Fabulous Felting Books

I adore felt, not just for its tactile and visual appeal, but also its versatility, its organic nature and its history and romance. In fact, when I was studying a Diploma of Textile Art at Box Hill TAFE, I based my main exhibition piece (postcard format) on the reverse appliqué technique of the Kyrgyz shyrdaks of Central Asia, learning so much about felt and its history in the process!  Here are two photos of my work from that exhibition: BlogFeltBooks50%nov 2010 295BlogCreativity2 20%Reszd2015-10-24 07.41.25I first saw these beautiful appliquéd felt rugs, which are traditionally used to furnish nomadic yurts, at Ada’s Place in Millthorpe, New South Wales, and fell in love with their bright bold colours and symbolism. Here is a photo of Ada (taller) and her sister Kathleen in front of one of their shyrdaks.BlogFeltBooks50%midmay 299Unfortunately, the gallery closed in 2013: https://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/story/1804338/ada-closes-iconic-millthorpe-gallery/.

You can see more examples of this beautiful craft at:

http://www.feltrugs.co.uk/

and   http://kyrgyzfelt.blogspot.com.au/.

Felt can also be used to make clothing, hats, bags, cushions, flowers and toys and you will see some of my felt creations throughout this post. I have also attended a number of workshops, which I will also describe along the way, but first the books!

 

History

Nomadic Felts by Stephanie Bunn 2010

https://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/dept-seminar-power-felted-cloth-through-time-and-space

I came across anthropologist Stephanie Bunn’s name a number of times during my internet research for my exhibition piece, so this book was a must! In it, she describes the ancient history of felt, its traditional production and use throughout the world and the cultural beliefs and symbolism behind the patterns.

Felt has existed for thousands of years and felt fragments have been found in grave chambers in Çatal Höyük, dated 6500 BC; felted hoods and socks on the Urumchi mummies of the Tarim Basin, China, dated 2000 BC; and appliquéd felt wall hangings, coffin linings, clothing, saddle cloths, blankets and bridles and swan pillows stuffed with deer hair, found in the grave chambers of the Pazyryk Kurgans of the Altai Highlands, Siberia, and dated from 600 to 200 BC.

It has played a central role in the lives of nomads from Central Asia, Mongolia and parts of the Middle East, the lightweight, portable and highly insulating wool being used for tent walls (yurts), floor coverings, decorations, bags and clothing.

After the Medieval period, felt became a well-established tradition in Europe with felt boat caulking and other felt objects from the 9th to 13th Century found at Haithabu on the German-Danish border; British felt hats from the 15th Century; and Scandinavian gloves and socks and Russian valenki (felt boots) from the early 20th Century.

Traditional feltmaking is still practiced by Central Asian and Mongolian nomads, as well as practitioners in Turkey and Iran, while experimentation by contemporary artists is producing some wonderful garments and toys.

This fascinating book looks at its extensive history, the science behind felt and the wide variety of feltmaking techniques and traditions. She particularly focuses on the Turkic and Mongolian feltmakers of Krygyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekitan, Turkmenistan and Xinjiang, as well as Mongolia, Tibet, Bhutan and South-East Asia, and the closely related styles from Afghanistan and the Caucasus: their influences and their belief systems and symbolism. With fabulous photos and illustrations supporting the text, it is such an interesting book, not only for feltmakers and textile enthusiasts, but anyone interested in archaeology and history, anthropology, different cultures and the Silk Road!BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-57

Production

If you only have room for one felting book in your library, the following book is an excellent reference guide.

Uniquely Felt: Dozens of Techniques From Fulling and Shaping to Nuno and Cobweb. Includes 46 Creative Projects by Christine White 2007

This highly comprehensive book covers all aspects of felt making.

The introduction defines the different kinds of felt (fulled knitting, wet felting, needle felting, nuno felting, cobweb felting, carved felt and yarn felt); history; suitable fibres; the chemistry behind felting; and the whole process from fleece to felt. It also includes instructions for a simple needle felted ball and a Featured Artist page, an inspiring inclusion, which is found at the end of successive chapters.

The next chapter covers tools: wool; soap; screens; rolling mats; plastic resists; scales; water; templates; and felting machines, as well as notes on designing a studio and  working posture.

Chapter Three introduces beginner projects like making cords (photo below) and spikes; loops and beads; jellyroll trivets; buttons and balls.

Chapter Four: Learning the Basics covers working with roving; making prefelts; wet felting; calculating shrinkage and a Frequently Asked Questions page, as well as projects like place mats and table runners, blankets and cushions.BlogFeltBooks2016-01-01 01.00.00-92Chapter Five really examines the raw material, wool: where to find it, how to test its feasibility and materiality; making felting samples and the types of fibres and sheep wool, including a swatch gallery. Projects include math mats, place mats, carved coasters, upholstery yardage and a boot tray.BlogFeltBooks2016-01-01 01.00.00-85After mastering simple 2-D items, developing felters will be keen to try out making 3-D seamless felt, which is the main topic of Chapter Six. Two flat halves are separated by a resist, the fibres at the side being joined in a seam during the felting process. The different types of resists (open/closed) and materials used, seam considerations and shrinkage rate and template size are discussed in detail.

Pillow covers, book covers, slippers and boots, vessels, sculptural objects (like the photo above and below made using an old butter cooler as a resist) and a myriad of creative bags can be produced in this way, not to mention hats, the subject of Chapter Seven, from berets and head-hugging cloches to hoods, wide-brimmed hats, fedoras and some very artistic and creative examples. Hat sizes; making hat templates; using hat blocks, and stiffeners and embellishments are all discussed. Anita Larkin is a sculptor, who uses felt to create some amazing 3-D vessels and objects. https://timelesstextiles.com.au/artist/anita-larkin-2/.

late sept 047Felt can also be very light and airy with the inclusion of silk (Chapter Eight: Nuno Felting) and holes (Chapter Nine: Cobweb Felting). Both chapters include definitions and detailed notes on techniques, as well as projects like scarves and shawls, vests, hats, cushions  and curtains.

My first experience with felting was helping a friend make a raw sheep wool floor rug, using an old bamboo blind as a roller and Chapter Ten on larger projects would have been very useful, though the emphasis of this chapter is really more on making felt garments: tops and vests, tunics and dresses, and skirts, as well as including  notes on garment patterns and templates. Jorie Johnson (http://www.joirae.com/)  makes some beautiful contemporary clothing and is the featured artist in this chapter. Another wonderful felt garment designer is Norwegian artist, May Jacobsen Hvistendahl, whose work can be seen at:  http://www.filtmaker.no/eng/index.html.

It is really fun making felt with others, as it can be a time-consuming process and it’s a great way to bond not only the fibres, but also community and friendship ties, as discussed in the final Chapter Eleven, along with teaching feltmaking, community projects like rugs, felting weird and wonderful creations for theatre, and framing and finishing felt. There is an extensive glossary and list of artists, resources and relevant websites in the back. An excellent book!BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-60

It is also well worth joining a felting group like Victorian Feltmakers http://www.vicfelt.org/ or the Feltmakers of WA: http://www.feltwest.org.au and attending a few workshops to master the practical aspects. I belonged to the Victorian Feltmakers and some of the memorable workshops I attended were:

Phyllis Hoffman: Felting a Scarf July 2010 / Felting a Hat August 2010.

