Bucket List of French Gardens

In my last post, I featured my bucket-list of gardens in the United Kingdom, a country which I have visited twice and could easily visit again! France falls into the same category. While I know there are many wonderful gardens to visit in other countries like Italy and Germany, I would still return to France to visit more gardens!

Please note that since I haven’t yet visited these gardens, I have used photographs of my own garden or other Australian gardens to illustrate this post. Below is my daughter Jen’s Spring photo of Giverny, one of the most famous French gardens. My feature photo for this post is the beautiful Guillot rose, Paul Bocuse.BlogFranceLoveAffair20%ReszdP1190241

We visited Monet’s beautiful and very popular garden at Giverny in 1994, but I would also love to visit Renoir’s garden, Les Collettes. We own the book Renoir’s Garden, written  by Derek Fell in 1991, in which it is described as ‘a vision of an earthly paradise’ and the photos certainly support that description! It looks like a lovely relaxed old garden and you can also explore the house and studio.

Musée Renoir
19 Chemin des Collettes
06800 Cagnes-sur-Mer

http://www.amb-cotedazur.com/renoir-museum-cagnes-sur-mer/

Originally a traditional working farm with ancient olive and orange groves and an old farmhouse, Renoir bought the 11 hectare estate in 1907, and commissioned architect, Jules Febvre, to design a new villa, which was finished in 1908. Here is a map of the garden and property from Page 100 – 101 of Derek Fell’s book:BlogBucketFranceReszd2517-09-18 18.50.02BlogBucketFranceReszd2517-09-18 18.50.19Despite his increasingly arthritic hands and a stroke in 1912, which left him bound to a wheelchair, Renoir still continued to work every day with assistance, spending each Winter at Les Collettes, and returning to Essoyes, the home town of his wife, Aline, in Burgundy each Summer.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1821Wide paths were constructed to accommodate a wheelchair and were lined with Nerium oleander, a Mediterranean native. Many  shade trees were planted like oaks, umbrella pines (Pinus pimea),  Italian Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), Canary Island Date Palms (Phoenix canariensis), Irish Strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo), a Judas Tree (Cercis siliquastrum), hawthorns (Crataegus species), Pepper trees (Schinus molle), Spindle trees (Euonymus species), loquat trees (photo above), Broad-leaved Lime or Linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos), flowering cherry and apricot trees, a golden bamboo grove (Phyllostachys aureosulcata), Pittosporum  tobira and Eucalyptus species, underplanted with blue bearded iris, red poppies, birds’ foot trefoil and ivy-leaved geraniums.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-21-11-21-08Shrubs include Shrub Verbena, Lantana camara; Philadelphus coronarius (photo above); Pyracantha coccinea, Indian hawthorne (Raphiolepsis indica) and lilacs, Syringa vulgaris (photo below). The walls of the farmhouse provided support for Tree Fuchsias, Oleander, Cape Plumbago, Solanum laciniatum, and Brugsmansia ( both white and salmon forms of Angel’s Trumpets).blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-10-11-44-53The formal gardens contain 4 rows of citrus trees, seven to each row – mainly oranges, tangerines and cumquats, interplanted with many beautiful scented pink roses, Renoir’s favourite flower. In fact, Henri Estable, a local rose breeder, named a shrub rose after Renoir in 1909, Painter Renoir, which is naturally growing in the garden! There are many climbing roses, growing over arches, including a massive Banksia rose (photo below).blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0289Other plants include succulents like aloes, variegated agave (Agave americana variegata) and Mexican yuccas (Beschorneria yuccoides); Bearded and Dutch Iris (photo below), cannas and agapanthus;  Ivy-leafed pelargoniums;  Lavender, rosemary, santolinas and dusty millar (Senecio bicolour cineraria); Echium fastuosum, cistus and hebes; White Margeurite daisies (Argyranthemum frutescens); Calendulas, gaillardia and nasturtiums; Dahlias and zinnias; Anchusa azurea and Bergenia cordifolia; and carnations and pink poppies.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0121 There are pots of arum lilies (Zantedeschia aethiopica), cinerarias, papyrus and spider plants. There are also vegetable gardens, vineyards and orchards. Here is a photo of Zantedeschia aethiopica ‘Green Goddess’ in our hydrangea bed.BlogReignroses20%ReszdIMG_3039Renoir died in 1919, after which parts of  Les Collettes were sold off, so that by 1959, only 2½ hectares remained. In 1960, the house and the remaining estate were bought by the town of Cagnes-sur-Mer and turned  into a municipal museum, featuring the family’s furniture, fourteen original paintings and thirty sculptures by the master, including a version of Les Grandes Baigneuses.BlogFavNurseries50%Reszdjens visit jan 2010 051In July 2013, after 18 months of extensive renovation work, the Renoir Museum and the whole Collettes estate reopened their doors. For the first time, the museum also gave public access to the kitchen and hallway overlooking the gardens and added a set of seventeen plaster sculptures, donated by Renoir and Guion families, as well as two additional original canvasses.BlogAprilGarden20%Reszd2016-04-14 12.11.05Renoir’s final years at Les Collettes were depicted in a beautiful film simply titled Renoir (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2150332/), but the latter was in fact photographed in the gardens of Le Domaine du Rayol, my next bucket-list garden.

Le Domaine du Rayol

Avenue of the Belgians
83820 RAYOL-CANADEL-SUR-MER

http://www.domainedurayol.org/

A 20 ha botanical garden and arboretum in the Var, between Le Lavandou and Saint-Tropez.

It was bought in 1989 by the Conservatoire du Littoral, to protect the local maquis scrubland from the development of a housing estate, and the group then commissioned Gilles Clément and Philippe Deliau to redesign the old garden. It has since been listed as a Jardin Remarquable.

It is dedicated to Mediterranean and arid and subtropical biomes and is divided into a number of regional gardens, involving five continents:

The Canary Islands, off the NW coast of Africa: Three landscapes: the Malpaïs (coastal maquis) with its euphorbia (Euphorbia canariensis), echiums (photo below), convovulus and Aeonium; the Thermophilic Grove of dragon trees; and the high altitude Pinar, dominated by Canary Pine and Cistus;BlogFavNurseries30%ReszdIMG_9316California: The Chaparral (Californian maquis), growing tough Heteromeles, Leucophyllum frutescens, Prunus illicifolia , Romneya coulteri, Manzanitas; Carpentaria, Californian lilacs (Ceanothes), oaks, Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), Coulter Pine and Monterey Cypress; Desert landscapes with Hesperaloe parviflora, the Yuccas, the cacti (photo below), cactus candles and Opuntias, and the Ocotillos; and Desert canyons with desert rose palm trees and the Washingtonia palm groves; as well as late Spring meadows of eschscholtzias and lupins;BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 10.01.29South Africa: The Fynbos of the Cape Peninsula , characterized by shrubs of the families of  Proteaceae (including King Protea, P. cynaroides), Ericaceae (heather) and Restionaceae (which resemble the rushes of the Mediterranean regions), underplanted with bulbs and rhizomes, such as Irises, Watsonias, Lilies and Amaryllis and shrubs like Carissa, Leonotis, Pelargoniums, and Polygala; and the Karoo, dominated by thorny acacias, aloes and succulents;BlogAprilGarden20%Reszd2016-04-10 18.27.36Australia: The Mallee, dominated by eucalyptus, acacias (50 varieties), banksias, grevilleas, callistemons and melaleucas, as well as Kangaroo Paws, Anigozanthus; and the Kwongan, dominated by Black Boys;BlogAprilGarden20%Reszd2016-04-08 14.30.02BlogAutumn colour20%Reszd2016-04-13 13.45.35New Zealand: Wet humid subtropical forests of tree ferns, dwarf palms and phormiums;  and a dry grass prairie, surrounded by Manuka (teatree) and olearias;Blog PHGPT1 50%Reszdgrampians 4 122Subtropical Asia: the bamboo groves, Cycas revoluta, glycines and fig trees from China; The photo below is an Australian member of the cycad family, Macrozamia communis.BlogBush Harvest20%Reszd2015-03-08 12.49.32Arid America: Large rock garden of Mexican plants from arid regions: Agaves, yuccas and Pipi cactus;BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmarchapril 601Subtropical America: Plants of Northern Argentina and subtropical Mexico, characterized by palms, nolines (elephant foot – photo below), beaucarneas and erythrines, lantanas, salvias, duras, velvetleons, and hibiscus;BlogPrivSpec20%ReszdIMG_2258Chile: High Moor landscapes of Puyas, including the Puya, members of the Bromeliaceae family (pineapple), Zigzag Bamboos (Chusquea species), Monkey Puzzle trees Araucaria and  the 10 metre high thorny Cactus Quisco, Echinopsis chilensis, as well as meadows of alstroemerias and nasturtiums; Savannah Espinal, dominated by Acacia caven; and the cooler inland palm groves of honey palm, Jubaea chilensis. Here are my bromeliads:BlogReignroses20%ReszdIMG_2983Mediterranean: Contains local plants: the Cistus; Arbutus, pistachio, filaria, heather and laurel. See Cistus in the right-hand bottom corner of the photo below.BlogPrivCountry50%Reszdearly nov 2010 147Cist Collection of 35 species of Cistus, as well as hybrids;blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9109Marine: Underwater plantings on the seabeds of the Baie du Figuier, including the seabed covered by sand or rock; the algal herbarium (posidonia); and deep water ; and

Local Marquis Scrub including cistus, brooms (photo below), terebinths and laurustinus.BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1452Yvoire:  Labyrinthe of the Five Senses:  Jardin des Cinq Sens

Rue du Lac – 74 140 Yvoire
Haute-Savoie – France

https://www.jardin5sens.net/en/  and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kq2JvXAhmI

I have always loved the notion of sensory gardens, so this famous garden, which has been cultivated the past 30 years and contains over 1300 types of plants, was definitely on my bucket list!

It was designed by Alain Richert and is situated in the former 0.25 ha walled potager of the 15th century Château d’Yvoire, one of France’s many beautiful villages, in the Haut-Savoie, overlooking Lake Geneva.blogsept-garden20reszd2016-09-25-09-54-55On the upper level near the entrance is an alpine meadow of fritillaries (photo above), violets, alpine tulips, jonquils, saxifrages, gentians and decorative grasses. Beyond the alpine rectangle is a geometric latticework (a tisage) composed of white rugosas Blanc Double de Coubert (photo below) and balls of silvery-blue wild oats.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0262On the upper side of the garden is an undergrowth garden, created to disguise ugly neighbouring walls and containing seven lime trees, Tilia x moltkei, underplanted with woodruff, soft ferns, Polystichum setiferum and Brunnera macrophylla.

On the other side of the tisage is a green cloister garden, with arches made of hornbeam columns and walls covered in honeysuckle. It is divided by low box hedges into 4 small gardens, containing medicinal and aromatic plants used in medieval times: Rue, santolina, thyme, rosemary, peppermint, chamomile, balm, salvia, savory, wild thyme and hyssop, all growing around a central granite bird pool. Here is a photo of Calendula, used in healing lotions for skin conditions and wounds.blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-28-13-45-45The Garden of the Five Senses is a few steps down from the Cloister Garden and is laid out like a labyrinth in the design of a medieval potager. It is composed of four rectangles (representing sight, taste, smell and touch) around a central aviary (representing sound). Each rectangle is surrounded by gravel paths and are divided by hedges of hornbeam, Carpinus betulus, interlaced with sweet peas and trellised apple trees.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-23-15-09-04The ‘Jardin du Goût’ is all edible plants: Strawberries, raspberries, black currants, blueberries, rhubarb, onions, lovage, angelica and celery, as well as orange trees with edible flowers and apple trees.blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-08-11-03-15The ‘Jardin de l’Odorat ou des Parfums’ includes alliums, honeysuckles, viburnums, lemon balm, tobacco plants, mahonias, a medlar, daphnes and roses, including Cardinal de Richelieu and Moss roses like William Lobb and Blanche Moreau.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0457The ‘Jardin des Textures’ contains fine and coarse leaved plants in tones of silver, gold and grey: Euphorbias, mahonias, inulas, bronze fennel, wormwood and meadow rue, Thalictrum aquilegifolium, acanthus, asphodels, salvias, hellebores, irises, lady’s mantle (photo below) and Aruncus sylvester.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-05-18-45-02In the ‘Jardin des Couleurs’ are variations of blue: Campanulas, primulas, Iris sibirica, violets, gentians, geraniums (Johnson’s Blue) and Meconopsis.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0048The sense of hearing is represented by a large bird aviary, built over a fountain and an ancient tank, and containing ducks, pheasants and turtle doves. There is also a smaller aviary, overgrown with Araujia sericofera, with doves, quails and other small birds.BlogMarchGarden20%ReszdIMG_0813Other plants in the garden include a Clematis montana grandiflora; a Rosa filipes Kiftsgate, Acanthus (photo below), a Syringa microphylla, Gaura lindheimeri, a persimmon and a Lagerstroemia indica.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0410Jardin des Herbes, La Garde Adhémar

Place de l’Église, 26700 La Garde-Adhémar, France

http://www.parcsetjardins.fr/rhone_alpes/drome/jardin_des_herbes-1234.html

I have also always loved herb gardens, so this garden, listed as a Jardin Remarquable in 2006, was very much on my radar! The Jardin des Herbes is a 3000 square metres terraced garden of a 12th century church at the foot of the ramparts of the village of La Garde-Adhémar.BlogPeonypoppy20%Reszd2015-11-13 11.58.57Created by Danielle Arcucci in 1990, it has two levels, with 300 medicinal and aromatic herbs. On the upper level, 200 species of medicinal plants, which are still used in the pharmacopoeia of the 21st century, are arranged in a square and are identified and their uses and effects described with coloured labels. This is feverfew, used to treat headaches.BlogSummersplendrs20%Reszd2015-12-19 10.08.10The lower level contains a collection of aromatic plants including yarrows, lavenders, roses, salvias, geraniums, rosemary and thymes, arranged in a design of a sun (the centre filled with begonias and other annuals) and its rays, the beds delineated by box. It is a place of great tranquillity and beauty with lots of colours, tastes, textures and fragrance.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0425Herb gardens were also very much a part of monastery gardens, so I would also love to visit this next very inspiring venue, the medieval priory gardens at Orsan, 50 km south of Bourges :

Le Prieuré Notre Dame d’Orsan

18170 Butonnais, Berry, southern part of Loire Valley

http://janellemccullochlibraryofdesign.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/prieure-dorsan-garden-created-by.html

https://www.thegoodlifefrance.com/beautiful-gardens-of-france-prieure-dorsan/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzZ74BQ4HPw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_yqgZJHFMs

Begun in 1991 and opened to visitors in 1995, it was created by Patrick Taravella and Sonia Lesot, who bought the ruined monastery with 40 acres of land and stone and turreted buildings from the 12th and 17th centuries. With the help of Head Gardener, Gilles Guillot, they created a 5 ha garden , based on the art of gardening during pre-Renaissance times, and made up of a series of square and rectangular formal garden rooms, partially enclosed with hornbeam hedging with peepholes and doorways.

