally, roses grown on their own roots avoids the problem of root competition by root stocks and they are tough! In windy situations or light soils, they anchor themselves more effectively.

Roses can also be propagated by seed, division, layering, budding and grafting and finally, tissue culture (micro-propagation), but cuttings are by far the easiest for the home gardener starting to propagate roses!

The best time to take hardwood cuttings is when the leaves begin to fall and the wood has ripened over the entire Summer. Choose mature, one-year old wood, the thickness of a pencil and 15 cm long, and cut to a growth bud at the top and bottom. For heel cuttings, keep a small slice of two-year old wood still attached at the base.

Remove leaves, dip the end of the cutting in root hormone powder or honey, push into a labelled pot of equal amounts of sand and moist peat, and place in a protected sheltered spot away from frost. A cold frame or warm glasshouse will encourage root development. By early Spring, the cuttings should start to root and the following Autumn can be planted out into their permanent position.

I took cuttings from my old Armidale garden and that of a fellow rose-a-holic during our first Winter here, and while some did not strike, many did, including my three cuttings of Albertine, which are now gracing the shed wall; three cuttings of Multiflora Rambler, Russelliana; two cuttings of New Dawn, another Wichuraiana Rambler, and Climbing Hybrid Tea Rose, Mrs Herbert Stevens; and one cutting each of a Cli