BlogFeltBooks50%midjune 051Great fun, as I did these workshops with some of my fellow students from my textile course at Box Hill TAFE. BlogFeltBooks50%late july 2010 029 I was so impressed with my friend Heather’s hat!BlogFeltBooks50%july also 002 Phyllis is a great teacher too! You can find out more about her at: https://www.stonehousegallery.com/phyllis-hoffman.html.

Elizabeth Armstrong: Felt Art Dolls August 2010

Like me, Elizabeth LOVES colour (see her fabrics below) and I absolutely adored this inspirational workshop!BlogFeltBooks50lt 014BlogFeltBooks50lt 017She is so enthusiastic and fun! Here she is behind our workshop dolls. The grey bird dolls are samples of her work.

 

On the first day, we made our material using prefelts, roving, yarn and even chiffon ribbon, then the next day, we had to take a deep breath and cut into our beautiful precious homemade fabric, then assemble and embellish the dolls with embroidery, appliquéd felt pieces and hand-painted faces. Below are photos of my fabric pre- and post-felting.BlogFeltBooks50lt 015BlogFeltBooks50lt 016 I loved my earth goddess Gaia, even though I forgot to sew in a base!BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 19.40.37BlogFeltBooks2016-01-01 01.00.00-98 Elizabeth’s website is: http://elizabeth-armstrong.blogspot.com.au/.

Sue Pearl: Crazy Felt Critters  February 2012

Hailing from the United Kingdom, Sue Pearl gave a workshop at the Victorian Felters and  we were very lucky to be able to attend. My strange alien creature left a bit to be desired, but gave me a feel for creating 3-D toys.BlogFeltBooks50%IMG_9937

Sue’s website is at: http://www.feltbetter.com/. But now,  back to the books…!!!

Felt To Stitch: Creative Felting for Textile Artists by Sheila Smith 2006

Another excellent guide covering similar topics to the previous book: Hand-rolled felting; making prefelts; nuno felting, 3-D hollow forms; cobweb felting and needle-punched felting, but also has a big section on design with detailed discussions on colour, texture, line, shape and pattern.

There are instructions on colour mixing; using acid dyes; rainbow dyeing; making fibre paper; shibori; low-relief designs; using Markal Paintstiks; stencilling and printing. Projects include book covers; bags; cords, toggles and balls.BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-58

Felted Bags, Boots and Other Things by Cendrine Armani 2007

Making bags and boots are so well explained in this book with step-by-step notes, supported by excellent colour photographs of all the tools and each stage of each process: Flat felting; felting with a template; mixing colours; cutout motifs and insets; lining bags; inserting magnetised clasps and eyelets, embroidery; and making balls and pendants, and that’s just the first section!

The rest of the book is devoted to 56 bright and colourful projects from pencil cases, pouches and purses to jewellery, felt flowers, slippers and bags. It is certainly a very inspiring and practical book and makes you want to leap out there and start felting!!!BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-69

Felted objects can also be needlefelted using a dry felting process or stitched from flat felt pieces and/ or embroidered, as showcased in the next four books. The first book describes dry felting, which uses felting needles to work wool roving into shapes, while the other three books create flowers and toys from patterns cut out of sheets of wool felt, stitched together and embroidered.BlogFeltBooks2017-08-28 18.04.28Sweet Needle Felts: 25 Projects to Wear, Give and Hug by Jenn Docherty 2008

While I haven’t done much needle felting (it’s a bit too time consuming for me!), it is good to have a book, which describes all the tools and techniques, as well as a number of small projects from flower pins and gumdrop rings to belts, coasters, book covers, purses and toys like the cute ones on the cover. A good book for crafters, who love felt, but don’t want to work with water!!!BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-64

Felt Fresh Flowers: 17 Stunning Flowers to Sew and Display by Lynne Farris 2007

A very useful book for the middle of severe Winter, when the garden is fast asleep and nothing much is happening in the way of blooms! We are very lucky here in Australia in that many of our native plants flower in the Winter and our milder warmer climate still allows for the blooming of camellias, violets and Winter honeysuckle. We still get heavy frosts in our garden though, so I am still attracted to the bright colours of the felted flowers in this book, though I am more likely to use them to embellish bags and hats!

Basic tools, materials and techniques are covered before detailed instructions for a range of blooms from African violets, gerberas, geraniums and daffodils to lilies, roses, iris and sunflowers. I particularly liked the tulips, nasturtiums, magnolias and tropical anthuriums!

BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-62

Felties: How To Make 18 Cute and Fuzzy Friends by Nelly Pailloux 2009

A sweet little book on making felt toys. Starting with brief notes on tools, templates, stuffing, sewing and embroidery, it contains patterns for some very cute and obscure creations from the sweet little Babushka Doll, the Mushroom Girl, Sleepy Fox and Pensive Rabbit to the Pirate Mouse, Hoodie Wolf, Retro Alien and Sun-Loving Rat!BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-63

Felt Wee Folk: Enchanting Projects by Salley Mavor 2003

Salley Mavor (https://weefolkstudio.com/) is well-known for her imaginative fairy worlds and creative appliquéd and embroidered felt purses, bags and brooches.BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-61

I made my daughter a felt bird purse using one of her patterns.BlogFeltBooks2015-04-04 09.49.18 I also love the appliquéd felt work of artist Renee Harris. See:   http://www.reneeharris.net/Pages/GalleriesMenu.html.

Here are some photos of my felt appliqué work, which you will no doubt recognise from previous posts: OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogFeltBooks2517-12-06 08.18.25Steiner education is big on felt for all the same reasons that I love it. It’s a natural organic material, has wonderful colours and texture, is easily worked by children and makes imaginative and creative toys! I recently visited their shop, Winterwood Toys, in Warranwood, Victoria, to check out their beautiful felts.BlogFeltBooks2518-03-19 11.39.05

It is always a wonderful and inspiring experience, as is a digital visit to their website: https://www.winterwoodtoys.com.au/!

BlogFeltBooks2518-03-23 17.16.40They stock wet felting supplies and a huge colour range of hand-dyed and commercially dyed 100 percent pure wool felts (photo above), as well as toys, patterns and kits and books, many of which hail from Germany, the birthplace of Steiner education, as well as the origin of some wonderful felt designers and creations like the toys and Christmas decorations sent to us by our daughter Jen, who has been teaching in Germany for two years.BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 19.41.16Here are three felt books, which I have bought from Steiner shops over the years.

Creative Felt: Felting and Making More Toys and Gifts by Angelika Wolk-Gerche 2007/2009

Another good basic guide to felting, but with an emphasis on felting with children and imaginative play, a key tent of Steiner education.BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-59 The history of felting, different fibre types, setting up the workplace, preparing the wool, natural dyeing, the basic felting process, creative possibilities (mixing colour, collages and felt pictures, modelling and embroidery) and felting with children are all topics covered in the first section of the book, followed by lots of suggestions for felt projects: Hats and jewellery; slippers and hot water bottle covers; felt envelopes and gift wrap; book covers and treasure pouches; juggling balls; dolls and accessories; toy animals and puppets; and Easter rabbits, seasonal toys and dioramas and Christmas decorations.BlogFeltBooks2016-01-01 01.00.00-112Feltcraft: Making Dolls, Gifts and Toys by Petra Berger 1994/2001  

More Steiner toys and child-oriented projects are included in this book.BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-67 They include wooden and felt gnomes, angels, flower children, fairies and dolls, jesters, finger puppets, ducks, butterfly mobiles, snails, dogs and cats, horses, mice and balls, as well as felt pictures and books, jewellery, bookmarks, boxes, egg cosies, purses and cases. Here are some egg cosies and felt toys, made by my children when they were young, as well as some finger puppets.BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 15.35.35BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 15.34.43BlogFeltBooks3016-01-01 01.00.00-79I love making felt toys and would not be without the next book, which I have used to make camels and pigs for my daughters!