Gardens include:

Medicinal Herb Garden with four raised beds of 52 different medicinal plant varieties, labelled with both botanical Latin and French names;BlogAutumn colour20%ReszdIMG_0545Cloister Garden: Including four rectangular beds of Chenin blanc grapes surrounding a central square fountain; glazed urns containing clipped box bushes, and woven wooden seats, each sheltered by quince trees (photo below) trained into hood-shaped arbours;BlogAutumn colour20%Reszd2016-04-15 15.41.46Two Formal Parterres of early food crops, including 3 old varieties of wheat, rye and fava bean; chards; leeks and cabbages;BlogChinasReszd20%IMG_0207The Mary Garden, a rose garden dedicated to the Virgin and inspired by the Songs of the Songs (Hortus Conclusus of Secret Garden) with two cloister-like enclosures: a square of pink ramblers (including Cécile Brunner (photo above)and Mme Caroline Testout), and a square of white roses (Aimée Vibert and Reines des Belges). The pink square has an arch of white standard Iceberg and Gruss an Aachen, while the white square has an arch of pink Cornelia (photo below) and The Fairy.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-03-10-04-21 The roses climb over the arches, arbours and tunnels that are constructed of the typical wooden poles. Madonna lilies also grow here as roses and lilies were virtually inseparable in medieval illustrated manuscripts and paintings. Other roses in the garden include Pierre de Ronsard, Mme Alfred Carrière, Albertine and Marguerite Hilling;BlogButterflyHeaven 20%Reszd2015-12-02 08.43.39Kitchen Garden with 24 inch raised beds of alternating layers of manure and  soil; supporting teppes and trellises; and a modern drip irrigation system. Here, they grow organic heirloom tomato cultivars, aromatic herbs, sweet peppers, carrots, salad vegetables and aubergines;BlogFestiveSeason20%Reszd2015-12-25 18.54.58Maze Garden, lined by walls of plum cordons: Greengage, Nancy and Saint Catherine. On each side of the paths are beds of pears, quinces, grapes, herbs and flowers like sweet peas, nasturtiums, cosmos and giant sunflowers. Rhubarb is encouraged upwards in bottomless cylindrical baskets woven from thick lengths of vine and clematis;BlogFestiveSeason20%Reszd2015-12-23 19.57.50BlogSummersplendrs20%ReszdIMG_2486Berry Avenue with espaliered gooseberries, grown on espalier fans; raspberries trained on wooden poles in V-shaped rows; black, red and white currants trained on diamond lattices; and blueberries, blackberries and strawberries;BlogMarchGarden20%ReszdIMG_0681blogdecgarden20reszd2016-12-13-18-47-54Orchard of three ancient pear trees and over 20 varieties of apples, planted in a quincuncial pattern, including Querine Florina, Patte de Loup, Drap d’Or, Belle of Boskoop, Short Hung Gray, Yellow, Big Locard, Judor, Reine des Reinettes, Reinette clochard, Reinette de Caux, Reinette fom Holland, Golden Reinette, Gray Reinette from Canada, and Starking;BlogEndofSpring20%Reszd2015-11-19 08.14.34BlogSummers here 20%Reszd2015-11-23 17.43.51Three Orchard Cloister : Three orchards of pear (planted concentrically with lavender beds on each corner and including pears: Duchesse d’Angoulême, Belle du Berry, André Desportes; sorbus and cherry trees (Marmotte, Burlat and Cœur de Pigeon); and aBlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_7074Wildflower Meadow and a Woodland with an outdoor sculpture gallery;

All the beautiful garden structures and furniture are made in the medieval way from home-grown saplings and the garden produce is used in the hotel restaurant or preserved for later use. Wheat is ground into flour to be made into bread and a white wine produced from the grapes. The Table d’Orsan restaurant is open from March to November (book in advance). The medlars below were a popular medieval fruit.BlogAutumn colour20%Reszd2016-04-15 15.39.40You can also tour the gardens or attend workshops of one to three days focused on themes such as creating wooden structures like the ones in the gardens. There is also a small shop with a comprehensive range of traditionally-made products for sale, including jams, chutneys, and fruit juices, all made with Orsan Gardens produce, as well as baskets, natural soaps, and a range of books on cuisine, gardening or fine arts.BlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_0004As keen organic gardeners and environmentalists, we would also have to visit the French version of the Centre for Alternative Energy (http://www.cat.org.uk), Machynlleth, Powys, Wales, which we visited in 1994:

Centre Terre Vivant

Domaine de Raud – 38710 MENS

http://www.terrevivante.org/

A wonderful ecological education centre with an organic garden, orchard, apiary and wilderness, 1 hour south of Grenoble and 2 hours from Lyon. It began in 1994 to trial and showcase everything to do with alternative farming and ecological living, reporting the results back to the readers of its founding magazine, Les Quatre Saisons du Jardinage. The 50 ha property lies in a broad river valley at an altitude of 750 m, surrounded by forest and high mountains.

The mudbrick Blue House contains the administrative centre, a shop and a library, specialising in alternative lifestyles. Nearby is a restaurant, Table de Raud, and an energy centre; a composting centre; a playground; a wildflower meadow; a garden shed showing four different methods of construction using earth; an aromatic spiral; a school garden; a handicapped garden; a plant nursery; two orchards; a poultry house; a marequarium to observe pond life, lots of other small pools and an artesian well; a solar beehive and numerous vegetable plots.BlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_0175Gilles Clément was invited to help plan the gardens eg the Water Walk and the Garden of the Five Elements, as well as a series of woodland clearing gardens. There are lots of different irregularly shaped potagers: a special garden for curcubits; the 100-square-metre exploit, based on plant associations recommended by Gertrud Franck; a garden for the preservation of endangered heirloom vegetables; a garden for little-known varieties, which should be used more widely eg violet carrots; Jerusalem artichoke; Swedes, blue potatoes; Italian broccoli rab, parsnips, kale, hyacinth beans; amaranths and red and green orachs. The beds are delineated by split logs, paths covered with home-shredded bark and wood chip and flowers used as companion plants.Blog Printemps20%ReszdIMG_1255The 200 square metre Family Garden contains vegetables; a flowering hedge; a cutting garden; a small fish pond; a shade tree with bird houses; an orchard; a herb plot; a compost corner with bins of nettle and comfrey tea; a wild flower strip to encourage bees; and a lawn for children to play.BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1563The centre holds many conferences and workshops eg Traditional Dyeing with Anne Rigier, who rediscovered ancient methods for dyeing cloth with plant juices using lactofermentation, rather than boiling; Creating living buildings with willows; Permaculture; Organic gardening and cooking; Solar ovens; Crop roatation, pests and diseases; Seed saving; Composting and mulching; Worm farming; Making casein paints and homemade natural shampoos; Basketry; and Bee keeping.BlogButterflyHeaven 20%ReszdIMG_1764There is also an Open Day (with talks on pallet gardening, biodiversity, and organic flowers; a conference on ecology and biomimcry; music and kids’ entertainment; a photographic exhibition; and tours of the centre); Children’s Wednesdays (first three Wednesdays of August, involving gardening with kids, fishing, making seed bombs and natural play with large wooden games, tunnels and willow huts) and an event called The Great Lizard, with yoga workshops, outdoor Qi-Gong sessions, massages, a caravan sauna, siestas, icecreams, and music. In short, everything to promote relaxation!BlogEducationgardens25%Reszdoctober 2 135At the base of the web page are lots of recommendations with respect to the garden, home building and ecological living. There are also recipes, a climatic map; organic gardening and moon calendars; and articles on crafts in the garden (making nest boxes, garden tables, garden benches, chassis, dry stone walls, willow hurdles, compost bins and planters); encouraging birds and wildlife (pools, hedges, insect hotels, feeders, nest boxes and companion planting); keeping animals (best chook breeds; natural medicine for cats and dogs); permaculture and garden forests; water saving (rainwater tanks, mulching, water conservation) and pests and diseases.BlogSummersplendrs20%Reszd2015-12-15 09.13.27And now for my final garden, the private home of Nicole Arboireau:

Le Jardin de la Pomme Ambre

64 Impasse de l’Ancienne Route d’Italie – La Tour de Mare – 83600 Fréjus

http://www.lapommedambre.com/  and  http://jardinlapommedambre.blogspot.com.au/

An imaginative, intimate and eclectic 2000 square metre garden, developed since 1985 by owner, Nicole Arboireau, at the foot of the Esterel Massif. The steep block has been remodelled into a labyrinth of narrow curving terraces, supported by drystone walls and weathered railway sleepers.BlogBugsBBB20%Reszd2015-12-11 09.56.33The garden is managed organically with no chemical use, plenty of compost and a strong emphasis on recycling and the encouragement of biodiversity. It is a refuge for the League of the Protection of Birds and is home for lots of local wildlife from toads and frogs and  lizards, snakes and geckoes to squirrels, hedgehogs, badgers and many birds (including tits and wrens, magpies and jays, and owls), as well as a dog and 7 cats.BlogSummers here 20%Reszd2015-11-28 19.23.45I love her use of old earthenware pots and ancient sewing machines, repurposing china crockery, like darkened casserole dishes for bird baths and tea-sets for cactus. She also grows plants in bicycle baskets and old clogs and has made an experimental dry garden from broken bricks, shells and clippings. She also likes to play with colour eg her Brazilian Terrace, based on fuchsia and orange tones.Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0386The garden contains over 700 species. Nicole focuses on the conservation of the native flora of the Provence coast, as well as the heritage exotic plants of the old Belle Époque gardens of the Côte d’Azur. She also loves the cottage garden plants of her grandmother’s era, writing about them in her book: Jardins de Grand-mères, published in 2000.blogsept-garden20reszd2016-09-23-18-31-29Trees include: Cork oaks, a giant pepper tree, 13 types of acacia, eucalypts, Aleppo pines, tamarisks, oleanders, a persimmon, Arbutus unedo, palm trees and ficus, many of which support climbers like roses, bougainvillea, jasmines and wisteria.BlogPrivSpec50%Reszdmar 2010 008Shrubs include Viburnum tinus; Erica arborea and Medicago arborea; lilacs and ceanothus; japonicas and kerrias; cassias; beauty bush and spireas; and the roses bred by Nabonnand. Other roses include: American Pillar, Albéric Barbier, Rosa laevigata and Mermaid and R. indica major, used extensively in the Grasse perfume industry.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.28.16Other plants include: the local Cistus of the nearby maquis scrub; Acanthus; Helleborus niger and H. argutifolius; Ayssum maritimum and Bellis perennis; Rosmarinus officinalis; Mahonias; Solanums; Flowering salvias (photo above); Euphorbia myrsinites; Echiums and Euryops; and salad vegetables and herbs.BlogAutumn colour25%Reszdaprilmay 128All her plants have a history, having been given to her or rescued from old decaying gardens. I was interested to read that Scilla, a bulb common to the old gardens of the Riviera, used to be made into omelettes to poison rats! Nicole is a well-known garden historian, an intervenor at the Mediterranean School of Gardening in Grasse, and the President and founder of Friends of Mediterranean Parks and Gardens, as well as being the organizer of many local plant festivals.BlogPrivSpec20%Reszd2014-04-06 12.22.05You can stay at her Bed-and-Breakfast or visit her garden for the day to learn all about the history of gardens of the Côte d’Azur, as well as the floral  and perfume industries and the history of herbs. She also runs workshops:

Botany, Ecology and History: Using native plants or subtropical plants from other Mediterranean climates in the garden; and the plants of the Belle Époque;

Using Native Flora in the Kitchen: Making tisanes (the photo below shows peppermint cut and tied into bunches for drying for future peppermint tea!), elixirs and wines;

The Scented Home: Making floral scents; herb cushions; scent collars; pot pourri and pomanders; and bouquets and tussie mussies;

Propagation: Taking Cuttings and Seed Saving.BlogSummerDays20%Reszd2015-12-26 12.06.26My final bucket-list garden post next week is focusing on roses and because of its size, it is divided into three sections, to be posted on consecutive days: United Kingdom (Tuesday); France (Wednesday); and Italy and Germany (Thursday)!

 

 

Bucket List of United Kingdom Gardens

There are so many wonderful places I would love to visit in the United Kingdom and I could easily visit Britain for its gardens alone! For anyone interested in British gardens, an excellent starting  point is to visit: https://www.greatbritishgardens.co.uk/.

This site features over 500 properties, which have been grouped into special interest categories: Arboretums and Woodland Plantings; Coastal and Wildlife Gardens; Family Gardens and Royal Gardens; Japanese or Prairie Gardens; Organic Gardens; Topiary, Walled and Water Gardens; and Seasonal Interest Gardens: Autumn Colour and Winter Gardens; and Specialty Gardens focusing on Snowdrops and Daffodils; Bluebells and Rhododendrons in the Spring and glorious Roses in Summer.

Other excellent sites to visit include: http://www.ngs.org.ukhttps://www.gardenvisit.com/  and  http://www.parksandgardens.org.

BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9673Given that we live so far away and holiday time is always limited, I had to be so strict with myself and only include my utmost favourites!

While I would adore to visit some of the rightfully popular gardens like Sissinghurst Castle (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/sissinghurst-castle-garden and https://cadyluckleedy.com/2015/09/26/the-national-trust-sissinghurst-gardens-cranbrook-kent-uk/) and Hidcote Manor (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/hidcote), my aversion to crowds would outweigh my appreciation, though I realize it is probably impossible to avoid them these days! The 4 ha (9 acre) garden of Sissinghurst Castle has 200, 000 visitors each year, while the 10 acre Hidcote Manor Garden has 175 000 visitors each year, but fortunately, the latter’s website has a wonderful 3D virtual tour as well!

Nevertheless, it’s all a matter of degrees, so  I have not included them, nor have I listed gardens with very limited opening times like Charles Jencks’ Garden of Cosmic Speculation (http://www.scotlandsgardens.org/gardens/garden/6f8a52d7-f7b0-45c2-91fc-999e00d2ac95) or Prince Charles’ organic  garden at Highgrove (https://www.highgrovegardens.com/), described beautifully in his book: The Garden at Highgrove, which I reviewed in my post: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/05/16/inspirational-and-dreamy-garden-books-part-two-books-about-specific-gardens/; or gardens, which we have already visited on previous trips like: Muckross House, Killarney, in Ireland and Inverwewe in Scotland;  Overbecks, Devon and Trebah and the Lost Gardens of Heligan in Cornwall; and the Chelsea Physic Garden, Hampton Court Palace and Kew Gardens, though I never did see the Marianne North Gallery at the latter, so feel I would love another visit there!

I will be doing a separate post for my favourite rose gardens! Please note all the photos are from my own garden, not the bucket list gardens, which I am describing,  and are included to add interest and colour to the post. BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_0726Here is my bucket list in the United Kingdom!!!

West Dean Gardens

West Dean, Nr Chichester, West Sussex, PO18 0RX

https://www.westdean.org.uk/gardens/explore and https://www.westdean.org.uk/gardens/blog

West Dean Gardens has long been on my radar, not just for its beautifully restored historic gardens, but also for its wealth of courses in conservation (Books, Ceramics, Clocks, Furniture, Metalwork, or Collections Care) and creative arts offered by West Dean College, both at the degrees and diploma level (https://www.westdean.org.uk/study/school-of-creative-arts/degrees-and-diplomas) and a huge variety of short courses, including embroidery and flower arranging. See :   http://westdean.assets.d3r.com/pdfs/original/17984-short-course-brochure-2017.pdf; and http://westdean.assets.d3r.com/pdfs/original/21070-short-courses-winter-2017-2018.pdf.

blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-18-26-41How wonderful it would be to stay at West Dean and participate in one of their courses, as well as be able to wander around their gardens in your relaxation time! Here is a link to a map of the gardens: http://westdean.assets.d3r.com/pdfs/original/19218-gardens-leaflet-12pp-2017-low-res-2.pdf.

The highlights include:

A 100 metre (300 foot) long Edwardian pergola, designed by Harold Peto in 1911 and made of stone pillars, linked by wooden overthrows, and covered with rambling roses (Veilchenblau; Sanders White Rambler); clematis; wisteria; honeysuckle and magnolia. The interior herbaceous borders include hostas; pelargoniums; ferns; iris; Dicentra and Spring bulbs. On one end is a gazebo with a mosaic floor of knapped flints and horses’ molars, while on the other end is a sunken garden with low growing plants, bulbs and a small pond.

Walled Kitchen Garden: Originally built in 1804, its current layout was developed in the 1990s and includes 2 cross paths and a perimeter path following the walls, creating 4 central beds and a series of borders against the walls.

The central beds follow a four-crop rotation of annual crops: potatoes; brassicas; legumes; and salad and root crops. Perennial crops are grown against the walls: soft fruit on the western wall; asparagus; rhubarb; sea kale and globe artichokes on the eastern wall and auriculas; lily of the valley; cordonned currants and gooseberries on the southern wall, the latter border also  growing early Spring crops, Summer herbs and late Autumn vegetables.

There is also a hot central flower border (Crocosmia; orange dahlias and yellow Kniphofia); a pear tunnel and espaliered pears and apples at the back. West Dean is famous for its apple collection with over 100 types of apples and 45 types of pears, many of them heritage varieties.

Victorian Glasshouses: There are 13 working Foster and Pearson glasshouses, built between 1890 and 1900, and growing a wide range of fruit and vegetables (figs; grapes; peaches and nectarines; strawberries; 58 different varieties of tomatoes; 75 different chillies; aubergines; cucumbers; melons; ornamental gourds ) and exotics and tropical plants (fuchsias; begonias; bromeliads; ferns; and orchids).

St. Roche’s Arboretum: established in 1830, this 49 acre woodland has a 2.5 mile circuit walk and contains many beautiful old specimen trees (beeches; limes; planes; and cedars), the National Collections of Liriodendrons (Tulip trees) and Aesculus (Horse Chestnuts) and shrubs, including rhododendrons and azaleas, which are a picture in Spring, along with the wildflower meadows and naturalised bulbs (over 500 000).blogdecgarden20reszd2016-12-16-18-17-25Wisley

RHS Garden Wisley, Woking, Surrey, GU23 6QB

https://www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/wisley

https://www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/wisley/wisley-blogs/wisley

An important centre for horticultural research and education and the flagship garden and historic home of the Royal Horticultural Society (https://www.rhs.org.uk), since 1903, when it was donated to the RHS by Sir Thomas Hanbury, who established La Mortola on the Italian Riviera.

It is one of four RHS properties, the other three being Harlow Carr, North Yorkshire; Hyde Hall, Essex; and Rosemoor, Devon, though another new RHS property at Bridgewater, Greater Manchester, is opening in 2020.