Sew Soft Toys : Using Natural Fibres by Karin Neuschütz 1996/2007

After a brief discussion of sewing with natural fibres, stuffing materials, and tips for sewing and stuffing toys, it gets straight into instructions for the toys themselves: Dogs and cats; mice and rabbits, farmyard animals, marine animals, African animals, and bears, foxes and weasels.BlogFeltBooks2516-01-01 01.00.00-65 They are lovely patterns with excellent clear instructions and illustrations and the toy animals are just so cute! Below are photos of Jen’s camel and Caro’s piglet, which I embroidered as well!:

BlogFeltBooks25rly march 2013 012 BlogFeltBooks25rly march 2013 014I could easily make every animal in this book! And perhaps over the years I will, gradually recreating my husband’s old family Christmases!BlogFeltBooks2515-10-13 15.06.45Over the years, I have also made embroidered birds and fruit, Christmas angels and dear little felt mice, as seen in the photos below.BlogFeltBooks2015-04-22 08.55.47BlogFeltBooks2015-10-13 14.34.34BlogFeltBooks2015-10-13 14.31.53BlogFeltBooks50%midjune 046BlogFeltBooks3015-04-22 08.56.18 - CopyAK Traditions (https://aktraditions.com/pages/about-us) in Prahan, Melbourne, Victoria, is another source of wonderful Central Asian felt toys, some of them featured in the photos below:BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 15.37.41BlogFeltBooks2518-04-28 15.37.19And finally, some of my favourite books for felting inspiration! These books are wonderful and showcase the imaginative work of two contemporary European feltmakers, as well as showing the enormous creative possibilities afforded by felt!

Filz Spiel: The Felted Play by Annette Quentin-Stoll 2010

Annette is a German artist (born 1978), who was introduced to felt in Finland, and she produces the most amazing sculptured hats, bags, costumes, vessels, games, toys and puppets, based on cones and spheres, concertina folds and pleats, elastic structures and even the incorporation of marbles.BlogFeltBooks3016-01-01 01.00.00-70 I just loved her Rainbow Worm, her Dragon and Elephants, her mouse finger puppets, snail and star rings, animal bags and spiky swim hats and seed pod vessels. She has also written three other felt books: Filz Ornament (https://www.galeriebuch.de/en/gallery-books/filzornament/); Filz Experiment (https://www.galeriebuch.de/en/gallery-books/filzexperiment/) and Filz Geschichten (https://www.galeriebuch.de/en/gallery-books/filzgeschichten/).

Gentle Threads: Felts of Judit Pócs

Judit Pócs (born 1976) is a Hungarian artist, whose work I simply adore!  She dyes the raw wool before felting and like the previous artist has a fabulous sense of colour and fun!BlogFeltBooks4016-01-01 01.00.00-73 She too makes weird and wonderful sculptured hats, exotic colourful bags and fabulous toys, all featured in this book, as well as in the gallery on her website: http://pocsjuditstudio.hu/gallery2/.

I also own her inspiring video:

Video: On Gentle Threads About Feltmaking by Judit Pócs and István Rittgasser 2007.

It is a wonderful accompaniment to the book and is spoken in Hungarian and English.BlogFeltBooks4016-01-01 01.00.00-72 In it, Judit generously demonstrates the making of a rug, based on the felt origin myth of Noah’s Ark, as well as a scarf, a bag, two of her amazing sculptural hats and a wonderful stylised crested lizard. She makes the magical process of felting all look so easy, even though her work is incredible skilful! There are also delightfully quirky animations and the catchy music of Krulik Zoltán, the founder and leader of Hungarian ethnomusic band Makám (www.makam.hu).

To view stills from  the film, see: http://www.filmkultura.hu/regi/2008/articles/films/szelidszalakon.en.html.

I  will finish with a gallery of my felt cushions, which you will recognise from previous posts.BlogFeltBooks2016-08-22 14.53.46BlogFeltBooks2017-03-28 14.02.24BlogFeltBooks2518-04-25 12.07.18BlogFeltBooks2016-11-15 12.55.50BlogFeltBooks2016-02-23 13.13.36

 

Feature Plant for May: Divine Dianthus

Pinks are one of my favourite flowers, for their wonderful spicy clove-scented perfume; their heritage and history; their butterfly-attracting qualities; and their low maintenance and ease of growth, being heat and drought tolerant with very few pests. While I only have a few varieties in my garden, I would love to grow more, so I thought I would find out a little more about them, hence this post. These are the varieties I grow in my treasure garden: Coconut Sundae; Doris; Valda Wyatt; Sugar Plum and Mrs Sinkins.

Pinks belong to the family Carophyllaceae and the genus Dianthus, whose name originated from two Ancient Greek words: Διός  (Dios) meaning ‘of Zeus’ and  ἀνθός  (anthos)  meaning ‘Flower’, hence its symbolic meaning ‘Flower of the Gods’ or ‘Divine Flower’. Their naming was attributed to the Ancient Greek botanist, Theophrastus, and the flower was extensively grown by the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans. In the first century AD, Pliny wrote that the clove carnation was discovered in Spain in the days of Augustus Caesar, when it was used in garlands.

The genus Dianthus contains 300 species, which are mostly native to Europe and Asia (Zones 3 to 9), with a few species extending to North Africa and one species, Dianthus repens, native to arctic North America. The photo below is a pink called Coconut Sundae.BlogDianthus2518-04-10 08.50.43Common names include:

Pinks, the word deriving from the Old English pynken and referring to the fringed edges of the flowers, which look like they have been cut with pinking shears, rather than their colour, which ranges from white, pink, rose, deep red and even a lavender/purple;

Cheddar Pinks (Dianthus gratianopolitanus), after the Cheddar Gorge, England, where pinks have naturalized;

Chinese Pinks or Chinnies (Dianthus chinensis), a low-growing annual, 6 inches high, which has deeply fringed, single scented flowers, which bloom for longer than biennial or perennial pinks;

Clove Pinks, due to the scent; and the delightful name,

Gillyflowers, again due to the scent, their name being a corruption of  ‘le giroflier’, which is the French name for the Clove Tree (Syzgium aromaticum).

Popular in Medieval times for flavouring mulled wines and during the Tudor Period (1485-1603), Dianthus have been extensively bred and hybridized since 1717 to produce thousands of cultivars for use in the garden and floristry, with a wide variety of sizes; shapes; patterns and markings; and colours and shades from white to pink, salmon, yellow and red. Carnations with coloured stripes were very popular in the 17th century, but were soon supplanted by those with different coloured spots, which were called piquettes.

Today, there are more than 30,000 cultivar names registered on the International Dianthus Register, but many of these lasted commercially for only a short time. See: https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/plantsmanship/plant-registration/dianthus-cultivar-registration and https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/pdfs/plant-register-supplements/dianthus/dianthus32nd.pdf.

They include:

Bizarres (clear ground, marked and flaked with 2 or 3 colours, and categorised according to the dominant colour);

Flakes (clear ground, flaked with one colour);

Selfs (any one shade);

Fancies (varieties not falling into the previous classes, having a yellow or white ground, or mottled, flaked or spotted with various colours) and

Picotees (colours confined to the petal margins).