Wisley is enough for me! Apparently, it is the second-most visited garden after Kew Gardens in the UK – over one million visitors each year! So much for crowds then, though I’m hoping the sheer scale of the gardens will dilute them all! This place is HUGE , as is the website, and full of interesting ideas and inspiration!

Covering over 240 acres, 135 acres of which is open to the public, it has one of the largest plant collections in the world. There are so many different areas and it is worth visiting every area, at least on the website!

Here are the main areas which I would like to see :

The Glasshouse, which covers an area of 10 tennis courts, is 12 metres high, and has 3 different climatic zones (tropical; moist temperate and dry temperate) with 5000 different tender plants. It is surrounded by free-flowing beds of herbaceous plants and 150 metre (500 foot) long borders made up of Piet Oudolf-inspired diagonal ‘rivers’ of flowering perennials (mainly North American prairie species) and ornamental grasses with spectacular seedheads, planted in 2001. Usually including 3 plants to each river, the borders exhibit different combinations of repetitive plantings of: Echinacea; Echinops ritro; Perovskia; Gaura; Helenium; and Eryngium giganteum.

The Vegetable, Fruit and Herb Gardens, including demonstration gardens; an ornamental potager and raised beds of 50 different types of vegetables (350 cultivars); as well as the National Rhubarb Collection;  and a Tea Garden containing Camellia sinesis, as well as chamomile; cornflower; parsley; mint; strawberry; licorice; lemon balm; jasmine; bergamot and rose petals.

The Orchard, which contains 1300 different fruit cultivars, including 100 different types of plums and damsons; 175 different pears and 700 different apples, as well as strawberries; the National Collections of Red and White Currants and Gooseberries; rhubarb; figs and even a vineyard of white wine grapes. Many of the apples and pears are on dwarf root stock and trees are also trained to espaliers and fans.

The Cottage Garden, designed by Penelope Hobhouse in 1990, with lilacs, roses, bulbs and herbaceous perennials in a formal layout; and the 128 metres (420 foot) long Mixed Borders, which bloom from late Spring to Autumn, with their peak being in July and August. They contain clematis; phlox; helenium; salvias; nepetas; dahlias; sedums; asters; monkshood; helichrysum; monarda; culvers’ root; geranium; globe artichoke; and ornamental grasses.

The Walled Garden displaying Alternatives to Box and Foliage Plants (yew topiary, canes and grasses and over 50 cultivars of hostas).

The Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden, planted in 2007 and containing disease- and pest-resistant, repeat-flowering David Austin and Harkness Shrub  Roses, climbers and scramblers, under-planted with camassias; alliums; agapanthus; and ornamental grasses.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-10-57The Rock Garden, home to alpines; small weeping trees; dwarf conifers; and ferns; with a Japanese- style landscape; grotto and ponds; the Alpine Meadow, full of Spring crocus (National Collection); hoop petticoat daffodils; erythronium; snowdrops; and fritillaries, as well as primulas and hellebores; and Howard’s Field with the National Heather Collection.

The Exotic Garden, full of tropical looking plants with large leaves and vibrant flowers), which can be grown outdoors in the UK Summer, including dahlias; gingers; cannas; bananas and palms; and the Mediterranean Terraces, showcasing the plants of Chile; Australia; New Zealand and South Africa, including eucalypts; acacias; callistemons; pittosporum; abutilons; loquats; lavender, rosemary; cacti and succulents. I imagine I would feel right at home here!

Bowles Corner, dedicated to EA Bowles, a past president of the RHS and lover of ‘demented’ plants, those of unusual habit or appearance like  Corkscrew hazel, Corylus contorta, or plants with variegated leaves, as well as his beloved Galanthus; Crocus; Colchicum and hellebores; and the Bonsai Walk showcasing hardy, outdoor, miniature,  40 to 80 year old evergreen, deciduous and flowering bonsai trees.

There are a number of areas, showcasing trees including:

Seven Acres with its Winter Walk with trees chosen for their Winter colour, scent, shape and structure, including Snakebark Maples; Tibetan Cherry; Dogwoods and Willows, underplanted with witch hazel; daphnes; iris; and hellebores.

Oakwood, a wild area with moist soil and light shade and the first garden of the original property, containing hostas; primulas; foxgloves; Trillium; Gunnera; Giant Himalayan Lilies; kalmias; camellias; rhododendrons and magnolias.

Pinetum, the oldest tree collection at Wisley and the Jubilee Arboretum, where trees are grouped for easy comparison eg shade trees; narrow upright trees; weeping trees; blossom trees; fruit trees; and Autumn foliage trees, and the woodland garden of Battleston Hill, complete with stumpery!

Wisley also has an excellent garden library open to the public, as well as a research library; and holds a large number of garden-related courses from Garden Design; Botany for Gardeners: Photosynthesis; Social Media for Gardeners; Plant Identification; Seed Harvesting and Preparation ; Propagation; Tool Care; and Winter Pruning; to Plant Photography; Screen Printing and Painting; Bees in Watercolour; and Christmas Wreaths. They also hold a number of craft and design shows and a major flower show throughout the year.BlogAutumngardenReszd2017-05-18 10.08.01Ryton Organic Garden

Wolston Lane, Coventry, Warwickshire, CV8 3LG

http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/ryton

http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/news

Given our interest in organic horticulture, this garden, the HQ of  Garden Organic, a charity organization promoting organic farming and gardening, is also a must-visit for us!  Garden Organic began in 1954 as the Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA).

The 10 acre garden is divided into 30 individually-themed display gardens,  including : the Vegetable Way, a Herb Garden, Pest and Disease Control, World’s Biggest Flowerpot, Soft Fruit Gardens, Biodynamic Garden, an Allotment Garden, a Bee Garden, All Muck and Magic TV Garden ; a Children’s Garden and the famous Vegetable Kingdom, a visitor centre, packed full of interactive displays describing the history of vegetables in the United Kingdom.

All gardens are managed organically and show all aspects of horticulture from composting, companion planting  and pest and disease control to fruit and vegetable production; herbs; herbaceous plantings; roses; shrubberies; and lawns, as well as large conservation areas: native trees; a wildflower meadow and cornfield; a lake; and peek-in RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds)  urban wildlife garden. It sounds like a haven for birds and bees!blogdecgarden20reszd2016-12-16-18-10-36They hold regular courses in growing orchard trees and organic or cutting-edge vegetables; seed saving; organic and biodynamic gardening; moon planting; composting; and conservation and sustainability, as well as a new Certificate in Organic Horticulture. At Ryton, they have a large organic research centre and a heritage seed library and are also involved in sustainable farming projects in Africa and India.

Their website is an excellent resource for organic growers, especially their section  on frequently asked questions, grouped under the following subject areas: Composting, Containers, Diseases, Disorders, Fruit, Ornamentals (Flowers), Pests, Propagation, Soil Management, Vegetables, Water use, Weeds, Wildlife and General.blognovgarden20reszdimg_0425Great Dixter

High Park Close, Northiam, Rye, East Sussex, TN 31 6 PH

https://www.greatdixter.co.uk

https://www.nowness.com/series/great-gardens/the-gardeners-garden-great-dixter

The family home of garden writer Christopher Lloyd (1921-2006), Great Dixter was bought by his father Nathaniel in 1912. The fifteenth-century medieval hall house was remodelled by Edwin Lutyens from 1912 to 1920. Originally, there was no garden, but Nathaniel and his wife, Daisy, developed an Arts and Crafts garden, designed by Lutyens, around the old buildings. Some of Lutyens’ hallmarks in the garden were: curving yew hedges; decorative tiling and the incorporation of farm buildings into his garden design.

Christopher, who was renowned for his originality and verve; his adventurous trials and experiments with new growing methods and plants; his  dramatic plant combinations; and his successional planting, died in 2006 and his work has been continued under the stewardship of Fergus Garrett, his gardener since the early 1990s and the Great Dixter Charitable Trust.

Fergus and his team have continued to experiment with colour, texture and scale, producing high-impact visual displays and creating an increasingly naturalistic look to the garden using blowsy self-sowers like cow parsley. The garden is in constant flux , the planting schemes different every year. Great Dixter is famous for its colour combinations like lime-green euphorbias and red tulips;and  its use of link plants like Thalictrum; forget-me-knots; Verbena bonariensis and bronze fennel.

It is a high maintenance garden, but has an informal feel. Most of the plants are propagated at Great Dixter and are watered with their own bore water and fed with organic compost, with minimal use of chemicals.

While still relatively popular, it gets nowhere near the numbers of neighbouring Sissinghurst, at just over 50, 000 visitors per year, thanks in part to Fergus’s insistence on no signage in the garden; keeping the shop size small; and the paths narrow.blogdecgarden20reszd2016-12-05-18-15-11The website has an excellent interactive map, which describes each part of the 24 hectare garden. I would particularly like to see:

The Wildflower Meadow at the entrance to the house, cut twice a year in August and late Autumn and containing many different British orchids, wild daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) ; snakeshead fritillaries (Fritillaria meleagris) and North American bulb, Camassia quamash; and the Upper Moat, Daisy Lloyd’s ‘Botticelli Garden’, studded with primulas and Snake’s head fritillaries; meadowsweet and  Autumn flowering crocuses, Crocus nudiflorus and Crocus speciosus.

Nathaniel’s Yew Topiary Lawn, clipped once a year and the Peacock Garden with its parliament of 18 topiary peacocks and two-foot tall hedges of white and purple Aster lateriflorus ‘Horizontalis’ and a row of  indigo blue ‘English’ iris, I. latifolia.

The Exotic Garden, a tropical-looking late summer to autumn garden with large leaves and brightly coloured dahlias and cannas; a haze of purple from self-sown Verbena bonariensis, a Great Dixter signature plant; a white flowering Escallonia bifida, full of  butterflies; and four hardy Japanese banana plants, Musa basjoo.

The Orchard, a huge meadow stretching almost the whole south side of the garden, containing apples, pears, plums, hawthorns and crabs and  long grass with communities of crocuses, daffodils, erythroniums, wood anemones, four types of terrestrial orchid, and Adder’s Tongue ferns; and The Long Border, a very famous feature of Great Dixter, reached by Lutyens’ circular steps, and separated from the informality of the orchard meadow, by a broad flagstone path and a strip of mown grass.

This closely woven exuberant tapestry of  mixed  shrubs, climbers, perennials, annuals and grasses blooms from from April to October, with its peak in High Summer (Mid June to mid-August).

The Prairie, a meadow of long grass; Common Spotted and Twayblade orchids ; and  North American prairie plants,  Veronicastrum virginicum, Eryngium yuccifolium, and Helianthus grossaserratus.

The High Garden, an Edwardian kitchen design ,with paths flanked by fairly narrow flower borders of oriental poppies and lupins, backed by espalier fruit trees, hiding the Vegetable Garden.  See Aaron Bertelsen’s blog : https://dixtervegetablegarden.wordpress.com/.

Great Dixter holds Spring and Autumn Plant Fairs; a series of lectures and symposiums and is a centre for horticultural education and work experience.blogdecgarden20reszdimg_0127While in the same area, it would be worth visiting Perch Farm, if it coincided with either one of their open days or even better a course in flower arranging or cutting gardens! See: https://www.sarahraven.com and

https://www.gardenista.com/posts/garden-visit-sarah-raven-perch-hill-east-sussex-england/.

Interestingly, Christopher Lloyd is one of Sarah’s heroes! I have already discussed her wonderful garden in my post on Sarah Raven’s books in: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/21/books-on-specific-types-of-gardens-part-one-cutting-gardens-cottage-gardens-and-herb-gardens/.

blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-17-27-54Newby Hall and Gardens

Ripon, North Yorkshire, HG4 5AE

http://www.newbyhall.com/

A forty acre (16 hectares) garden designed and created by the present owner’s grandfather, Major Edward Compton, who inherited Newby in 1921 and gardened for over 50 years till his death in 1977. He designed a labour-intensive ‘garden for all seasons’ in compartmented formal rooms off a main axis, created with a broad grass walk, running from the south front of the house down to the River Ure and flanked by double herbaceous borders against double yew hedges.

His son, Robin Compton, and Robin’s wife, Jane, were also passionately interested in the garden, flowers and colour and design. They totally restored and replanted these lovely gardens over a ten year period, winning the BTA Heritage Award and the HHA/Christie’s Garden of the Year Award. The gardens are now run by Mrs Lucinda Compton with Head Gardener, Mark Jackson.

Like the other gardens featured, it has many fascinating garden areas, which are described in depth on the website, but the areas I would most like to see include the following:

Double Herbaceous Borders

172 metres long with a modern colour palette of soft pastels; vibrant lilacs; magenta pinks; lime green; claret and silver. Plants include architectural Cynara; Eryngium; Echinops; and Giant Scotch Thistle Onopordum acanthium ; Delphinium cultivars and Campanula lactiflora; Crambe cordifolia; Geranium and Origanum; asters; dahlias; sedums and  undulating drifts of colourful flowering perennials like Echinacea, Lythrum, Sanguisorba and Veronicastrum .

The Autumn Garden

A compartmental walled garden  containing Clerodendron trichotomum var. fargessii; Hydrangea quercifolia and  Hydrangea aspera Villosa Group and 40 late Summer flowering herbaceous Salvias; 800 dahlias in exotic purples, radiant reds, blousy pinks, moody maroons; Sedum; Echinacea; Phlox; and Verbena bonariensis.

The Rose Garden, mainly old-fashioned once-flowering hybrids and cultivars of Gallicas, Damasks, Albas, Centifolias and Mosses, the peak season being June into July, as well as some more modern repeat-flowering David Austin hybrids; underplanted with annuals like Salvia, Cleome, and Cosmos. The photographs on the website look so beautiful!blogsummer-gardenreszd20img_0323The Water Garden, created by a man-made stream following a slope down into a pool. Plantings include: the famous soft pastel Harlow Carr primulas; Iris; Gunnera manicata; ornamental rhubarb Rheum palmatum ‘Atropurpureum’; Lysichiton americanum (Bog Arum); Brunnera; Darmera peltata; and hostas; camellias; rhododendrons and bamboos.

The East Rock Garden, the brain-child of Miss Ellen Willmott in the early 1900s, containing Euonymus; Nicotiana; Osmanthus; Viburnum; Cistus ; foxgloves; Ceanothus; and an impressively-striped Acer tegmentosum ‘White Tigress’; Pulmonaria ‘Blue Ensign’, Brunnera ‘Jack Frost’; and hundreds of dark ‘Havran’ Tulips, against a backdrop of Magnolia stellata and Camellia japonica magnoliaeflora..

The White Garden, containing a lily pond and two identical flower beds with variety of white herbaceous perennials, bulbs and annuals, providing harmony and contrast with different heights, flowering times, scents, foliages and textures.

The Woodland Garden, an informal relaxed garden with many plants collected by ‘Chinese’ Ernest Wilson, including the ‘Pocket Handkerchief Tree’, Davidia involucrata, underplanted with epimediums; Himalayan Birch, Betula utilis var. jacquemontii ; the Snowdrop Tree, Halesia carolina; and Snowbell Tree, Styrax hemsleyana.

The Tropical Garden, with its dense plantings of exotic-looking shrubs and plants with large lush foliage: Yuccas (Adam’s Needle), Eryngiums (Sea Holly), and Phormiums, backed by Eucalyptus gunnii, different Paulownias (the Foxglove Tree) and Sweet Viburnum (Viburnum awabuki). Perennials are interspersed with colourful tender exotics like Tithonia rotundifolia (Mexican Sunflower), Leonotis leonorus (Lion’s Tail), Phytolacca ‘Lakka Boom’ and the Castor Oil plant (Ricinus sp.). Whilst Summer is the best time to see the Tropical Garden, there is a wonderful show of flowering magnolias in Spring.

The Beacon Garden, planted to commemorate the Queen’s Golden Jubilee, with a tall beacon in its centre, under-planted with hundreds of Narcissi, and surrounded by four beds planted with a central Weeping Pear Pyrus salicifolia and pale pink and deep red peonies (Paeonia officinalis and Paeonia lactiflora).

The Curving Pergola, covered with the golden racemes of  Laburnum x watereri ‘Vossii’ in late May/ June.

The Orchard Garden with a central circular bed and a geometric arrangement of Quince and Apple trees. Four Philadelphus hedges create a square-within-a-square, all softened by the late Spring blossoms of fruit trees, flowering Philadelphus hedges and Crab Apple (‘Red Sentinel’) espaliers. Long grass is interspersed with naturalised Tulipa sylvestris and Fritillaria meleagris. The top bed of the Orchard Garden contains magnolias; a large Wisteria and a Banksiae lutea rose, as well as smaller perennials and annuals, including veronicas and diascias. The East bed contains Rosa ‘Alfred Carrière’ and Rosa ‘Alchemist’.

The National Cornus Collection, which contains over 100 specimens with 30 species and 76 different hybrids and forms, including my Cornus ‘Norman Hadden’, photo below.blogdecgarden20reszd2016-12-06-18-28-38There are so many smaller gardens I would love to visit as well. Here are three of my favourites:

Virginia and Leonard Wolff’s Monks House (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/monks-house) for its bulbs, thousands planted by Leonard, old roses, colour, literary history and beautiful interiors, as described by Caroline Zoob in her beautiful book, Virginia Wolff’s Garden (see my post: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/05/16/inspirational-and-dreamy-garden-books-part-two-books-about-specific-gardens/);blognovgarden20reszd2016-10-29-12-09-48Snowshill Manor Garden (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/snowshill-manor-and-garden and https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1000781), an Arts and Crafts garden in the Cotswolds, Gloucestershire, designed and built from 1920 to 1923 by MH Baillie Scott and owned by Edwardian architect, Charles Wade, who collected a fascinating array of treasures (22 000 of them in fact, chosen for their colour, craftsmanship and design) from tiny toys to Samurai armour ; masks to spinning wheels; musical instruments to fine clocks; and model boats to bicycles, all of which he stored in the house, preferring to live in the smaller Priest’s House in the grounds.

Typical of the period and style, the garden is a series of outside with terraces and ponds, and formal beds, full of colour and scent. Many of the garden ornaments are painted ‘Wade Blue’, a soft powdery blue, which harmonises with the Cotswold stone and the blue/purple planting theme.

There is also an ancient dovecote, a pool, a model village, Wolf’s Cove, which was built by Charles Wade, a kitchen garden, orchards and some small fields with sheep. Apparently, he used to entertain up to 500 guests each year, including Edwin Lutyens, John Masefield, J B Priestly, Virginia Woolf and, in 1937, Queen Mary!  And finally….blognovgarden20reszdimg_0048Tintinhull Garden (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/tintinhull-garden), started  in 1933 by Phyllis Reiss and developed further in the 1980s by internationally-acclaimed garden writer and designer, Penelope Hobhouse, who described it so beautifully in her books: On Gardening; Garden Style; and Colour in Your Garden (See my post : https://candeloblooms.com/2017/02/21/garden-guides-and-garden-design-books/).

The garden is broken up into intimate garden rooms, linked by axes and paths, and the great diversity of plantings can be investigated through the official website, which has illustrated lists of all the plants used in the different areas of her garden.BlogAutumngardenReszd20%IMG_1083On Thursday, we will cross over to the continent to explore a few French gardens on my bucket list!

Inspirational and Dreamy Garden Books: Part Three: Books About Australian Gardens and Specific Plants

While the overseas gardens mentioned may be a pipe dream and a wonderful form of armchair travel, it is more possible for us to visit some of our wonderful Australian gardens, so here is a collection of books about the development of some very special examples!

Books about Australian Gardens

Wychwood: The Making of One of the World’s Most Magical Gardens by Karen Hall and Peter Cooper 2014

A magical garden in my home state of Tasmania and a definite destination on our next visit! This gorgeous book describes the evolution of this incredible world-famous garden and nursery from bare paddock 25 years ago. In Part One, we follow the journey of English Karen Hall and Scandinavian Peter Cooper from their childhood years and early married life; relocation to Tasmania and purchase of an old farmhouse on 2.5 acres at Mole Creek, in the shadow of the Great Western Tiers in the north-west of the state in 1991. Part Two describes their first steps; their nursery years growing plants side-by-side with their young family; and the development of their iconic labyrinth and their orchard and kitchen garden, all with lots of practical advice and information from plant choice to the basics of espaliering; heritage apple varieties and cider-making; delicious recipes; garden art; and sharing Wychwood with the public. Part Three is the really valuable section, in which Karen and Peter have been so generous with their information and knowledge, gleaned over one quarter of a century in the garden.  It includes The Twelve Golden Rules :

Know your climate and conditions;

Know your enemies;

Grow what you love;

Plant small;

Prepare well;

Consider your planting;

Embrace the seasons;

Keep it simple;

Mulch, water and the art of cutting back;

The gentle art of illusion;

Be practical; 

Cut-grass edges and tools we couldn’t do without – the latter being a very useful section for us, as we had been trying to decide about garden edging!

The rules are followed by a large section on plants, including their favourite varieties and their benefits: trees; roses; shrubs; climbers; grasses; bulbs; and perennials, biennials and annuals, so useful for those of us with cool temperate gardens. Next is a section on seasonal chores and finally a list of all the plants in Wychwood’s garden. This is another one of those truly beautiful dreamy and inspirational garden books and Peter’s photographs are superb!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (446)

The House and Garden at Glenmore: Landscape, Memory, Seasons, Home by Mickey Robertson  2016

This lovely book was a birthday gift for my wonderful gardening husband on our visit to Mickey Robertson’s Spring Fair at Glenmore in Southern NSW last October. I have devoted an entire post about our visit to this inspirational and beautiful garden at : https://candeloblooms.com/2016/12/21/a-garden-weekend-in-the-southern-highlands-part-2/. The book is equally inspiring and well worth purchasing for its beautiful presentation; its wonderful descriptions and useful practical information; fabulous photographs, both of the house interiors and the garden; and its wealth of mouth-watering seasonal recipes in the back, many of which are made for the lucky participants in her workshop classes. She describes the history of the old house and its renovation in detail with lovely photos of all the rooms, as well as her gardening journey and the development of all the different areas of the garden, especially her great passion, the organic vegetable garden. She also has detailed notes about each season in the kitchen garden – what’s in season; what needs doing etc. Do try to attend an Open Day or Spring Fair one year, as it is so wonderful to see this garden in its Springtime peak, not to mention partake of all the delicious cakes! But in the mean time, enjoy this lovely generous book!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (449)

Two Dogs and a Garden by Derelie Cherry 2009

Bob and Derelie Cherry are camellia experts, who have a beautiful garden further north between Sydney and Newcastle at Paradise, Cherry Lane, Kulnurra . The 92 hectare property has a 35 hectare garden, of which 12 hectares is devoted to camellias. This is another garden I would love to have visited, but it is now closed, the last open day being in August 2013. Bob and Derelie are now retired, Bob having sold his nursery business ‘Paradise Plants’ to David Hanna in 2012. Bob is a well-known modern-day plant hunter and plant breeder, who has travelled extensively throughout the world. You can read more about him on: http://gardenclinic-secure.worldsecuresystems.com/how-to-grow-article/meet-bob-cherry-plant-hunter?pid=44202 and http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s1705859.htm, but I think Derelie’s book is probably the ultimate source of information about this amazing man and his wonderful garden. Again, this is a book, which can be picked up and dipped into at any point with beautiful photographs and interesting snippets, which wander from the Cherrys’ favourite plants (camellias;  hydrangeas; polyanthus; lavenders; sweet peas; stock; luculias and lilacs; fragrant gardenias, osmanthus and heliotrope; buddleias; wisteria; my favourite dianthus; Spring blossom trees and magnolias; rainforest plants; lotus, waterlilies and orchids; belladonna lilies and agapanthus; strelitzia and hibiscus; Autumn foliage; and a large section on roses, including a visit to Walter Duncan’s  Heritage Garden at Clare, South Australia, and Roseraie du Val-de-Marne in Paris) to Bob’s follies (stone walls; paths; columns and pillars; and even a bandstand and a bridge); plant-collecting expeditions; the Australian bush; and life at Paradise with Bob; their two much-loved dogs, Trudi and Jessee, and the native wildlife. This book was very much a labour of love, which shines through on every page!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd30%Image (452)A Garden, A Pig and Me: A Year at Torryburn by Jenny Ferguson 1999

Torryburn is another very famous property, having been the childhood home of famous Australian poet, Dorothea Mackellar, who wrote ‘My Country’, more famously known as ‘I Love a Sunburnt Country’.  Jenny Ferguson was the well-known cook of Sydney restaurant ‘You and Me’ in the 1980s (1978-1985), before buying an 800 acre  property, which was running beef cattle and Arab horses at that time, in the Hunter Valley in 1989. She and her husband, Rob, immediately sold the hilly half of the property, set up a thoroughbred brood mare stud, renovated the 1881 Victorian Italianate homestead and then began to plant! The first section of the book describes the different areas of the garden, along with maps, while the majority of the book gives a month-by-month account of the development of the garden over the year. Very similar in style to Holly Kerr Forsyth (I discussed some of her books in my post: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/04/18/inspirational-and-dreamy-garden-books-part-one-inspiring-books-and-garden-travel-books/), this very readable book contains lots of delicious recipes and beautiful photographs throughout, as well as appendices of roses and other plants grown at Torryburn. And here’s the amazing thing, revealed only in the final chapter! Jenny commutes between Torryburn and Sydney and has done so for the previous 10 years, living half her week in each place. An amazing achievement! Since the book was published, Torryburn was sold to John Cornish and his family in 2002. It is still a thoroughbred stud. For more history on Torryburn, see:  http://www.torryburnstud.com.au/torryburn-history.

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Wheelbarrows, Chooks and Children: A Gardener’s Life by Margaret Simons 1999

Now for something totally different, a fun little down-to-earth book about gardening with a young family in the Blue Mountains and all the trials and tribulations! This book shares it all – the highs and the lows; the successes and failures; and above all, gardening in the real world, when there is never enough time to do everything as it should ideally be done and lots of interruptions and disruptions! I was given this book by my Mum when I was knee-deep in nappies with three kids under 4 years old and could totally identify with this book! The number of times during those early family years that we would restart the vegetable garden, only to have it disappear under Kikuya grass with the birth of the next child! This is a very amusing book and very heartening! I love her turn of phrase, from ‘I began my gardening career from a position of great ignorance, and I have not yet recovered ’ to her hatred of aphorisms like ‘you reap what you sow’, a phrase, which she sees as ‘absurdly obvious and very cruel’ and should be tempered by  the word ‘sometimes’ and this is only in her introduction titled ‘How I Became a Not-a-Real Gardener’. She has lovely little passages on :

Daffy Daffodils; Babies and Chooks as Permaculture ; The Rooster and the Nasty Damp Patch; and Earth Motherdom amongst others in Spring;

The Bush Ablaze; A Gentle Evolution; the Luxury of Solitude; Goatishness; and Mud Pies in Summer;

Abundance; A Love of Parsnips (my husband’s favourite…NOT!; Winter Sulk; Wheelbarrows of Cement; Soggy Days and Snails; Worm Liberation; Domesticity; On Discovering That One Has Changed; and Chooks and Writing in Autumn and finishes with:

Winter’s offerings of  A Time of Retreat; A Real Gardener; Mulching Out of Season; Ghosts in the Garden; Grunge and a Wet Weekend; Winter Magic and the Web; The Miracle of Cuttings; and A Chance of Life).

As I said, a very humorous easy read with some helpful bits of practical knowledge, thrown in for good measure!

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Seasons by the Sea: A Coastal Garden in Australia by Paula Green 2001

Set on the South Gippsland coastline at Point Smythe, near Venus Bay, in Victoria, this lovely book describes the gardening journey of Paula Green and Terry Hoey, complete with all the challenges a coastal garden on a 7 hectare bush block presents. The writing style is totally different- very poetic and picturesque, her text immediately evoking images of the richness and enchantment of the natural world. Her short sentences make you feel like she is talking directly to you and her descriptions are breathtakingly beautiful. For example, her passage on the coming of Spring:

Spring whispers through a limping Winter on its last legs. It creeps up on me when I’m not looking. It comes like a kiss of life. Cold days are blown away by Spring’s warm breath. It’s been sleeping in my arms all Winter. It uncurls in the sun, yawns, stretches and rubs the sleep from green eyes. Cheeks flush. Its fresh face sparkles. Its heart rate quickens. Spring twitches with birth pangs. Wide awake, it takes my hand. Spring is stepping out in a new dress

or Summer:

‘Summer enters without knocking. Flexes its muscles, elbows its way in and sends Spring packing. The season is a celebration of our own private Garden Fest. Bush Mardi Gras. We kick off our work boots and kick up our heels. We knock off early, roll up late or chuck it in all together. Seedlings sunbake and soak up a few rays. Vegetables swell. Fruits ripen. Seed heads snap, crackle and pop open’.

I could go on and on and on! She describes their owner-built mud-brick and stone house; their vegetable garden and orchard; the cottage garden, rose garden, yellow garden and native garden and their simple living philosophy and throughout the whole book, their great love of environment and the natural world. Included in the book are lovely recipes based on their home-grown produce; Terry’s beautiful simple sepia photographs and a plant list of common names and their scientific equivalent. I hope you enjoy it as much as I did!

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This last title and general philosophy reminds me of Jackie French’s Seasons of Content, another book, which would have fitted into this section like a glove, but has already been described in my post on Books on Specific Types of Gardens: Part Two in the section on Jackie French books: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/23/books-on-specific-types-of-gardens-part-two-vegetable-gardens-sustainable-and-organic-gardens-and-dry-climate-gardens/.

Gardens of the Goldfields by Mandy Stroebel: A Central Victorian Sojourn 2010

Central Victoria is another very challenging climate for gardeners, and was particularly so over the years of the Millenium Drought, which finally broke on our arrival in Victoria in 2009. We had brought the Dorrigo rain with us!  We spent six months in Castlemaine in 2010, the very year this book was published! I loved Castlemaine – its deep sense of history; the beautiful old buildings; the amazing gardens, despite its severe droughts and frosts and impoverished, depleted and eroded gold-worn soils; and the Mediterranean feel of the place from its native bushland to the delightful Greek refrain, which replaced the nearby school bell every hour. This book describes the gardens of the goldfields, from grand pastoral estates (Ercildoune, Burrumbeet; Plaistow, Joyce’s Creek; Tottington, near St Arnaud;  and Wombat Park, Dayleford) to subsistence plots and productive paddocks (Tute’s Cottage, Castlemaine; the heritage apple orchards of Badger’s Keep, Chewton; and the Swiss- Italian lavender farm, Lavandula, at Shepherd’s Flat, which we visited twice); cottage pleasure and villa gardens (the cottage garden of Rosebank, Castlemaine; the pleasure gardens of Belmont, Beaufort; and the villa gardens of Fortuna Villa, Bendigo and that of the highly creative Leviny family at Buda, Castlemaine). It includes the beautiful old Botanic Gardens of Wombat Hill, Daylesford; Kyneton, Malmsbury, Castlemaine and Ballarat (for more on the latter, see: https://candeloblooms.com/2015/11/05/favourite-late-19th-century-gardens-in-australia/); the gardens of Rosalind Park, Bendigo and Queen Mary Gardens, St Arnaud, as well as the avenues of honour, planted to commemorate the fallen soldiers of the First World War. The history of local nurseries and early horticultural societies is also covered, as well as featuring current nurseries, all of which I have mentioned in previous posts: The Garden of St Erth, Blackwood and Lambley Nursery, Ascot (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/03/08/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-nursery-gardens-in-victoria/) and the Goldfields Revegetation Nursery, Mandurang (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/04/12/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-specialist-nurseries-and-gardens-in-victoria/). Mandy then focuses on gardening in the goldfields today, describing three gardens: Forest Hall, Castlemaine; the lovely Lixouri, Barker’s Creek (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/09/20/favourite-private-country-gardens-part-2/) and Sam Cox’s naturalistic environmentally integrated garden at Munro Court, Castlemaine, to illustrate fundamental design elements of goldfield gardens: the use of the borrowed landscape; built elements of local stone, gravel and hardwood for hard landscaping; decorative elements: wrought iron pergolas and gates, mosaics, pots and urns and sculptures, with a brief nod to our neighbours at Shades of Gray (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/06/14/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-sculpture-gardens/); and of course, the ever-important plants, which are tough and can tolerate both drought and severe frost. She includes protective measures to prevent frost damage and clues for appropriate plant selection, as well as contact details, including web sites in the back. A very useful book for goldfield gardeners or other areas with a similar climate, as well as very interesting from a historical perspective and armchair travel, not to mention actual visiting in person on open days!