Over 100 varieties of Dianthus have received the RHS Award of Garden Merit.

Most pinks are short-lived herbaceous perennials, though a few species are annuals, biennials and low sub-shrubs with woody basal stems.

The most common types are:

Carnations Dianthus carophyllus;

Sweet William Dianthus barbatus (biennial);

Perennial Pinks, Dianthus plumarius (Cottage Pinks) from Eastern Europe;

Dianthus deltoides (Maiden Pinks), native to Britain;

Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar Pinks); and

D. armeria (Grass Pinks or Deptford Pink).

Below is a photo of Valda Wyatt.BlogDianthus20%IMG_1083Description:

Pinks and Carnations

Plants: Tufting or spreading perennials, which form a rounded erect mound or trailing mat, from 6 cm (2.5 inches) to 0.9 metres (3 foot) tall, more commonly up to 0.4 metres (18 inches) high, though Sweet William is a biennial or short-lived perennial up to 60 cm (2 foot) tall. Carnations are not as hardy as their smaller cousins, but have longer stems and grow up to 2 foot high.

Foliage: Opposite; simple; mostly linear and strongly glaucous grey-green to blue-green leaves. Modern pinks have heavier, coarser leaves and stems than older varieties, whose leaves are more finely divided. Carnations have larger thicker leaves, which curl at the tip.

Mule Pinks, which are a cross between Dianthus caryophyllus (carnations) and Dianthus barbatus (Sweet William), have greener leaves, with a more erect growth habit and smaller flowers than carnations. Mule Pinks date back to around 1715 and include Emile Pare, bred in France in 1840 and Napoleon III.BlogDianthus2518-03-01 17.30.32Flowers: Single, semi-double and fully double flowers, ranging in size from less than 2.5 cm to 6.35 cm, all varieties have five petals, a frilled or pinked margins of varying depth and a strong spicy fragrance.

Species Dianthus have a limited colour range from pale to dark pink and blooms are borne singly or in small heads on the top of wiry stems from late Spring and early Summer (their peak blooming time) to Autumn and until the first frosts.

Pinks tend to have smaller, more highly fragrant, white to pink/ maroon flowers, which only flower once in early Summer, while carnation blooms are larger, less fragrant, have a larger colour range and flower perpetually.

There are three types of carnation:

Large Flowered/ Sims: One flower per stem;

Spray: Multiple smaller flowers per stem; and

Dwarf-Flowered Carnations: Several small flowers on one stem.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASweet William  Dianthus barbatus

Native to the Pyrenees and Balkan mountains, Sweet William was introduced into Northern Europe in the 16th century, growing at Hampton Court since 1533, and has become an archetypal cottage garden plant. They are easy to grow and very hardy, but do not like warm, humid Summers. A short-lived perennial, it is normally grown as a biennial, flowering in the second year from Spring to mid-Summer. If they are cut back hard after flowering, they will flower just as well the next year. Colours range from pale pink to a deep black-red. The Latin name ‘barbatus’ means ‘bearded’, referring to the markings around the entrance to the pollen that the flowers carry to entice butterflies and moths to pollinate them. To view an assortment of Sweet Williams, see: http://www.mr-fothergills.co.uk/Flower-Seed/Sweet-William-Single-Mixed.html#.WwylMYpx3IU.

Varieties of Pinks and Carnations

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dianthus for a list of all the different species, but for gardeners, interested in growing Dianthus, especially heritage varieties, it is well worth looking at: https://www.allwoods.net/. Allwoods Nursery (London Road, Hassocks, West Sussex BN6 9NA;  Phone: 01273 844229) was started in 1910 by Montague Allwood, who crossed oldfashioned hardy clove-scented pinks D. plumarius, and perpetually flowering carnations D. caryophyllus to produce a new race of perpetually-flowering pinks with scented, double flowers, which became known as Dianthus x allwoodii, and were often given Christian names like ‘Doris‘, a salmon-pink bred in 1945. They are the leading Dianthus specialists in the world and stock over 500 different varieties of pinks and carnations, as well as pelargoniums and succulents.

Pinks are divided into four categories:

Long Flowering Garden Pinks (Allwoodii Pinks) : Repeat flowering over at least 8 weeks with a beautiful clove scent, though in some varieties, scent has been sacrificed for flower production. Most have double blooms and come in two sizes, 7.5 to 15 cm (3 to 6 inches) and 25 to 45 cm (10 to 18 inches) tall. eg the slightly perfumed Doris 1945; and  Valda Wyatt 1981.

There are some modern breeders like John Whetman from Whetman Pinks (http://www.whetmanpinks.com/), who have focused their attention on scent, for example, his Devon Cottage Series and Scent First Series, which is long-flowering and highly fragrant and includes Coconut Sundae, seen in the photo below.BlogDianthus2517-11-15 09.27.44Alpine Pinks: Mat-forming perennials, growing to 10 cm (4 inches), which make terrific ground covers, with masses of scented flowers throughout the summer. They are perfect for the rockery or alpine garden. Eg Maiden Pinks Dianthus deltoides; and Alpine Pinks D. alpinus.

BlogDianthus2518-04-12 09.44.44

Laced Garden Pinks: Very popular in Victorian times and deservedly so! These beautiful blooms are quite stunning, having dramatic markings and lacings on the petals, a long flowering period (like the Allwoodii types) and a lovely clove scent.

During the mid-nineteenth century, the weavers of Paisley, Scotland bred Laced Pinks from Dianthus plumarius, producing over 80 new varieties, known as the Paisley Pinks. Only a few types survive.

Some of my favourite Laced Pinks include: Old Velvet https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Old-Velvet-age-unknown-p83926316; Paisley Gem 1798 Maroon edged white, grown during the Industrial Revolution: https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Paisley-Gem-1798-p83926296Dad’s Favourite 1800s Semi-double highly scented, white ground laced with velvety maroon. See: https://www.justplants.net/DIANTHUS_dads_favourite/p1363092_6350642.aspx; and Oxford Magic 1998 https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Oxford-Magic-1998-p83926295. Below is a photo of Valda Wyatt.BlogDianthus2518-03-31 16.30.04-1Heritage and Old World Garden Pinks: Strongly scented evergreen perennials, which form clumps to 45 cm (1.5 feet) of blue-green foliage, with masses of flowers in early to mid summer only. Some examples include:

Mrs Sinkins, bred in 1868 and named for the breeder’s wife, it is white with a green eye;

Cheddar Pink D. gratianopolitanus, a gray-green leaved mat-forming type that blooms once a year. Highly scented, they were so popular with 19th century gardeners that they were collected nearly to extinction. See: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/Dianthus-Gratianopolitanus-Cheddar-Pink.

Carthusian Pink, Dianthus carthusianorum, found growing wild on dry limestone hillsides in southern, central and western Europe and introduced into Britain by the Carthusian monks in 1573. More like Dianthus barbatus, it has a grass-like mound of fine green leaves, tall straight stems and small, flat-headed clusters of seven or eight bright magenta, single, slightly fragrant flowers from Summer till early Autumn, followed by a decorative seedhead. It is best grown from seed. See: https://www.sarahraven.com/flowers/seeds/perennials/dianthus_carthusianorum.htm.

Caesar’s Mantle (Bloodie Pink or Abbotswood) 15th century, a deep carmine pink with a maroon central zone. Increasingly rare.