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Books about specific plants

Daffodil: Biography of a Flower by Helen O’Neill 2016

I have always loved daffodils, ever since I was a child in Tasmania, when their bright yellow trumpets would herald the beginning of Spring and the end of the long cold Winter! William Wordsworth’s poem ‘I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud’ is a special favourite and was one of the first poems I learned off by heart. We named our donkey Wordsworth, because he too wandered lonely as a cloud! I love the huge variety of form and colour in the daffodil world, especially the Poet’s Daffodil Narcissus poeticus, the beautifully-scented Paperwhite Zivas; the miniature Hoop Petticoats and the sterile Tête à Tête, as well as the double Acropolis and Wintersun varieties. Here is a photo of Narcissus poeticus:Helen O’Neill also has a special personal connection to daffodils. Her mother painted them and there is one of her lovely pictures in the book. Daffodils also offered Helen great hope and brightened up some of her darkest days during her cancer treatment. I was also tickled pink to discover a connecting link between ourselves and the author through her mention of an old Armidale friend and author, Sophie Masson. The photo below is the Tête à Tête variety.BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-25 11.10.08Daffodils have a fascinating history, covered in great depth in the book from their origin and the myth of Narcissus to daffodil collectors (daffodilians); the Daffodil King and his dark legacy; and the daffodil code. Despite their general toxicity, they have great medical potential, as they contain a number of different alkaloids like galantamine (slows the onset of early Alzheimer’s disease); lycorine (inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth); narciclasine (treatment of primary brain cancers); and jonquilline (antiproliferative effects against a large range of different cancers), which is amazing, given the daffodil’s starring role in fundraising for cancer research on Daffodil Day! Daffodils are also used in the perfume industry and the cut flower trade, both of which are discussed at some length. Throughout the book, we learn about all the different species and hybrids. In the back is the Royal Horticultural Society Daffodil Classification Code, with its 13 divisions, a most welcome addition, given there are over 30 000 different cultivars bred by hybridizers and 36 species, as well as naturally occurring hybrids. The photo below is of the Acropolis daffodil.Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0522The other special attribute of this book is its stunning photography and inclusion of some very beautiful romantic artworks. I particularly loved Daniel F Gerhartz’s Woman at Tea Time; Konan Tanigami’s daffodil woodblock print; Gustav Klimt’s Dancer 1916; Eugene Grasset’s Avril 1896; Burbidge’s Pictures of Narcissus poeticus 1875; Lawrence Alma-Tadema’s When Flowers Return 1911 and Frederick Richardson’s Daffy-Down-Dilly 1915. I even loved the William Morris-like daffodil frontispiece, designed by Hazel Lam of HarperCollins Design Studio – a lovely touch!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd30%Image (457)

Tulipomania by Mike Dash 1999

Another fascinating and informative book about the history of the tulip. I loved this book – it was just so interesting! It tells the story of this amazing bulb from its origin in the valleys of the Tien Shan mountains; its spread westward to Persia and Turkey; and its steady ascent to prominence in the Netherlands during a period called Tulipomania (its peak being 1636 to 1637), when they were actually used as a form of currency and cost an enormous amount. One of the most celebrated tulip varieties, Semper Augustus, cost 5500 guilders per bulb in 1633, the value rising to 10 000 guilders per bulb in the first month of 1637! It was only affordable to a few dozen of the richest people in the whole of the Dutch Republic and was enough to feed, clothe and house an entire Dutch family for half a lifetime or to buy one of the grandest homes (with a coach house and 80 foot long garden) on the most fashionable canals in Amsterdam for cash during a time when real estate was very expensive.Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0521While tulips were much loved during the early Ottoman empire, they experienced a resurgence  in their popularity during the Tulip Era (1718 – 1730) during the reign of Ahmed III. He held tulip festivals over two successive evenings during the full moon in April, when the tulips were in full bloom. Guests wearing clothes, which harmonized with the flowers, would wander through the tulip beds illuminated by candles fixed to the backs of slow- moving tortoises. These were not the varieties favoured by the Dutch, but the slender, needle-pointed Istanbul tulips. I have always been entranced by this image! It was a riveting tale and I learnt so much about the history of Turkey and Holland through this wonderful book about the tulip!

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For more about both daffodils and tulips, see my post on Spring bulbs at: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/09/06/spring-bulbs-in-my-cutting-garden-feature-plant-for-september/.

Seven Flowers and How They Shaped Our World by Jennifer Potter 2013

A fascinating book about seven much-loved flowers: the Lotus, the Lily, the Sunflower, the Opium Poppy, the Rose, the Tulip and the Orchid, but how does one choose just seven to discuss? For Jennifer, it was a choice based on flowers, which had some connection with her life, from the stylized, almost abstract, lotuses in a Tibetan monastery, which she used to visit as a teenager near Lockerbie in the Scottish borders to the tropical spider orchids from her childhood in Malaya, a very sound method of selection to my mind! The Rose is a definite for me and I would also agree with her inclusion of Lilies, Sunflowers, Poppies and Tulips, but Iris and Daffodils would probably replace the Orchids and Lotus for me with my Tasmanian childhood! But what about the wild escapee hydrangeas down by the creek; the Christmas roses (hellebores) down the garden walk; the fuchsia berries, which we’d used to rouge our cheeks and redden our lips and its flowers which look like dancing fairies; crab apple blossom and the succulent echeverias with their sweet coral and yellow bells in the rock garden? Or the sandalwood-scented Triunias and native frangipani of our rainforest block at Dorrigo; the agapanthus, violets, snowdrops, chaenomeles and camellias here at our Candelo garden and my favourite gardenias; jasmine and lily-of-the-valley or the snake’s head fritillaries and firewheel tree? Ross’s list also mirrors his Queensland country childhood : his uncle’s prize dahlias; heliotrope for Auntie Maud; stock and snapdragons; Iceland poppies; King Orchids from the cliffs and those beautiful subtropical trees: jacaranda; silky oak; flame tree and frangipani, which reminds him of seaside holidays at Burleigh.BlogJune Garden 20%Reszd2016-06-17 14.20.50Jennifer is an excellent researcher and her accounts of each plant’s history is so comprehensive and makes for fascinating reading.  I never knew that in Ancient Greece, lily flowers were used to make perfume for men and were crushed and boiled in wine in early Christian monasteries as an antidote to snakebite, nor that the orchid kingdom was so huge! Apparently the orchid family, Orchidaceaea, is one of the largest plant families on earth with the greatest diversity of flora. There are 25 000 species of orchids in 850 genera (compared to the rose with 150 species, mostly in the one genus, Rosa), with 155 000 more hybrid orchid varieties, the number of new hybrids increasing at a rate of 250 to 350 per month and that was back when the book was published in March 2012! And, while some orchid species are disappearing due to over-collecting and habitat destruction, between 200 to 500 new species are identified each year! Orchids have the longest history of cultivation in China, dating back at least to the time of Confucius (551-479 BCE), with over 1000 species in over 150 genera. No wonder I was keen to know more! Which leads me to my final book for this very long post!

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Orchid Fever: A Horticultural Tale of Love, Lust and Lunacy by Eric Hansen 2001

Another very amusing book about orchids with a great title, a perfect finish for this post! But be warned! As commercial orchid grower, Joe Kunish, states in the introductory quotation: ‘You can get off alcohol, drugs, women, food, and cars, but once you’re hooked on orchids, you’re finished. You never get of orchids….never!

I am not going to tell you too much about this book, but the chapter titles should give you a few clues. Some of the more extreme titles include: Journey To Fire Mountain; Bodice Rippers; The Wizard of Oz; Orchid Fever; The Fox Testicle Ice Cream of Kemal Kucukonderuzunkoluk; Au Yong and The Pollen Thief; Perfumed Legs at the Oyster Bar; The Orchid Raids; The Forbidden Flowers of Gunnar Seidenfaden; Orchids, Guns and Harpsichords; and Tom Nelson and The Bog Orchid Rescue. In his research for this book, Eric travelled to many exotic locations, including Penan long huts in the Borneo rainforest; a greenhouse with 420 tropical orchids in a Norwegian village just above the Arctic Circle and an Turkish icecream shop! He discovered some fascinating obscure plant trivia like the fact that one orchid, Orchis maculata, was used as an aphrodisiac in late medieval Iceland; the roots of the Malaysian orchid, Cymbidium finlaysonianum, could cure a sick elephant; a paste from the pulverized bulbs of certain species of Cyrtopodium was used as an adhesive by rural Guyanan shoemakers and the split pseudo bulbs of Coelogyne asperata were made into blackboard erasers by rural school teachers in Central Sumatran villages; as well as the more unsavoury side of the orchid industry. It’s certainly a dangerous world and makes for a fascinating read!

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This is the final post on Garden Books. Next month, we will be exploring some of our favourite books on natural history, environment and sustainability, and the philosophy of Simple Living! Next week, we will be discussing another great Australian rosarian, Alister Clark, and the Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden at Bulla, one of my favourite small gardens!

Inspirational and Dreamy Garden Books: Part Two: Books about Specific Gardens

Having had our appetite whetted by some  wonderful garden travel books in my last book post, it is now time to visit some of my garden books, devoted to specific gardens.

Books about Specific Gardens.

First stop, France…

Monet’s Garden: Through the Seasons at Giverny by Vivian Russell 1995

We were lucky enough to visit this beautiful garden in 1994, along with several busloads of tourists, though Ross was so clever that none of his photographs contained another living soul! This is such a lovely book and a wonderful reminder of our day there, enjoying the beautiful roses and the famous water garden, as seen in the first photo below. The second photo is my daughter, Jen, on her second visit years later, on the famous wisteria-covered bridge:BlogFranceLoveAffair20%ReszdIMG_0643BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%P1190188While we were there in early Summer and we also have seen my daughter’s photographs of Giverny in Spring with the tulips in full bloom, it is wonderful to be able to see photographs of the garden in other seasons as well. The photos in this book are absolutely stunning and well do justice to Monet’s vision! Here is our photo of the Summer roses in full bloom in 1994:BlogFranceLoveAffair20%ReszdIMG_0645Incidentally, Vivian Russell also directed Peter Beales’ romantic video ‘A Celebration of Old Roses’, which I discussed in my post on Favourite Rose Books (https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/), so she is the perfect author for a book about this celebrated artist. This is my daughter Jen’s Spring photo of Monet’s beautiful house:BlogFranceLoveAffair20%ReszdP1190241

I have always loved his paintings, indeed that of all the Impressionists, which we were lucky enough to see in their old light-filled venue at Jeu de Paume on my first trip to Paris in 1984.  In this book, Vivian explores the history of Impressionism, Monet’s life and the relationship between Monet, the artist, and Monet, the gardener, especially in relation to light and atmosphere, as well as the daily maintenance and practical aspects of the garden in all seasons. She has keyed watercolour maps of both the flower garden and water garden in the front. It is certainly a very beautiful book!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (444)

Renoir’s Garden by Derek Fell 1991

Renoir is another favourite Impressionist artist, but unfortunately we were not aware of his garden at Les Collettes until after our trip! Renoir’s garden is quite different to Giverny. While Monet was heavily influenced by informal English cottage gardens and Japanese stroll gardens and used plants like paints on a palette to transform a neglected site into his vision of a flowering paradise, Renoir cherished the age, history, peace, tranquillity and stability of the old farmhouse garden and was keen to preserve the ancient olive and orange groves and market garden. Situated in Cagnes in Southern France, the climate and plant selection are totally different too, although like Monet and myself, Renoir loved his roses and grew them everywhere, as well as painting them on all his women! I adore Renoir’s beautiful sumptuous nudes and portraits and I loved this book! We will definitely visit Les Collettes if we ever visit France again! I also loved the beautiful 2012 film, simply titled ‘Renoir’ about his final days and his last model Andrée Heuschling , who became his son Jean’s first wife and starred in nine of his silent movies under the name of Catherine Hessling (See: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2150332/ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ZTiQ_quEPA for the trailer), though I believe much of the footage was shot in the gardens of Domaine du Rayol. See: http://www.domainedurayol.org/. It can currently be seen on SBS On Demand and is such a sensuous romantic film. Like the previous book, there are watercolour plans of the garden, the formal and informal borders and a map of France, as well as a list of the plants in the back.

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Britain

The Lost Gardens of Heligan by Tim Smit 1997

We did however visit the Lost Gardens of Heligan (http://heligan.com/) in Cornwall in 1994, three years before the publication of this book, when they were in the middle of restoring this grand old Victorian garden, which had been neglected for 70 years. It has been described by The Times as ‘the garden restoration of the century’ and was masterminded by John Nelson and the author of this book, Tim Smit, who has since gone on to build the Eden Project. See: http://www.edenproject.com/. Here are our photos of Heligan from a distance:BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (465) - CopyBlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (466) - CopyThe book chronicles the whole restoration project from the rediscovery of the gardens in 1990 to the restoration of the Italian Garden  (1991) and the Northern Summerhouse (1992) and the opening of the garden in Easter 1992. Here are some of our 1994 photos:BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (465)BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (466)BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (470) - Copy This was followed by the redevelopment of the Ravine (old Alpine Garden); Flora’s Green, containing many hybrid rhododendrons of the Hooker collection; the New Zealand garden (1st photo above); the crystal-lined Grotto; the Jungle and its lake (2nd and 3rd photo above); the Walled Vegetable Garden with its straw bee skeps in hollows in the wall (1st photo below) and heated greenhouses (2nd and 3rd photos); and the Melon Garden, all by our visit in 1994.BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (467) - CopyBlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (469) - CopyBlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (468) - Copy Since then, the Flower Garden and Sundial garden have come into their own and the Lost Valley and its Water Meadow have been restored. I can see we will have to pay a second visit, but in the mean time, we can watch one of the many videos about this highly popular garden in Britain!

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The book was published in conjunction with Channel Four, which produced a six part series directed by Vivianne Howard and winner of Best Documentary TV series by the Garden Writers Guild. An interview with the director and the people involved can be viewed on: https://vimeo.com/109851192.

More footage of the garden can also be seen on: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c48IK05tOZg and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wq-vVJGmyOc, only two of the many choices on You Tube!

The Garden at Highgrove by H.R.H The Prince of Wales and Candida Lycett Green 2000  is another garden on my bucket-list! I so admire Prince Charles for his far-sighted vision and enthusiasm, his courage for supporting non-mainstream causes and viewpoints, which none-the-less are growing in popularity, like environment, organic agriculture, traditional arts and crafts, spiritual aspects or just sheer beauty in architecture! He is such an interesting and worthwhile man and I will have more on his enterprises in a future post on environmental books, but here I will focus on his wonderful garden at Highgrove House (https://www.highgrovegardens.com/), his home since 1980, in Gloucestershire, where he puts his principles and theories into action! It too is a highly visited gardening mecca, which must be booked way ahead, is quite expensive to visit (the proceeds all going to the Prince’s charities) and has a strict ‘No Photography’ rule, so I am happy to say that there is also a lovely dreamy video about this garden, which gives you an in-depth look without the crowds or time limits! See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbJgNXgppkI. David Attenborough has also narrated ‘Highgrove: A Prince’s Legacy’ in his 2003 series of ‘Natural World‘ (Season 21, Episode 13). There is even a garden blog on : https://www.highgrovegardens.com/about-highgrove-gardens/the-garden-now/.

This is a lovely book with a very logical sequence of chapters from the setting and history of the estate to the view from the house , which includes the Sundial Garden and Terrace Garden, the Thyme Walk (over 20 varieties of thyme) and the Fountain Garden; the Cottage Garden, which was developed under the guidance of Rosemary Verey, and the Savill Gardens; the Wildflower Meadow, a 4 acre wild garden containing 30 different species of endangered plants, and Woodland Garden with the National Collection of Beeches; William Bertram’s wonderful tree house ; Julian and Isabel Bannermans’ fern pyramid and Wall of Gifts; the Stumpery with its green oak temples and hosta collection; a recycled stone water feature and the Japanese Garden; and finally, the Arboretum with its Autumn Walk; Spring Walk, Azalea Walk and The Sanctuary, built in 1999 to commemorate the Millenium as an expression of thanksgiving to God and blessed by the Bishop of London in January 2000; and the highly productive Walled Garden, filled with roses, flowers, vegetables and espaliered fruit trees and sweet pea tunnels. The whole garden is run along organic lines with sustainable practices; recycling; rainwater tanks and a bore; reed bed sewage systems; solar panels and composting and other natural fertilizers. It is so inspiring and uplifting, as well as very practical! There are comprehensive plant listings for each area in the back of the book.

Since the publication of the book in 2000, Emma Clark has designed an Islamic Carpet Garden, based on two of the Turkish carpets in Highgrove house, the design winning silver at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show in May 2001: See http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/you/article-2591531/Prince-Charles-Highgrove-exclusive-JULY-Turkish-delight-glorious-green-spaces.html. Emma is an expert in the art of the Islamic garden, in fact that is the very title of her book: The Art of the Islamic Garden, 2004, an essential read for those interested in developing such a beautiful garden! See: https://www.psta.org.uk/about/publications/emma-clark and http://theislamicmonthly.com/the-art-of-the-islamic-garden/ and https://www.amazon.co.uk/d/Books/Art-Islamic-Garden-Emma-Clark/1847972047. She is also heavily involved with The Prince’s School of Traditional Arts, but more about that wonderful institution in my future post on environmental books!

There is also a Southern Hemisphere Garden with ferns, tree ferns, palms and eucalypts; an Italian garden; a Black-and-White Garden (white lupins and peonies and black grasses) and a Topiary Walk with six-foot high rounded balls of yew.