Pheasants Eye Pre 1600s Semi-double white with dark velvety maroon centre, extending in a thin line around the deeply fringed edge. https://www.selectseeds.com/old-fashioned-pinks/pink_inchmery_plants.aspx. One of the earliest cultivars still available.

Queen of Sheba Early 1600s Single white with delicately traced magenta lacing. See: http://www.sequimrareplants.com/Dianthus%20%27Queen%20of%20Sheba%27.html;

Fountains Abbey Early 1600s. Semi-double bloom similar to Queen of Sheba, but with darker crimson markings;

Sops in Wine Highly clove scented semi-double creamy white blooms with a raspberry eye. See: https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Sops-in-Wine-age-unknown-p83926326. Please note that there is another type grown under this name and sold by many UK nurseries, which looks totally different. See: http://www.sequimrareplants.com/Dianthus%20%27Sops%20in%20Wine%27.html.

Fimbriata 17th Century Ivory double white;

Painted Lady 1700 Heavily scented compact lilac pink flowers with a deeper centre. See: https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Painted-Lady-1700-p83926317.

Cockenzie Pink/ Montrose Pink 1720 Semi-double heavily-fringed dark carmine pink with a darker damson pink central eye. See: https://www.allwoods.net/online-store/Cockenzie-Pink-1720-p83926301;

Inchmery 1800  Shell pink flat double strongly-perfumed blooms. See: https://www.selectseeds.com/old-fashioned-pinks/pink_inchmery_plants.aspx.

BlogDianthus2518-04-12 09.44.54

Carnations are divided  into two categories:

Border Carnations: Hardy garden carnations, which do not require a heated greenhouse. They have a wide range of colour combinations and a heady perfume, but only a short flowering season (late Spring to mid-Summer) and are no longer grown commercially.

Perpetual Flowering or Greenhouse Carnations: Often used for exhibition purposes, they are grown in greenhouses or polytunnels or outside in the Summer only. They are generally not winter hardy in the garden, as they don’t like to be too wet and cold at the same time, so it is advisable to bring them into a greenhouse or conservatory end September / October and keep over winter inside. If they are kept at 7 degrees Celsius, they will flower in winter as well as during the summer.

Most are scentless, but some of the older varieties like Malmaison carnations and other old greenhouse varieties are scented, though they flower less frequently. Malmaison carnations, which grow to 70 cm (4.5 foot), are derived from the variety ‘Souvenir de la Malmaison’, and have an  intense clove fragrance.

Below is a photo of a new favourite pink in my garden: Sugar Plum, bred by Whetmans Pinks.BlogDianthus3018-04-04 13.48.26-1For Australian gardeners, read: http://www.pennywoodward.com.au/dianthus-gillyflowers-carnations-pinks-sweet-williams-picotees-selfs-and-fancies/. The main sources for Dianthus appear to be: Lambley’s Nursery, Victoria, which grows 50 different cultivars in their Dianthus Walk and is in full bloom in November. See: https://lambley.com.au/search/content/Dianthus and Woodbridge Nursery, Tasmania: https://www.woodbridgenursery.com.au/search?orderby=position&orderway=desc&search_query=Dianthus.

Dianthus seed is available from: Swallowtail Garden Seeds, United States: https://www.swallowtailgardenseeds.com/perennials/dianthus.html; and in Australia: Australian Seedshttps://australianseed.com.au/search?type=product&q=Dianthus*.

Cultivation:

Full Sun, at least 6 hours a day. Dianthus love clean air and open skies and perish in polluted conditions or when grown in the shade of overhanging trees. Scottish weavers, who bred and named 3,000 laced pinks in the 18th and 19th century, lost most of  their plants, when the air quality deteriorated in the Industrial Revolution.

Light well-drained moist soil, though they will tolerate poorer soils. Drainage is important, as they will develop stem rot in water-logged soils, so if your soil is heavy clay, they are better grown in pots or raised beds. Only water one a week at most, otherwise the foliage will yellow. Be careful with using mulch to suppress weeds and avoid crowding the crown (top of the roots) or stem rot will occur.

Soil pH: Neutral to slightly alkaline. 6.75 is ideal. Soil alkalinity can be increased with the addition of dolomitic limestone or fire ash.

Feeding: Dianthus are light feeders and only need an occasional feed (a shovel of compost in the soil once a year), as well as a light annual dressing of dolomite lime to prevent the centre of the clumps dying out. Even the perennial pinks are short-lived, so they will need renewing every 3 to 4 years. It is worth taking a few cuttings every year to ensure the survival of your plants over Winter.

Otherwise, they are very low-maintenance, only requiring deadheading after flowering to promote reblooming. There are few pests and diseases. Spider mite can be a problem during hot dry weather for Sweet William and carnations, while the latter and Dianthus chinensis and hybrids can be susceptible to thrips and aphids as well, but the old-fashioned pinks are pretty hardy and healthy.BlogDianthus2017-10-15 07.21.29Propagation:

By seed, cuttings or layering.

Cuttings: Two methods:

Pulling a leafy stem with a heel and cutting off any buds; or

Cutting a 5 to 7.5 cm non-flowering stem just below the node.

Insert the cutting into a 50/50 mix of grit and compost or sharp sand and peat or merely damp horticultural sand and place the seed tray or pot in the shade, keeping the cuttings damp.

New plants will form at six to eight weeks and can be planted out in a well-drained open position in Autumn for flowering the following season or kept in the greenhouse over Winter and planted out after the last frost.

When planting, make sure the crown (top of the root structure) is level with the soil surface and never bury any of the stems.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAUses:

Garden

Low perennial borders; Potted displays; Rockeries and alpine troughs; Heirloom cottage gardens; Cutting gardens; and Butterfly and hummingbird gardens.

Dianthus are the food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Cabbage Moths; Double-striped Pugs; Large Yellow Underwings; and the Lychnis, as well as three species of Coleophora: C. dianthi; C. diantivora; and C. musculella, which feeds exclusively on Dianthus superbus.

They are also deer-resistant, but unfortunately not rabbit-resistant!

Floristry

Dianthus, with its naming as ‘Flower of the Gods’, has a long history of use in floristry, with carnations also known as the Flower of Love. There are around 300 species, however there are only 50 to 60 types commercially grown for cut flowers. Their flower meanings vary with colour:

Light Red: Admiration

Dark Red:  Love and Affection

White: Purity of Love and Good Luck

Pink: Gratitude

Purple: Capriciousness

Yellow Disappointment and Rejection

Striped: Regret and Refusal.

While often used for Mother’s Day and funerals, carnations have also been used for other significant days. A red carnation is a symbol of socialism and the labour movement, commonly worn at demonstrations like International Worker’s Day (May Day) and was worn in the 1974 coup d’etat of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal, while a green carnation was seen as a symbol of homosexuality in the early 20th century, but are now used for St Patrick’s Day.

These days, carnations are often grown under glass, with Colombia being the largest producer in the world.

Pinks are often used in nosegays and tussie-mussies.

When buying carnations, look for bunches with clean, undamaged petals, which are not curling inwards. Sims and sprays are sold half-open; Chinnies (D. chinensis) and Sweet William more open, the latter when one quarter to one half of the flowers are open.

Recut 2 to 3 cm from the stem ends on the diagonal just above the node, strip any leaves which would be underwater and use preservative in the vase water. They should last 2 to 3 weeks, so long as the water and preservative are changed every 3 to 4 days. Wear gloves when handling as the sap from the stem is poisonous.

To dry them, either hang the flowers in bunches or pull the petals from the flower head and spread over brown paper.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACulinary: The flowers can be used fresh in salads and desserts or candied, with or without the slightly bitter white heel of the petals removed, and as a flavouring in syrups, cordials, vinegars, liqueurs and mulled wine. In medieval times, when cloves were expensive, wines and possets were often flavoured with clove-scented gillyflowers. They can also be frozen into ice cubes and added to your favourite drink, or stirred into desserts such as fruit jellies, ice-cream, mousse, soufflés, custard and cakes. Once dried, petals can also be added to sugar to sweetly scent it.

Aromatic: The dried petals can be added to potpourris and scented laundry sachets. Flowers can also be used in perfumery. Carnation oil is used in beauty products to moisturize skin, minimize wrinkles and treat skin conditions.

Medicinal:  Carnation tea has been used to reduce stress, relieve tension and restore energy; reduce fever; and treat stomach aches, heartburn and flatulence. Chinese Pinks D. chinensis have been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2000 years.

I have learnt so much about pinks during my research for this post and look forward to expanding my collection! For other devotees of pinks and carnations, another wonderful site is: http://www.britishnationalcarnationsociety.co.uk.

I am finishing with my latest cushion cover design, inspired by the beautiful clove pink varieties described in this post and all available from Allwoods Nursery, except when otherwise specified. From left to right and top to bottom: Plumarius (age unknown); Sugar Plum (Whetman Pinks Scent First series); Coconut Sundae (also Whetman Pinks Scent First series); Anders Melody 2010; Gran’s Favourite 1966; Old Velvet (very old- age unknown); Dad’s Favourite 1800; Fair Folly 1700; and Kesteven Kirkstead 1988. BlogDianthus2518-04-14 12.42.10I  am giving it to my Mum for her birthday, complete with a card identifying all the different varieties depicted in their position on the cushion.BlogDianthus2016-01-01 01.00.00-14 (2)Please note that their depiction on my felt cushion were not supposed to be, and definitely are not, photographically accurate representations! The photos were more a starting point for design, hence the depiction of Plumarius and the even more absract representations of Coconut Sundae; Gran’s Favourite and Dad’s Favourite! I loved stitching their beautiful pinked forms. The only thing missing is the scent!BlogDianthus2016-01-01 01.00.00-12 (2)Next week, I am featuring my favourite calligraphy books.

Oldhouseintheshires

 

The Festive Season 2017

It has been a wonderful festive season with the return of my daughter from Berlin for three weeks and long-awaited visits from old friends to relaxing lunches and beach trips on the warmer days, as well as plentiful rain, resulting in a blowsy overgrown garden, full of colour!BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-15 17.43.06BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-08 08.39.13OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA While the roses are taking a break, except for the wonderfully generous Archiduc Joseph, the sunflower patch has been prolific and the honeysuckle has scaled the side fence.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogFestiveSeason2517-12-16 09.10.54OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe self-seeded pumpkin, tree dahlia and tree salvia are also heading to the heavens, the latter never missing a beat after its transplantation from the Moon Bed, and a remnant kiwi fruit vine hitching a ride on the tree dahlia!BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-12 08.44.18BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-13 08.42.31Here is a sample of the plants in bloom this Summer:

Roses:

Left to Right and Top to Bottom:

Heritage, Archiduc Joseph (2 photos), Ice Girl, William Morris and The Children’s Rose:

White: Gardenias; Hydrangeas; and Madonna Lilies:

Purples and Pinks: Buddleias, Poppies, Hydrangeas, Geraniums, Bergamot and Dahlias;

Golds and Reds: Dahlias and Calendulas; Meadow Lea Dahlia and Gladioli; Ladybird Poppies and Alstroemeria; Red Dahlia and Pomegranate; and Sunflowers.

Hopefully, the flowers of the pomegranate will develop into fruit! We have had a wonderful fruit season with raspberries for breakfast every morning and now strawberries and plums.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogFestiveSeason2517-12-08 15.45.47BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-13 08.02.43BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-02 13.00.44BlogFestiveSeason2517-11-29 11.37.43We have also been harvesting the chamomile flowers daily to dry for a relaxing tea.BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-02 15.07.20BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-08 15.46.22 We only just caught the wild plums (photo above) in time after a mini-raid by a party of hungry Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos and are now watching the ripening of the purple plums with eagle eyes, in case they suffer the same fate!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogFestiveSeason2517-12-12 08.55.19 We are similarly vigilant with the apples (third photo), though the cockatoos have not yet discovered our Golden Hornet crab apples (first and second photos).BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-21 11.42.30BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-07 09.09.18OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The Elder tree (Sambucus) is also growing fast and has blossomed for the first time. I look forward to using the flowers in future years to make elderflower cordial!BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-13 08.44.36Here are some photos of the local inhabitants of the garden:

A blue-tongued lizard sunbaking; a butterfly resting and another butterfly feasting on a buddleia flower; and a happy snail exploring after rain :BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-04 09.42.27BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-04 08.53.00BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-08 15.42.58BlogFestiveSeason5017-12-02 13.02.37And the birds: Huge flocks of very noisy Little Corellas (photos 1 and 2), who wake us up every morning at 5 am (!); and a pair of Crimson Rosellas, grazing in the Soho Bed:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogFestiveSeason2517-12-23 18.04.09OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWith all the wonderful colour in the garden, I have been spoilt for choice and have revelled in making beautiful bouquets for the house! Here is a bucket of freshly-cut blooms, ready for arranging!BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-24 07.48.37From simple blue agapanthus to a single rose bloom (Lucetta):

Soft Pinks and Purples:BlogFestiveSeason2517-11-30 11.11.46BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-16 15.00.16BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-20 07.55.54And bright golds, oranges, reds and purples: BlogFestiveSeason2517-11-30 11.22.09BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-16 14.28.15BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-07 09.43.54BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-09 16.20.39-4BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-16 15.01.40To the vibrant colours of the Christmas table:BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-24 08.41.30BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-24 08.12.18Other creative pursuits included home-made Christmas gifts: a spectacle case for my Mum:BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-13 08.46.18 and a table runner for my friend Heather to compliment the set of Russian vintage wooden folk art spoons, which I found for her!BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-04 17.35.51 We have also been loving the musical sessions with both my daughters, who are keen musicians and composers. Here is a photo of my youngest Caro playing at Bodalla Dairy.BlogFestiveSeason2517-12-10 14.31.30I will finish with a photo of our beautiful Christmas Tree!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I hope you all had a wonderful Christmas and enjoy your New Year!

The Autumn Garden

It has been a beautiful Autumn with good rain early in March; a superb display of colour with the deciduous foliage from April to late May and long-lasting zinnias, dahlias and salvias, as well as a repeat-flush of roses; and lots of gardening activities, creative pursuits and local exploratory trips!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-17 11.35.40BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 11.44.40BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 14.34.52BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1019BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-28 11.58.13BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-10 12.50.42BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.07.56BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.07.30Autumn vies with Spring in my affections. The weather is much more stable, though is tempered by the knowledge of the impending Winter, only to be assuaged by the parade of brilliant deciduous colour, as each tree prepares for its Winter dormancy.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 10.07.28BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 10.08.01BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 10.07.51BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 10.01.18BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 11.52.44BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 11.59.43BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-20 16.12.47 The verandah is such a vantage point, the backdrop changing daily.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-30 17.16.16BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-14 10.23.52BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-14 10.37.55BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-26 18.02.13BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-19 09.47.55BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 10.07.44BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-15 10.25.17BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-30 18.59.23The zinnias and dahlias lasted well into late May, having been touched up by a few early frosts, and Ross has finally put them to bed with a good layer of protective mulch.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0199BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-03 11.06.50BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 18.53.29BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-25 11.50.02The roses have taken centre stage again with a wonderful Autumn flush. These photos were all taken this Autumn. I have organised them into their separate beds:

Soho Bed:

Top Row: Left to Right: Just Joey; Fair Bianca; LD Braithwaite and Alnwyck.