A beautiful and inspirational book, which should be included in every horticultural library!BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (442)Virginia Woolf’s Garden: The Story of the Garden at Monk’s House by Caroline Zoob 2013

When we left London, in 1994, we stayed at a Bed-and-Breakfast in Firle, a small village in East Sussex, which is still part of the estate of Lord Gage and his family and very near Virginia Woolf’s house, Monk’s House, at Rodmell, now owned by National Trust. See: https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/monks-house. Caroline and her husband rented Monk’s House from the National Trust for 10 years and the result is this wonderful book. Caroline is a fellow hand embroiderer, so this was the perfect gift for me! How I would dearly love to join her for one of her week-long embroidery and mixed media workshops in France. See : http://carolinezoob.co.uk/join-me-for-a-week-of-workshops-in-france-september-2017/ and http://carolinezoob.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/Caroline-Zoob-Workshop-France.pdf. But back to her book!

This is another one of those beautiful dreamy books, which I could not be without! The colour photographs of the house and garden are superb and are interspersed with original black-and-white photographs; and the watercolour garden map and keyed planting plans and embroidery panels of the different sections of the garden are so beautifully executed and reason enough to buy this book! The seven chapters tell the story of the house and garden from the time Virginia and Leonard Woolf owned Monk’s House (1919) to the present day. The Orchard, Fig Tree Garden, Millstone Terrace, Fishpond Garden, Virginia’s Bedroom Garden, the Flower Walk, The Italian Garden, the Terrace, the Writing Lodge, the Walled Garden, the Vegetable Garden, the Rear Lawn Garden and the Conservatory are all lovingly described in much detail and include many quotes by Leonard and Virginia and constant references to her writings. While Virginia enjoyed her garden, it was Leonard who was the main driving force. He also loved his roses and became an expert horticulturalist over the development of the garden, continuing well into his late 80s.BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (443)

I have also always been fascinated by Virginia’s sister, Vanessa Bell, and the Bloomsbury Group and would also love to visit her home at Charleston, Firle (http://www.charleston.org.uk/ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x28hGsR8Cvc). Virginia used to walk the six miles from Monk’s House, across the river and along the South Downs to Charleston, the journey retraced and described in this lovely blog post: http://thoughtsofthecommonreader.blogspot.com.au/2009/07/in-footsteps-of-virginia-woolf.html. Even though Charleston was closed during our stay, we did get to see the murals painted by Duncan Grant and Vanessa and Quentin Bell in the Church of St Michael and All Angels at Berwick: http://www.roughwood.net/ChurchAlbum/EastSussex/Berwick/BerwickStMichael2004.htm and http://www.berwickchurch.org.uk/bloomsbury%20at%20berwick%20home.html.

BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (464) - CopyBlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd50%Image (464)Here is a link to the garden pages of the Charleston official website: http://www.charleston.org.uk/visit/at-charleston/garden/.

The 3,000 Mile Garden: A Magical Correspondence Between Two Passionate Gardeners  by Roger Phillips and Leslie Land 1992/ 1995

Without taking away from books with beautiful photos, if a book can grab you with its text alone, then it truly does belong in this post about dreamy and inspirational gardens. This delightful little paperback is based on a four-year long correspondence between Roger Phillips, the well-known British garden writer and horticulturalist and Leslie Land, an American cookery and garden writer. They each write about their own gardens – Roger at Eccleston Square, a three acre private locked community garden for use by the residents of the surrounding flats, which we saw on our first visit to London in 1984, 3 years after Roger started managing the garden, and Leslie at her small cottage garden in rural Cushing, Maine, on the east coast of America, 3000 miles away! The share their passions for gardening, food and the good life and exchange ideas, bed plans, pressed  flowers, practical tips and recipes. I loved Leslie’s description of poaching a large pair of salmon in a bath tub outside (page 267) and have often used her excuse for delay of ‘having had a severe attack of life’ (page 32)! The letters between the two gardeners are delightful – highly entertaining and amusing, as Leslie had quite an earthy sense of humour – I loved some of her slightly risqué sketches! Sadly, Leslie is no longer with us, having died too early at age 66 years in 2013. Channel Four produced a six-part series based on the book in 1994.

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United States of America

While I do not own many American garden books, one which I would not be without is:

Tasha Tudor’s Garden by Tovah Martin 1994

A new discovery and purchase, following a recommendation by a fellow blogger The Wildlife Gardener : https://wildlifegardenerblog.wordpress.com/2017/01/28/finding-my-happy-place/ and https://wildlifegardenerblog.wordpress.com/2016/02/21/my-favorite-american-gardener-tasha-tudor/. My thanks again for the recommendation! It is every bit as lovely as the above posts describe. For those of us, who espouse a simpler, more self-sufficient lifestyle, Tasha set a wonderful example! Not only did she grow all her own food, raise chickens and Nubian goats and make all her own dairy products on her 250 acre farm, 10 acres of which were devoted to vegetables and flowers, but she also spun her own yarn, weaving it into cloth, from which she made her own clothing and quilts, and even made marionettes and exquisite dolls’ houses! She gardened right up until her death in 2008, aged 92, and while her gardens may not be as beautiful as they once were, at least we can enjoy them through the wonderful photographs by Richard W. Brown in this lovely book, which also includes Tasha’s delightful artwork, more of which can be seen at: http://www.theworldoftashatudor.com/cgi-bin/cellardoor/index.html. It is such a romantic dreamy book and I am now keen to read: ‘The Private World of Tasha Tudor’ by the same author. See: https://www.amazon.com/Private-World-Tasha-Tudor/dp/0316112925/ref=la_B000APGDO2_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1357841060&sr=1-3.BlogDreamyGardenBooksReszd25%Image (447)

My final post on Dreamy and Inspirational Gardens will be posted at the end of June and features books about Australian Gardens, as well as Specific Plants.

Cottage Garden Roses: Gamble Cottage; Ziebell’s Farmhouse; and Heide

Roses have always been an integral part of cottage gardens, not just for their beauty, scent and visual appeal, but also their culinary and medicinal properties and their use in a variety of scented home-made home and bath products like attar of roses; rose oil; rose water; rose hip tea; rose hip jam and jelly; rose hip syrup; and crystallized rose petals.

After my post last month on books about cottage gardening in Part One : Specific Types of Gardens (see: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/21/books-on-specific-types-of-gardens-part-one-cutting-gardens-cottage-gardens-and-herb-gardens/?frame-nonce=dde364e0d8),  I thought it would be very appropriate to discuss some of my favourite cottage gardens, which grow Old Roses. These include: Gamble Cottage in South Australia, which we visited as part of our Old Rose holiday in October 2014; Zwiebel Farmhouse, which we briefly visited towards the end of our stay in Victoria and finally, the Heide Kitchen Gardens I and II, which we visited a number of times during our Victorian years. The cottage gardens at the Alister Clark  Memorial Rose Garden at Bulla and Red Cow Farm, Mittagong, deserve their very own posts later on in the year.

Gamble Cottage

296 Main Road (and the corner of Dorham Rd)

Blackwood, South Australia

Cottage open 3rd Sunday of each month, February to  November, from 2pm  to 4 pm or by appointment; Cost is a gold coin donation;  Afternoon tea available.

Garden open all times, every day of the year. Guided tours are available on open days for a gold coin donation. There is a small plant nursery with plants for sale.

https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/places/gamble-cottage/

Here is the map on the official brochure:image-425blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9139Situated in the Coromandel Valley, in the part-rural hills suburb of Blackwood, 16 km from the Adelaide CBD, Gamble Cottage was built in 1902 for Joseph Gamble, an orchardist who worked at the Government Experimental Orchard (which was set up in the late 1800s to trial fruit trees, which might be suitable for South Australian conditions), and his wife Harriet Victoria Gamble (nee Knight). They married in 1890 and had four daughters, two of whom married and moved away (Dorothy and Isabel) and two, Clara and Edith, who never married and lived there most of their life. They grew many old cottage garden favourites, from cuttings and seeds, which they swapped with neighbours and friends. Harriet died in 1940 (aged 74 years) and Joseph in 1945 (aged 78 years). The Gamble sisters well outlived their parents, Edith dying in 1990 (aged 82) and Clara attaining the ripe old age of 104 years, before dying in 1994. As they became increasingly frail and unable to maintain the garden, the sisters bequeathed the cottage and garden to the City of Mitcham in 1982 for use by the local community. The cottage is now maintained by the Coromandel Valley and Districts Branch of the National Trust South Australia, while the garden is cared for by the Friends of Gamble Cottage, an active volunteer group, which holds working bees each week from 9am to 11am each Tuesday morning and bimonthly meetings on the second Tuesday, held at the cottage at 11am, from February on.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-02-14The sandstone cottage has three main rooms and a hallway, with a timber-framed add-on kitchen and bathroom, which is now used to store the archives of the Coromandel Valley and Districts Branch for local history research. It is also part museum, the cottage being furnished in an early 1900s style, and is available for hire to the public for exhibitions and displays; meetings and parties; and small wedding groups of up to 30 guests.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-05-11The Edwardian cottage garden is a rare surviving example of a true working class cottage garden, based on small formal garden beds, planted with old-fashioned roses; hardy shrubs; bulbs; perennials and annuals.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9102 It was faithfully restored in 1986 as a South Australian Jubilee 150 project with advice from both Clara and Edith.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-03-02 The original flower beds and a small pine forest to the south side of the garden still exist.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9144There are a large number of Alister Clark roses planted, including Borderer; Daydream; Diana Allen; Fairlie Rede; Lady Huntingfield; Sunlit ; Squatter’s Dream; Sunny South; Marjorie Palmer; Ringlet; and Lorraine Lee (see below for both climbing and bush forms).blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9105blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9112blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9104blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9113Other old roses include: Monsieur Tillier (photo 1); Perle d’Or (photo 2) and Perfect, an early Hybrid Tea, bred by Sam McGredy III (1893-1934) in 1932 (photos 3 and 4). His father Sam McGredy II (1878-1926) bred Tea rose Mrs Herbert Stevens in 1910.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9168blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-04-06blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9148blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-59-00In 2016, the formal garden beds at the front and to the east of the cottage were planted up with blue, yellow, pink and orange nemesias, daisies, red and white abutilon, cosmos, mini agapanthus, violets, multihued osteospermums, alyssium, lobelias, convolvulus, geraniums, aquilegas and heucheras.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-59-53 blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-05-17blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-58-31Garden plants also include alyssum, salvias, penstemon, pelagoniums, nepeta, campanula, California poppy, cistus and Japanese anemones and roses. It is worth consulting: http://gamblegarden.org.au/gardenreports/  for an update on all the garden activities.

blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9127blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9106blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9109Many of the shrubs have yellow/ green or silver/ green foliage and have yellow, orange or purple flowers, like Crepe Myrtle; Port Wine Magnolia; Ginger Lily and Duranta repens.

blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9142blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9155blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9143 There is a Viburnum hedge along the fence and a lovely old Irish Strawberry Tree,  Arbutus unedo, in the front garden on the left of the photo below.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9165The garden has been expanded into the side and rear gardens, where less formal plantings of shrubs, trees and hardy perennials have been favoured and at the back of the property is an orchard of heritage fruit and nut trees.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-14-00-07blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9159Here are some more photos of roses in the garden.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9119blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9129blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9118blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9117blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9125blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9121More photos of this beautiful garden can be seen at: http://gamblegarden.org.au/static/index.html.

Ziebell’s Farmhouse

100 Gardenia Rd

Thomastown, Victoria

Open 2nd Sunday each month 1pm to 4 pm; $3 adult; 50c per child.

Guided tours by appointment Ph (03) 9464 5062

http://www.westgarthtown.org.au/publications/documents/ZF-GardenGuideSupplement.pdf

blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-22-17Part of the Westgarthtown Historic Precinct, a historic dairy farming settlement 16 km north of Melbourne, established by German and Wendish immigrants in the 1850s and now engulfed by residential suburb of Thomastown and Lalor in the City of Whittlesea. During the 19th century,  five million people left Germany, with over 5000 immigrants arriving in Australia between 1838 and 1850, under a migration  scheme initiated by Melbourne merchant, William Westgarth, because he had been so impressed by ‘the industry, frugality, sobriety and general good conduct’ of the German settlers in South Australia. The Wends hail from Lusatia, which was divided up into three German provinces.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-13-03blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-12-17Christian and Sophia Ziebell emigrated to Australia in 1850 and built a large L-shaped stone farmhouse on their 102 acre farm, named ‘The Pines’ for their family of 9 children between 1851 and 1856. In 1885, Christian returned to Germany for a visit and returned with seeds, plants, cuttings, trees, tools and household furniture. They had a huge vegetable garden and orchard, which kept them all in fruit and vegetables. They made all their own cheese, butter, soap and preserved meat. Produce was preserved – vegetables pickled and salted and the fruit bottled or made into jams and jellies, and any surplus was transported by horse and cart to be sold at the Victoria Markets in Melbourne, along with the regular sales of butter, cream, eggs and smoked meat. Note that there was no electricity, refrigeration, gas, mains water or sewerage at that time.  Originally, herbs and small vegetables were grown with the flowers, but as the vegetable and herb gardens and orchard expanded, the flower garden took over the areas adjacent to the house.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-13-08 The house passed through 5 generations of the Ziebell family from Christian and Sophie to son August and his wife Auguste, to their son Carl (who died in 1940) and his wife Dorothea, who lived on in the farmhouse till her death in 1969, aged 96 years. Carl and Dorothea had 10 children and when Carl died, 3 unmarried daughters were still living with Dorothea. A fourth widowed daughter, Sylvia Adams, joined them with four young children in 1932, her daughter Sylvia only 6 years old. Dorothea and Carl passed on their love of gardening to all their children, who each developed their own productive flower and vegetable gardens and orchards from slips, cuttings, seeds and seedlings from the original farmhouse garden, a fact which enabled the replacement of many of the plants lost over the years. During the 1950s, fuchsias replaced the grapevines on the verandahs and two tree ferns replaced an old loquat tree.The original orchard and vegetable gardens were sold and converted to housing in the 1970s. Sylvia Adams died in 1990, aged 90, and the property was sold to the City of Whittlesea in 1993.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-49 The Westgarthtown Historic Precinct includes: Ziebell’s Farmhouse and Garden, including a bath house, smoke house, cart shed and stone barn (the other outbuildings, including the dairy, cowshed, stables and grain store were across Gardenia Rd); the adjacent Lutheran Reserve including the Thomastown Lutheran Church 1856, the oldest operating Lutheran church in Australia; the Lutheran Cemetery 1850; drystone walls; and four more original bluestone farmhouses owned and built by early German pioneers: Wuchatsch’s Farmhouse 1850s; Matzahn’s Farmhouse 1850 – 1860; Siebel’s Farmhouse 1860; and Graff’s Farmhouse 1873. See: http://www.westgarthtown.org.au/sites/.

All can be visited- see: http://www.westgarthtown.org.au/visit/index.htm.

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Of all of these farmhouses, Ziebell’s Farmhouse is the oldest and the largest dwelling on the largest area of land. The L-shaped farmhouse and barn are built from stone in the style of the simple solid European vernacular buildings, derived from German tradition. They were both built from stone gathered from the surrounding paddocks: bluestone rubble and other local stone, the house having walls 61 cm thick.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-15-44blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-24 The  hipped roof of the farmhouse, whose steep pitch allowed for a spacious upper level attic,  was originally made of wooden shingles, cut from local Drooping Sheoak, Yellow Box, Acacia and Black Wattle. The barn has a hipped roof of iron shingles. Walls on the eastern and southern sides of the courtyard were rendered with lime mortar. The farmhouse is surrounded by an L-shaped verandah, which affords protection from the northerly and westerly winds. There are external doorways from the main bedroom, kitchen and entry hall onto the verandahs and all windows (except the northern side of the house) have wonderful views out onto the garden.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-57The cottage and garden are owned and maintained by the City of Whittlesea and are both on Victoria’s Heritage Register. See: http://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/3687 for a statement of their national and state significance. The gardens were opened twice as part of the Open Gardens Australia scheme in 2012 and 2013, as well as the inaugural Open Gardens Victoria program in 2015. See: http://www.opengardensvictoria.org.au/uploads/documents/Ziebell%20Revised%20Notes.pdf.

blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-20-03The 1200 square metre garden has large informal gardens of flowers, roses, shrubs, fruit trees and  a vegetable patch and a semi-formal circular flower garden in the centre. It has been managed by the Friends of Westgarthtown, including many descendants of the Ziebel family, since 1995. Gillian Borrack, the garden coordinator, has documented the garden extensively, including a comprehensive conservation analysis and management plan to preserve its authenticity. She also coordinates the combined volunteer and council support of the garden. For a detailed list of plants in each garden bed, see her article on: http://www.westgarthtown.org.au/publications/documents/ZF-GardenGuideSupplement.pdf.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-21-27 When the property was bought by the council in the 1990s, the gardens were quite rundown and neglected and the Friends of Westgarthtown restored the garden with the experience, knowledge and guidance of 5th generation family member, Sylvia Schultz, until her death in 2014.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-20-25 The timber picket fence and some of the arbours were restored and a modern watering system installed, the garden previously maintained using recycled dish and bath water and water drawn by hand pump from a deep, stone-lined well, and later stored in rainwater tanks. There were new plantings of the original varieties of apricots, plums, peaches, pears, lemons, cherries and apples, as well as a mulberry and an elderberry tree, and lost plants were replaced with cutting and seeds donated by family members.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-19The garden contains a 130 year old Cécile Brünner rose and over 60 rose varieties, including many  rare and historic varieties, a large number imported by the family in the 1800s. There are over 400 plants, including a rare Queen of Sheba climber.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_0207 The L-shaped verandah shelters the enclosed flower garden from the strong hot northerly winds and sun  and contains many rare, scented and delicate treasures.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-28 The garden is basically square in design with a central circular garden bed and four paths on the main axis leading back to the verandah or paths, except for the southern axis, which finishes under the wisteria pergola.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-38blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-45The central circular bed contains a central Queen Elizabeth rose, with cactus dahlias; mixed aquilegia; pink and white nerines; lupins; larkspur; lobelia; love-in-the-mist; primula; kiss-me-quick; Chinese forget-me-knots; petunias; violets and violas; daffodils and Dutch iris.