Bottom Row: Left to Right: The Childrens’ Rose; Mr Lincoln; Eglantyne and Icegirl.

Moon Bed

Top Row: Left to Right: Golden Celebration; Heritage; Windermere; William Morris

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Lucetta; Jude the Obscure; William Morris; and Troilus

Main Pergola

Top Row: Left to Right: Mme Alfred Carrière and Adam

Bottom Row: Left to Right: an older Adam bloom and Souvenir de la Malmaison

Hybrid Musk Hedge : Left-hand side : White Roses

Top Row: Left to Right: Autumn Delight and Penelope

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Penelope and Tea rose Sombreuil on arch.

Right-hand Side: Pink Roses

Left to Right: Cornelia on arch; Stanwell Perpetual and Mutabilis

Rugosa Hedge

Left to Right: Fru Dagmar Hastrup and Mme Georges Bruant

House

Left to Right: Cécile Brünner first two roses and Mrs Herbert Stevens

Shed

Top Row: Left to Right: Viridiflora and Archiduc Joseph

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Archiduc Joseph and Countess Bertha

I have organised the rest of the garden blooms by colour:

Blue :

Top Row: Left to Right: Wild Petunia, Ruellia humilis; Violet; Pasque Flower, Pulsatilla;

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Poor Man’s Lavender Plectranthus neochilus; Plumbago; and Hydrangea

Green :

Top Row: Left to Right: Tree Dahlia buds and Elkhorn Fern

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Rosebud Salvia new bud and Bells of Ireland, Molucella

Orange, Gold and Yellow :

Top Row: Left to Right: Paris Daisy with Salvia, Indigo Spires; Woodbine; and Paris Daisy

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Hill Banksia, Banksia collina; slightly older bud of Rosebud Salvia; and Orange Canna Lily

Pink :

Top Row: Left to Right: Fuchsia; Salvia; Christmas Pride, Ruellia macrantha;

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Rosebud Salvia, Salvia involucrata; Christmas Pride; Pink ‘Doris’

Red :

Top Row: Left to Right: Grevilleas Lady O and Fireworks; and Salvia ‘Lipstick’

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Grevillea Lady O; Echeveria and Azalea Dogwood Red

Purple :

Top Row: Left to Right: Mexican Heather, Cuphea hyssopifolia; Cigar Flower, Cuphea ignea

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Dames’ Rocket, Hesperis matronalis, and Violet

White :

Top Row: Left to Right: Nerines; Honeysuckle; Strawberry flowers and first of the Paper White Ziva jonquils for the season!

Bottom Row: Left to Right: Autumn Crocus; Windflower; Tea, Camellia sinensis; and Viburnum opulus – an out-of-season bloom.

We have been very busy and productive in the garden, gradually crossing jobs off the list! Weeding is a constant in the Soho and Moon Beds, as well as around the feet of all the shrub roses and bulb patches.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-07 13.25.16 We have just dug up either side of the shed garden path, so the shed roses are now in garden beds and we planted out many of the potted cuttings, which we took from my sister’s garden at Glenrock. All are doing well!BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1186BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1237We also made two arches out of old gate weld mesh, one leading into the future chook yard and supporting Cornelia (photo 2) and Sombreuil (photo 3);BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-27 18.04.14BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-10 09.19.26BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0877 and the other on the corner of the shed, with Reve d’Or (photo 3) and Alister Stella Grey (photo 4) either side.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-15 15.33.44BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-15 10.27.37BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-31 18.58.37BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-11 17.13.31 Ross defined the edges of the vegetable beds with old recycled fence palings and planted out young vegetable seedlings, which he then mulched. We are really enjoying their Winter crop in our salads at lunchtime.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0277BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0274From front to back in the photos below: red and green mignonette lettuce; spring onions; broccoli; spinach; cos lettuce and kale. BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-31 19.07.15BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-24 19.24.20 We harvested the pumpkins, which again engulfed the compost heap, zinnia bed and maple tree, as well as the last of the tomatoes, making 3 bottles of green tomato chutney.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-03 13.43.42BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-05 11.44.26 We also have plenty of late Autumn fruit, now that the bats have gone, though I suspect our citrus is fairly safe anyway!  Unfortunately, the figs did not ripen in time, but the Golden Hornet crabapples have lasted well on the tree.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0879BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-11 17.15.23 All the new citrus are growing madly  and bearing fruit – the lime (photo 1) has a particularly fine crop and the lemonade (photo 2) is also bearing well.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-15 18.09.05BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-07 10.33.13 The cumquats have been an absolute picture, both in full blossom and fruit.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0773BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0774BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0778BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-11 17.12.41We picked 6 Kg of fruit to make into cumquat marmalade and there was still fruit left!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 18.28.35BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 18.28.27BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 18.46.41BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 18.46.48The loquat trees were in full bloom for weeks,BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1241 attracting huge noisy parties of rainbow lorikeets,BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-31 10.54.27BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-28 14.30.57 which then went on to eat the Duranta berries, along with the Crimson RosellasBlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.33.53BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.34.29 and huge flocks of King Parrots.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-07 10.57.37BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.33.04BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.30.07BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.28.57BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 11.01.50BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-07 10.59.33 Up until early May, we had even larger flocks of screeching Little Corellas in the thousands, gathering in the trees, recently vacated by the bats,BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0518BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0642 then flying off en masse right on dark to their roosting trees to the north,BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-31 08.51.21-2BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-03 19.44.23BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-30 19.54.50BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1253 occasionally accompanied by the odd Galah!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-30 18.46.46BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0807 We have enjoyed flyovers by the local Gang-Gangs (photos below) and Yellow-Tailed Black Cockatoos. We even had a rare flypass by a Red-Tailed Black Cockatoo, en route to the local mountain forests. BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-31 19.08.34BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.20.25Other exciting glimpses included three Dollar Birds (photos 1 and 2) and a Figbird (photo 3), both Summer migrants, normally found further north.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0116BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0090BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 18.16.41 Other larger birds in our garden at the moment include very quiet Australian Magpies (photo 6), a pair of courting Australian Ravens (photo 2), a Grey Butcherbird (photo 3), Pied Currawongs (photo 5), Spotted Turtle Doves (photo 4) and our Blackbirds (photo 1), which have been on holiday and have just returned.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 11.40.23BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-04 14.53.01BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-23 12.07.56BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-13 17.29.54BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-14 14.37.25BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-18 17.46.44 And our littlies: the Eastern Spinebills (photos 1 and 2), Silvereyes (photo 3) and Double-barred Finches (photo 4).BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-23 11.54.46BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-07 14.54.51BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0707BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0319 all of whom do a stirling job keeping the bugs in check.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-03 13.48.38BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-27 13.07.27BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-27 13.30.41BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-06 12.11.05We found this delightful Grey Fantail nest in our old camellia tree at the front door.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 14.54.13The slightly cooler weather has been wonderful for pursuing creative tasks from cooking to sewing, embroidery and paper crafts. I made my son a delicious carrot cake, using a recipe from https://chefkresorecipes.wordpress.com/2017/03/23/carrot-cake/ for his birthday:BlogAutumngardenReszd7517-04-25 17.56.10BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-25 15.00.36 and hot cross buns for Easter Friday, using a recipe from https://bitesizebakehouse.com/2017/04/08/cranberry-hot-cross-buns-2/ , with a fun Easter Egg hunt in the garden with friends on the Sunday.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-12 13.33.28BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-14 12.09.54 My friend Heather, who visited us during the Candelo Arts Festival and is the Melbourne agent for Saori (http://artweaverstudio.com.au/), gave us a Saori weaving workshop and we were thrilled with our woven runners.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-22 14.27.11BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-22 15.36.30BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-22 16.16.34BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-24 10.56.10 I gave my friends Rae, Brooklin and Kirsten, a hand embroidery lesson, inspiring Rae’s wonderful exhibit. I was so impressed!BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0441BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-04-24 16.19.41BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-04-24 16.23.44 I made embroidery rolls for their birthdays,BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0510BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0516BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0845BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0505 as well as a pair of felt appliqué cushions for my sister’s bed.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-06 17.44.17 And another decoupage floral card and a paper owl, assembled from a German kit, which was given to me by my daughter in Berlin.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0499BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1220BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1221And finally, there were the bouquets from the garden! Masses of colourful zinnias…BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0037BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-05-06 11.16.50BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-29 20.26.32BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-18 12.12.28 and bright dahlias;BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0226BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1148 Scented roses;BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-03-25 09.39.26BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-03-25 09.39.32BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0888BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 11.26.09BlogAutumngardenReszd2517-05-06 11.16.58