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The shady areas of the garden contain hydrangeas; tree ferns and ferns; fuchsias; cinerarias; justicas; rhododendrons and azaleas; begonias; pelargoniums; violets; hellebores; verbenas; delphiniums and border pinks, while foxgloves; penstemons; perennial phlox; forget-me-knots; carnations; picotees; hollyhocks and delphiniums, Russell lupins; valerian; poppies; calendulas; English lavender; with a white peony and an oleander growing in the areas of full sun.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-21-42

Because there are many well-established bulbs, corms, rhizomes and underground root stocks, this is definitely a no-dig garden, so dense plantings of prolific self-seeders and mulching is used to deter weeds.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-22-11blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-21-33There are 10 further gardens  with so many more plants, too numerous to mention here, suffice to say that it is probably best to consult the last web site mentioned, so I will only mention some of the other roses planted: Christian Dior; Pascali; Doris Downs; a Yellow Banksia rose and many David Austin roses.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-12-38blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-18-56blogcottagegardenrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-11-19-07And finally, there is Heide and I know that I have already discussed the garden in quite some depth in a previous post- see:https://candeloblooms.com/2016/02/09/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-historic-homes-and-gardens/ , but given that Old Roses were Sunday Reid’s passion and she grew over 250 of them at Heide, I have to revisit this beautiful garden, especially Heide Kitchen Garden II, where she grew many of her roses, as well as herbs, flowers and vegetables- the quintessential cottage garden! So that is my specific focus in this post!

Heide Kitchen Gardens I and II

7 Templestowe Rd.

Bulleen, Victoria

Tuesday – Sunday and public holidays 10 am to 5 pm. Gardens free. Garden tours available – see: https://www.heide.com.au/events/garden-tour.

Blog PubHxH&G20%Reszdseptember 136Part of the Heide Museum of Modern Art 20 minutes from Melbourne CBD and home of art patrons, John and Sunday Reed , from 1934 until their deaths in 1981, the story of Heide is recounted on: https://www.heide.com.au/about/heide-story. The story of Heide’s garden is also told in more depth in the book: ‘Sunday’s Garden : Growing Heide’ by Lesley Harding and Kendrah Morgan  2012. See: https://www.gardenclinic.com.au/how-to-grow-article/sunday-s-garden-growing-heide?pid=44211. Information about the different cottage garden plants can also be gleaned from Tuesday’s Tip at: http://heidetuesdaytip.tumblr.com/.

Blog Lists40%Reszdmid nov 072

John and Sunday bought an old neglected 15 acre (6 hectares) dairy farm, which they transformed into a wonderful garden, including a walled garden, a French-inspired kitchen garden and a wild garden near Heide I, the original pink weatherboard farmhouse, restored in a French Provincial style and the famous Heide II kitchen garden, in which Sunday worked daily until just before her death in 1981. I have always loved visiting these gardens! The original Heide I kitchen garden provides year-round fresh seasonal organic produce for Café Heide, but I’m afraid Heide II with all its old roses is my favourite!Blog PubHxH&G20%ReszdIMG_7250The kitchen garden at Heide II was modelled on the English-style cottage garden tradition, with old-fashioned roses, herbaceous perennials and culinary herbs and vegetables. It was developed on the site of an old bull enclosure, an area with fertile alluvial soil down on the river flat, with none of the difficult clay or shale of Heide I. The garden was surrounded by a four foot high picket fence and a shingle-roofed potting shed was built nearby.Blog PubHxH&G20%Reszd2014-07-12 12.52.24Because the site was often inundated with flood waters, the higher western half of the garden was devoted to vegetables, while the lower eastern half contained herbs, flowers and roses, which tolerated the odd wet feet. There was a central path between the two sections with a timber arbour, over which grew the striped old Bourbon rose, Variegata di Bologna (photo below), which was under-planted with lavenders, sage, pale blue rosemary and borage.Blog PubHxH&G20%Reszd2014-07-12 12.50.28blogcottagegardenrosesreszd50image-170The western narrow parallel vegetable beds had perimeter paths and grew a wide variety of vegetables from asparagus, globe and Jerusalem artichokes, pumpkin and corn; broad beans, climbing beans and peas; and rhubarb, salsify and shallots; to a range of salad leaves and greens, including endive, French sorrel, land cress, mignonette, mâche, spinach and Swiss chard. She grew garlic for its decorative flower heads and seed pods, rather than its culinary properties.Blog PubHxH&G20%Reszd2014-07-12 12.48.20The eastern section of the garden had a traditional square design with four sets of successively smaller beds, connected by one long diagonal path. Sunday loved her herbs, which she propagated from seeds, slips and cuttings and roots, swapped with friends or smuggled illicitly into the country from the 1930s on, but you will have to read Lesley and Kendrah’s book for more details!Blog PubHxH&G20%Reszd2014-07-12 12.49.32They included commonly used herbs like sweet basil, sage, rosemary, marjoram, tarragon and chives to more unusual herbs like mandrake and hemlock. The edges of the paths were softened  with  many different varieties of thyme: Caraway, English, French, and Lemon and its variegated form ‘Magic Carpet’ and cultivars like Orange Peel; Silver Queen (Lemon Silver); Silver Posie; White; and Woolly. She grew three types of chamomile : English; Lawn and Ox-Eye and every type of mint she could find: Apple and Variegated Apple Mint; Woolly Mint; Curly Mint; Corn Mint; Capsicum Mint; Eau de Cologne Mint; Ginger Mint; Horse Mint or Wild Mint; Pennyroyal; Peppermint and Water Mint. Perennial herbs included agrimony, tansy and lemon verbena, while annual, seasonal and biennial herbs included parsley, cumin, coriander and chervil and the flowering herbs: borage, lavender and bergamot were grown for their decorative visual appeal.Blog PubHxH&G20%ReszdIMG_7253

In amongst the herbs, she grew English cottage flowers, including border pinks, primroses and columbines; delphiniums, foxgloves, hollyhocks and poppies; marguerite daisies, geraniums and pelargoniums of several varieties; forget-me-nots and a range of violets of different colours; Japanese anemones and periwinkles; bearded iris and ranunculi; and jasmine.Blog Lists40%Reszdmid nov 122

But it was the roses that Sunday loved above all else! Especially the old-fashioned rambling kind like R. fortuniana, whose tree trunk thick stem clambers through Pittosporum tenuifolium; the Kordes shrub rose, Raubritter, growing in an old terracotta urn at the end of a winding path under a eucalyptus stand; R. gigantea covering the bridge over the rill, the base stock of so many of Alister Clark’s roses; R. laevigata climbing over the fence; and the Species roses: R. brunonii; R. moschata; R. multiflora watsoniana; R. wilmottiae;  and R. bracteata. She disliked the more modern David Austin hybrids, despite their reliability and  constancy of flowering, unlike her successor Barrett Reid, who planted many David Austins at Heide I between 1981 to 1995.Blog Lists40%Reszdmid nov 102

After 80 years of rose cultivation at Heide, 150 of the 250 rose bushes, which Sunday planted, remain. They were grown from cuttings and plants, sourced overseas, as well as from Australian nurseries, specializing in old-fashioned roses and Australian rose breeder, Alister Clark, himself, who bred Lorraine Lee (1st two photos); Squatter’s Dream (3rd photo) and Black Boy, all grown in the kitchen garden of Heide II.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9112blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9113blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-15-13-26Sunday inherited her love of roses from her childhood at Balholmen and Merthen. Not longer after she and John moved to Heide, they invited famous Australian rose breeder Alister Clark to identify the pre-existing roses on the property. In 1938, an early consignment of wild and heritage roses included: R. foetida; R. lutea punicea; R. persica; Fortune’s Double Yellow (1st photo); Gloire de Dijon; Aimée Vibert and Devoniensis (2nd photo).blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-01-54blognovgarden20reszdimg_0731During the 1960s and 1970s, further plantings included R. centifolia (photo 1); Chateau de Clos Vougeot (photo 2); and very early Hybrid Tea, La France; a later climbing Hybrid Tea Étoile de Hollande and Floribunda rose, Warrior.bloghxroses20reszd2014-10-19-13-11-08blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0160Here is a copy of her June 1967 planting list, taken from ‘Sunday’s Garden : Growing Heide’  :

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In 1973, she ordered 15 roses, including Chapeau de Napoléon (1st photo), Sissinghurst Castle (2nd photo)and Mme Hardy.bloghxroses20reszd2014-11-22-14-26-37bloggallicasreszd20img_9712Sunday grew a plethora of old roses at Heide II, especially the kitchen garden of Heide II, where the rugosas provided huge red hips for rosehip tea and rosehip jelly, jam and syrup, while the highly-scented petals of Bourbon rose, Mme Isaac Pereire (2nd photo) were perfect for making potpourri.blogspeciesrosesreszd50april-028blogcottagegardenrosesreszd50image-206 Other roses in Heide II include: Charles Mallerin; Mme Sancy de ParabèreFrühlingsmorgen and Tea roses, Mrs Herbert Stevens, which grows amongst valerian, soapwort, silver beet and zucchini, and Safrano, which thrives amongst the feverfew and thymes.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-11-15-58-44BlogCottageGardenRosesReszd20%2014-10-19 13.24.18.jpgOne of her most famous roses is Mutabilis, which was immortalized in a painting by Sidney Nolan in 1945 at the height of their love affair. Another sentimental favourite was Duchesse de Brabant, grown from a cutting taken from the grave of her mother Ethel Baillieu, who died in 1932, and planted in the walled perennial border of Heide I.bloghxroses50reszdnov-2010-253bloghxroses20reszdimg_1983Other favourites included the Bourbons: La Reine Victoria; Mme Pierre Oger; and Souvenir de la Malmaison, both bush and climbing forms (1st photo), as well as the Hybrid Perpetual, Reine des Violettes (2nd photo).blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-07-10-50-42BlogCottageGardenRosesReszd50%Image (176).jpgOther famous old roses grown include The Apothecary’s Rose, R. gallica officinalis (one of John’s favourites); Cardinal de Richelieu (photo 1); both Tuscany and Tuscany Superb; the Autumn Damask (photo 2); Ispahan;  Cuisse de Nymphe émue; and R. indica major.bloggallicasreszd20%2014-10-27-12-49-12blogdivinedamasksreszd20img_9496If you are interested to learn more about Sunday’s roses at Heide, it is well worth reading the book, which includes comprehensive plant lists of all the trees, roses and herbs in the back. Suffice to say, we certainly shared similar tastes when it came to choosing Old Roses. Albertine;  Alister Stella Grey (top centre); Archiduc Joseph (top right); Cécile Brunner (top left); Celeste; Cornelia; Devoniensis; Fantin Latour; Geranium; Jaune Deprez; Lamarque (bottom right); Mme Alfred Carrière; Mme Louis Lévêque; Maxima; Mutabilis; Penelope; Rosa Mundi; Roseraie de l’Hay (bottom middle); York and Lancaster; and Stanwell Perpetual (bottom left) are but a few shared loves.

I will finish with a quote by Barrett Reed, describing Sunday’s kitchen garden at Heide II, which says it all : ‘A poem of a garden and as much a treasure as the most treasured paintings’.

P.S. Note: Some of the photos of individual roses in my section on Heide are from my collection (home or garden visits), rather than Heide necessarily, and are there solely to illustrate the particular roses mentioned.

 

Books on Specific Types of Gardens : Part Two : Vegetable Gardens; Sustainable and Organic Gardens; and Dry Climate Gardens .

Continuing on from my post last week, I am now focusing on vegetable gardens, organic and sustainable gardens and dry climate gardens, all of which are highly inter-related. In our view, vegetable gardens should only ever be organic and sustainable, as they contain the very food we eat, not to mention the importance of these concepts for our environment and the natural world around us! While most of the books are Australian, a few are written by English authors, notably Christopher Lloyd,  Joy Larkom and Jane Taylor. We might discuss the books by the first two writers first.

Gardener Cook by Christopher Lloyd 1997 was one of our early vegetable garden books and is a lovely introduction to the world of vegetable growing! His chapters on fruit trees, soft fruits, root vegetables, green vegetables, salads and herbs include delicious recipes and mouth-watering photographs by Howard Sooley. They include information on all the different types of fruit and vegetables; their varieties; cultivation and storage and lots of personal anecdotes.  An essential book for the gardener-cook and anyone who loves food!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-398

Christopher actually quotes from my next book: The Salad Garden by Joy Larkom 1984. It is a comprehensive guide to all things salad: creating salad gardens; the cultivation of salad greens; garden practices like raising from seed; sowing outdoors and indoors; germination; manures and compost; weeding; mulching and watering; greenhouses, cloches and container gardening; and pests and diseases; as well as specific techniques for salad plants like blanching; seed sprouting and cut-and-come-again; salad making – the different types of salad, preparation and presentation and delicious recipes for different salads and their dressings; and a large section on specific salad plants and their components – leaves; stems and stalks; fruits; bulbs, roots and tubers; cooked and cold legumes and potatoes; and the use of herbs, flowers and wild plants. The appendix includes salad crops for special situations; plants for saladini crops, a glossary and facts about salad crops, including their vitamin content, seed life, germination temperature and fertility index. It was written at a time, when Australia’s culinary world was suddenly and markedly expanding and has such a wealth of information, that I am not surprised that it was in Christopher Lloyd’s library!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd30image-401The Cook’s Garden : From the Garden to the Table by Caroline Gunter and Karen Green 2000 is an Australian Women’s Weekly publication and has its typically high standard! After a brief examination of planning for production and cultivation for success (including recipes for home-made sprays), it follows a seasonal pattern with a seasonal diary of picking and planting chores for each different climate zone (temperate and cool; subtropical and Mediterranean; and tropical) and detailed notes on the fruit and vegetables grown in each season, including their cultivation in the garden and their preparation and presentation for the table. It is a very practical and useful publication and has some delicious recipes. It finishes with a brief chapter on preserving the season’s abundance including freezing; bottling and drying, as well as a map of world climate zones.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-399

Diggers Club also produces wonderful books on heirloom gardens, especially vegetables! The Australian Vegetable garden: What’s Old is New by Clive Blazey 1999 is one of their excellent publications. Clive is a passionate advocate for heirloom varieties of vegetables, because of their superior flavour, longer harvest period and disease resistance, not to mention their decorative qualities! In this informative book, he discusses the value and importance of heirloom varieties; different vegetable gardening styles; space-saving; and growing basics – the soil; water; mulch; temperature and heat; as well as seed sowing and saving. He provides a calendar and plan for growing a year’s supply of food in just 42 square metres and another one for seed sowing. And he discusses each heirloom vegetable in depth, including its historical background; varieties; preparation and management. There are so many varieties which I had never even heard of!  Apparently, Diggers have over 112 commercial and heirloom varieties of tomatoes. One day, I would love to grow their Moon and Stars watermelon , an old American variety!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-400Organic Gardening by Peter Bennett , first published in 1979, is another very important and seminal book for the organic vegetable gardener. We have the 6th edition, dated 1999, but there is now a new revised 7th edition, published 2006. Peter is THE authority on organic gardening in Australia and a forerunner of the current sustainable and environmental movements. Even though he has since died, he can still be seen in this You Tube clip at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ua6Or0-W9W4. In his wonderful book, he talks about all the wonderful creatures that make up the life of the garden; the living soil; the preparation and maintenance of the organic garden; the use of natural fertilizers and acceptable alternatives to dangerous pesticides; composting; community gardens; and the organic cultivation of many different types of vegetables, fruits and flowers. His appendixes include photographs of useful tools and accessories for organic gardening, a table of the composition of compost ingredients; another table of the minimum depth of container required for growing vegetables in containers; a sowing guide for flowers and vegetables, including the best months for sowing in tropical/ subtropical, temperate and cold climates; best sowing method (seedbed or direct); the sowing depth for seeds; the number of days it takes for seedlings to emerge; the distance to thin seedlings apart; and the number of weeks till flowering for type of flower or vegetable. There is also a list of Goods and Services referred to in the book. This is an essential book for all gardeners! I cannot recommend it highly enough and the fact that it has sold more than 160,000 copies since it was first published in 1979 supports my claim!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-402

Now for another very important book, Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual by Bill Mollison 1988. Bill Mollison (1928 – 2016) was the co-founder of the permaculture concept, along with David Holmgren, from 1972 to 1974. The first classes in permaculture started in 1981 and since then, thousands of people from all over the world have studied this concept. It is now practised in over 20 countries, providing  wonderful hope for the future.