Simple blue salvias and bold hydrangeas;BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 10.20.45BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0264BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0261 And wonderful mixtures of colourful blooms!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 18.58.02BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-12 10.49.40BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0021BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-19 12.16.03BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-27 11.42.23BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-27 11.42.46BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-18 12.49.55BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-18 12.50.00 How I love arranging flowers!BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-03 14.11.26BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-18 12.07.18BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0003And finally, we had some wonderful days out, exploring new spots and revisiting old haunts. The Bendethera day in March was rather inclement and while we could not reach our final destination due to the amount of water in the final creek, we did ascertain that our vehicle could manage the 4WD tracks for a future camping trip and despite the rain and constant cloud, it was still a lovely day out.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1007BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0985BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0995BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0998BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0948BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0952 We had much better April weather for our Monaro drive to Delegate, Jindabyne (including the wonderful Wildbrumby Scnapps Distillery in photo 2) and Thredbo (the Kosciuszko chair lift in photo 3) and discovered a wonderful birdwatching and trout fishing  venue, Black Lake, near Cathcart, on our way home (photo 5), where we saw six elegant Black-Winged Stilts (photo 6).BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 11.21.45BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 12.59.21BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 13.28.40BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 15.11.43BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 17.14.48BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-03-30 17.48.57 We introduced friends to Bay Cliff and Greenglades (also see: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/12/13/wonderful-wonboyn/) in late April (see if you can guess the tracks on the beach in photo 7!); BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 15.15.12BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 13.45.15BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 14.50.15BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 14.12.57BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 14.55.38BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 14.09.03BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 18.08.42BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 18.08.12BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-04 18.10.41 and Aragunnu (also see: https://candeloblooms.com/2015/09/11/aragunnu-and-bunga-head/) in May, two of our favourite spots on the coast;BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 12.37.22BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 12.40.29BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 16.05.58BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 15.28.36BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 13.43.10BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-08 17.30.24as well as revisiting Nunnock Swamp and Alexander’s Hut (also see: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/10/18/south-east-forests-national-park/).BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 12.15.50BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 13.16.33BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 14.21.55BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 12.23.20BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 14.15.53BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-16 12.52.27And we went canoeing on Back Lake at Merimbula, where we photographed a beautiful Azure Kingfisher, as well as a teenage cygnet and white egrets.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 16.40.28BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 17.09.44BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 16.49.59BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 17.26.18BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 17.20.48BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 17.39.23BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 17.01.11BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-04-15 16.56.10 We are so lucky to have such easy access to these beautiful unspoilt natural areas! Next week, I am returning to our dreamy roses!

The November Garden

It has been a long month with a prolonged Spring season, but we are now finally getting some Summer heat with days in the mid-30s- a bit hot, given we haven’t had time to adjust yet (!), though we did have some beautiful soft recuperative rain last week. The Spring garden has been an absolute delight and quite magical, especially in the late afternoon sun.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-47-43blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-09-42-58blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-13-47-26 I think November has to be my favourite month with all the trees in their full regalia and Bearded Iris, Poppies and Roses all coming into their own. I just love the view from our verandah over our beautiful garden, with its borrowed landscape backdrop of trees of an infinite variety of foliage colour, texture, shape and form, especially in the misty rain or when the sun first comes up.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-08-16-45-39blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-09-19-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-15-07-41-58 The Soho Bed and Moon Bed have been such a show this Spring.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-01-09-43-04blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-12-13-47-22blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-12-17-07blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-04-11-25-22blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-12-09-48blognovgarden20reszdimg_1871blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-11-57-15blognovgarden20reszdimg_1969blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-28-13-52-13 The roses are in full swing. Here is a selection of blooms from each section of the garden:

Soho Bed:  Hybrid Tea and David Austin roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Big Purple; Alnwick and Eglantyne

Middle Row: Heaven Scent; Our Copper Queen and Fair Bianca

Bottom Row: Lolita; Just Joey and Mister Lincoln

Moon Bed:  David Austin roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Heritage; Lucetta and Windermere

Middle Row: Troilus; Jude the Obscure and Evelyn

Bottom Row: 2 photos William Morris; Golden Celebration;

Pergola:  Climbing roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Adam; Souvenir de la Malmaison and Madame Alfred Carrière

Bottom Row: La Reine Victoria; New Dawn and Devoniensis;

House Walls:  Climbing roses: From left to right:

Top Row: Lamarque; Mrs Herbert Stevens; Cecile Brunner

Bottom Row: Paul’s Himalayan Musk; Lamarque and Mrs Herbert Stevens;

Shed Front:   From left to right:

Top Row: Viridiflora; Archiduc Joseph and Madame Isaac Pereire

Bottom Row: Fantin Latour; Fritz Nobis and Leander;

Shed Back:   From left to right:

Top Row: Both photos Rêve d’Or

Bottom Row: Alister Stella Gray and Albertine;

Rugosas:   From left to right:

Top Row: Roseraie de l’Hay; Russelliana (not a rugosa but at the end of rugosa hedge) and Frau Dagmar Hastrup)

Bottom Row: Frau Dagmar Hastrup ; Madame Georges Bruant and Roseraie de l’Hay

Hedge:  From left to right:

Top Row: Kathleen; Stanwell Perpetual and Sombreuil

Bottom Row: Cornelia; Mutabilis and Penelope.

Cornelia has been such a show that she warrants another photo all of her own! She will eventually be supported by an arch. Sombreuil is on the other side.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-10-04-21Unexpected:   Unidentified root stocks instead of the roses I’d expected from the cuttings. Obviously, the originals had already died and been replaced by their root stocks: The deep red one is Dr. Huey, but I am not sure of the others: possibly Rosa multiflora (top left) and Rosa fortuniana (top right and bottom left), both of which have been used extensively as root stocks in the past.