Permaculture, a term coined from two words ‘permanent agriculture’, is defined in the book as ‘the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems, which have the diversity, stability and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of landscape and people, providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way.’ Its principles include: working with nature, rather than against it; the problem is the solution; make the least change for the greatest possible effect; the yield of the system is theoretically unlimited ; and everything makes its own garden and has an effect on its own environment. It relies on cycles; pyramids and food webs; complexity and connections; diversity; stability and harmony and self-regulation.

Permaculture garden designs are based on flow patterns and zones:

Zone 1 (ideally ¼ acre for a family of four) is the most intensively used space in the immediate area of the house and can include vegetables and salad greens with a short growing season; small trees with commonly used fruits like lemons; worm farms; workshops and sheds; glasshouses, cold frames and propagation areas; rainwater tanks; fuel for heating like gas and wood; and small animal pens eg rabbits.

Zone 2 (ideally 1 acre for a family) is also used  intensively, but less than Zone 1 and  includes perennials and vegetables with a longer growing season; fruit trees and orchards; compost bins; bee hives; ponds; chook pens and enclosures for larger animals requiring regular attention.

Zone 3 (4 to 20 acres) is farmland for main farming crops; orchards of large trees like oaks and nut trees; livestock grazing by cattle and sheep; and water storage dams.

Zone 4 can be any size and contains wild and partly managed land for the collection of wild foods; timber production; a source of animal forage and more pasture for grazing animals.

And finally, Zone 5 is unmanaged wild and natural ecosystems with bushland, forest and wilderness conservation areas for observation; meditation and reconnection with nature. Hunting and gathering can occur in this zone.

Permaculture garden design also involves planning to control external incoming energies like wind, sun angles, unwanted views and danger from fires and floods, using a number of strategies to block, channel or open up an area to their impact. It is a HUGE topic and an enormous door-stopper of a book, but essential reading for gardeners interested in the philosophy behind permaculture!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-404

The Permaculture Home Garden by Linda Woodrow 1996  is a much lighter, smaller, more portable and very practical book on the subject. It covers permaculture garden design based on the principles of time-and-motion; multiple use; working with nature; and synergy and using a seven mandala system of circles to maximize use of space and energy efficiency. She discusses : choosing a site; climate: light, temperature; wind; frost and pollutants; water; soil management; mulching, composting and worm farming; propagating plants; lunar planting; guild planting; maintaining the garden and coping with pests; building a chook dome; and the cultivation of fruit trees and a large variety of vegetables. It is a very useful book, especially for gardeners in Northern New South Wales.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-403

Two  more terrific practical permaculture guides, both of which I would not be without  and both written by gardeners in Maleny, Queensland are: You Can Have Your Permaculture and Eat It Too by Robin Clayfield 1996 and Paradise in Your Garden by Jenny Allen 2002. Robin has practised permaculture since 1983 and lives at Crystal Waters Permaculture Village in the Sunshine Coast hinterland. This great publication is a fantastic book to dip into at random, with snippets of information on permaculture principles,  garden design and techniques; sustainability; natural pest control; cash crops; health and diet; food combining; natural cosmetics; food preservation; bulk cooking; bush tucker; gift giving; and even party games; all with lots of wonderful recipes from herbal teas to soups, nibbles and dips; salads and main courses; and desserts and party nights. It is a wonderfully generous book and has such a wealth of information to explore and digest! For more about Robin, see: http://dynamicgroups.com.au/ and  https://permacultureprinciples.com./post/permaculture-pioneer-robin-clayfield/.

blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-405Paradise in Your Garden is a beautiful book, both visually and creatively! Jenny uses photographs and experience gleaned from her own garden  to illustrate the  basic permaculture principles of multiple use; zoning; smart placement; elevational planning; diversity; recycling resources; homemade insurance; using nature’s gifts and seeing solutions, instead of problems. It’s an inspiring book, with lots of fun, imaginative ideas like aspirational trees; mediation areas; hammocks and swings; firepits and water features; places for wildlife; kids’ gardens; healing gardens and even an aphrodisiac garden! She has a large section on garden design and understanding site factors like sun and wind; weeds and stormwater; soil types; frost; and noise, providing an 18 point design checklist and techniques for managing these factors, like creating microclimates by managing Summer sun; building effective  windbreaks; managing soil, water, frost and weeds; and reducing annoying noises. She discusses integrated pest management and  smart use of monetary and time resources. Her descriptions of exciting and unusual edible plants and bush foods makes you want to go straight out and plant them and she also includes some great project ideas from sheet mulching and lasagne gardening (no-dig); building herb spirals, ponds, swales and paths; making worm farms, compost heaps and home brews for plants (comfrey tea); and planting green manure and cover crops. In the back of the book is a list of useful resources and recommended reading. For more current information  on Jenny Allen , read this article in the Hinterland Times on the 4th May 2016 at : https://www.hinterlandtimes.com.au/2016/05/04/is-the-love-affair-over/.

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And finally, a swag of books by the wonderful and knowledgeable Jackie French, who has a wonderful organic garden in the Araluen Valley near Braidwood in Southern New South Wales. On her website (http://www.jackiefrench.com/), she describes herself an Australian author, ecologist, historian, dyslexic and honorary wombat, which is all very accurate! She was also 2014 – 2015 Australian Childrens’ Laureate and 2015 Senior Australian of the Year and is the patron of Youth Educational Support Services (YESS),which delivers the MultiLit Literacy Program, developed by Macquarie University to improve reading skills in local primary and high school students. I volunteered with this rewarding program at Bega Valley Public School in our first year here. We have nine of her books, in order of their publication:

The Wilderness Garden: Beyond Organic Gardening 1992

Jackie has a delightful enthusiastic writing style and this book focuses on how to make gardening fun by changing our approach to gardening and using new or different methods or as she coins it: ‘the wombat way of gardening’ ! She has a very commonsense, practical approach in both her gardening and writing with chapters on different gardens for different places (wet areas; dry areas; polluted areas; seaside areas; and frost zones); feeding the garden (mulch; compost; nitrogen fixation); easy garden beds (weed-mats; hanging gardens; tyre gardens; raised beds; vertical gardens; and modified jungles (I just love that concept!); organic pest and weed control; and vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, with a very useful garden calendar at the end.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-411

Backyard Self-Sufficiency 1992

This publication has been a very well-thumbed book in our house over the years. While steering the reader away from the toil of total self-sufficiency, she has some wonderful ideas for still growing a fair proportion of your own food from staples (grains, legumes, oils and sugars and sweeteners) to vegetables and fruit all year round. We particularly liked her lists on fruit for small places; footpath trees; unusual fruits; edible fences; hardy fruiters and  fruit for cold, temperate and hot climates. She also has chapters on growing in adversity; scavenging in the suburbs; small animals for small gardens; saving the surplus; and the backyard supermarket and medicine chest with lots of great recipes for cosmetics and bath products; dyes; cleaning products; and drinks (beer, cocoa, tea and coffee and coffee substitutes). Her final chapter on self-sufficiency, including her self-sufficient owner-built house, and her general philosophy of simple living resonates so strongly with us and should be a blueprint for all human beings, living in harmony with nature and all is inhabitants on this very special planet we call home. This book also finishes with a comprehensive calendar covering planting; harvesting; other jobs; pests and fruit. This is such a useful book!

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Switch : Home-based Power, Water and Sewerage Systems For The Twenty-First Century by Jackie French and Bryan Sullivan 1994

This little book expands on the concept of the self-sufficient integrated house and gets down to the practical nitty-gritty of ways to actually achieve this. It examines home-based power systems (solar, wind, steam, petrol or diesel, hydro and hybrid or combined systems), as well as batteries and invertors; installation and maintenance and living with your own power system. There are separate extra chapters devoted to lights and a wide variety of appliances (power tools; vacuum cleaners; stoves; kettles and toasters; refrigerators; computers; sound systems; irons; washing machines and solar dryers, to name but a few); and heating and cooling (new house design and orientation; ventilation; insulation; greenhouses; pergolas and more active heating and cooling systems, as well as specific problems and solutions). The authors then turns their attention to water supply, including measures to reduce use; grey water systems; rainwater tanks; bores; pumping water and hot water systems. Sewage treatment is next and includes information on outdoor dunnies; septic tanks; methane digesters; composting toilets and finally garbage processing: the concept of reduce/recycle; compost; worm farms and chooks. Even though this is now quite an old book, it was cutting edge when it was first published. Renewable energy and sustainable technology and alternatives have come a long way since then (though it still has a long way to go and should have been de rigueur by now for every home!), but the basic principles are still the same and this is still a very valuable little book.

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The Earth Gardener’s Companion: A Month-by-Month Guide to Organic Gardening 1996

Exactly what it pupports to be! A very comprehensive month-by-month guide to organic planting and harvesting and pest control solutions, with some wonderfully obscure recipes along the way from culinary delights like Chinese pickled vegetables, soy cheese and beetroot flour to chilli massage oil and even a chilli bosom enhancer!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-413

Making Money From Your Garden 1997

This is another Earth Garden magazine publication and its treatise on ‘Time or Money’ is sufficient reason alone to own this book. We have photocopied and shared that article so many times in our lives, as it is the basic creed by which we live! While sufficient money is important, so you are not stressing out your little brain constantly, ‘sufficient’ being the key word here, time is a far more valuable and precious commodity, which is often under-valued in today’s busy world with its hectic lifestyles! While money may have been a constant challenge for us, we have raised a family to adulthood and always met our basic needs, and our lives have been very rich and fulfilled, with time for creativity, family fun and relaxation. In this book, Jackie shares so many ideas and recipes for making a living from your home and garden from selling surplus or gourmet produce, seeds, potted trees and bush tucker; herbs; bonsai; flowers; and animal produce to making garden gnomes, topiary pots and  terrariums; natural bath products, cosmetics and cleaning products; paper and textile crafts and of course, delicious culinary delights to opening your garden or providing accommodation or a much-needed service like child-minding; home or specialist catering; garden design; or running kids’ parties. So many wonderful suggestions….!!!

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Growing Flowers Naturally  1997

The world of flowers is such an enormous and magical subject, it requires a whole book of its very own! They speak to the soul and fulfil the human desire for beauty! Like Jackie state in her introduction, one can never feel poor when surrounded by beautiful flowers, especially when they are straight from your own home garden! This sentiment applies to home-grown vegies too!!!  After citing a dozen good reasons to grow flowers, Jackie explores flower magic; popular native flowers; cut flowers; drying flowers; roses; bulbs, corms and rhizomes;  perennial and herbaceous borders; and climbers, shrubs and trees, before delving into the practical advice about starting a flower garden; different ways of growing flowers; flower problems and their solutions; and propagating flowers. She even covers medicinal flowers and includes recipes for perfumes, skin and hair products, and flower food. She finishes with an alphabetically ordered flower compendium with notes on their description; requirements; sowing times and potential problems. I’d forgotten how good this book was!

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Seasons of Content: A Year in the Southern Highlands 1998 is a lovely dreamy read, which should possibly be part of next month’s post on inspirational gardens, but I am including it here, amongst Jackie French’s other books! Written in the form of a diary, it describes a year in the Araluen Valley, following the seasons and enjoying all that nature has to offer. It’s a delightful read, as well as being packed with delicious recipes! Equally good to read all at once or dip into for a quick revitalizing pick-me-up!

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How To Guzzle Your Garden 1999 is a great book for kids and for inspiring the gardeners of the future! Linking gardens with food and eating is a brilliant and inspired decision, and such an obvious notion when you stop to think about kids! As a very popular childrens’ author, Jackie knows what turns kids on and this book is so much fun for a kid to read! I also love the pencil sketches by her illustrator Judith Rossell! The book is written in a question-answer format. It addresses making jam, cordials and sweet treats and eating edible weeds and flowers and bush foods, as well as the more practical aspects of planting from seed and pips; tree planting; and making compost.

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There are also lots of fun projects like growing plants in joggers, bottles and boxes; growing an apple tree in an orange; and making an egghead with watercress seeds or shrunken heads from apple cores. I blame Jackie for my daughter’s optimistic (and we thought doomed!) decision to grow a pineapple in a pot from the discarded top and leaves in the depths of the Armidale Winter, but would you believe, it did actually produce a small pineapple on our move to the warmer subtropical climes of Dorrigo !blogspecific-garden-bksreszd50image-423blogspecific-garden-bksreszd50image-423-copyThe Best of Jackie French  2000 Our final book and a culmination of over 30 years of gardening wisdom, this book is typical of all her other books- light-hearted and fun, enthusiastic and inspiring; practical and knowledgeable and incredibly generous with recipes, not to mention eminently readable! There is SO MUCH in this book, I will have to leave it to you to peruse at your leisure!!! Suffice to say Jackie has been a wonderful ambassador for sustainability, self-sufficiency and organic gardening!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-412

Sustainability is a such an important issue, especially nowadays with the increased incidence of droughts and rising temperatures associated with global warming. The following books shed light on ways of dealing with our uncertain future and all the challenges it issues.

Earth Garden, the publisher of two of Jackie French’s books, has also produced a publication called The Earth Garden Water Book 2004, with lots of interesting articles by Earth Garden magazine contributors and readers on  water collection, purifying, conservation, reuse and recycling and water-saving tips.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-422

Readers’ Digest elaborates on these principles in their book Waterwise Gardening 2010 with chapters on climate; soil; waterwise garden design; waterwise plants; wise use of water; plant care and maintenance and a waterwise plant guide.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-419

And finally, two increasingly important books when it comes to choosing plants, which can cope with hotter and drier climates:

Even though Jane Taylor is English, her book: The Dry Garden: Gardening With Drought-Tolerant Plants 1993 focuses on Australian gardens and includes many Australian natives. It was published just before the start of the Millenium Drought (late 1996 to mid 2010) in South-Eastern Australia, so was a very useful book during that period. She briefly discusses dry climates and drought; plant mechanisms for coping with lack of water and the maintenance of dry climate gardens (including notes on soil; planting; windbreaks; lawn and lawn substitutes; and irrigation techniques), but the majority of her book is devoted to an in-depth discussion of over 1000 drought-tolerant plants of all types: trees and shrubs; conifers; palms and cycads; climbers; perennials and ephemerals; grasses and bamboos; bulbs; and succulents and xerophytes, the latter being plants especially adapted to dry conditions. In the back are lists of plants with special characteristics: bold and lush foliage; sword-shaped leaves; fragrance; wind-tolerance; and horizontal growth, making them ideal for ground-covers. It certainly is an inspiring book and offers hope and optimism for future gardens which, although different, can still be beautiful havens.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-421

Plants For a Changing Climate by Trevor Nottle 2004/ 2011, an Australian garden writer and historian, who has also written books on cottage gardening, perennials and old roses, which I have already discussed in Part 1 Specific Gardens last week and favourite Rose Books. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/21/books-on-specific-types-of-gardens-part-one-cutting-gardens-cottage-gardens-and-herb-gardens/ and https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/ . Being a South Australian gardener, Trevor has had to cope with a hot, dry climate for over 30 years and is well-versed in Mediterranean-style gardening. Unfortunately, with climate change and global warming, the rest of us will have to adjust to a different style of gardening, less dependent on unfettered water use and more appropriate to future climatic conditions. In the introduction to his second edition and concluding chapter, Trevor examines the future implications, especially for gardeners, in great depth and offers possible solutions for the challenges ahead. He has divided his plants into a number of chapters with interesting titles : Shademakers; Statement Makers; Structure makers; Scent Makers; Silver Superstars; Useful Food Plants and Vegetables; Super-Special Plants; Geraniums; Succulents; Perfect Perennials; Roses and Other Pricklies; Little Potted Histories; Surprises From Last Summer and a Motley Crew of 10 of his favourite plants. Trevor is so knowledgeable about Mediterranean plants and so generous with that knowledge. It is a great addition to any horticultural library and is particularly pertinent in contemporary gardens.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-234

Next month, I will share some beautiful dreamy and inspirational garden books from our library, as well as some fascinating books about gardening and plants!

A Garden Weekend in the Southern Highlands: Part 2

While not strictly part of the Southern Highlands, being slightly further north and at a lower altitude, I am describing this wonderful property as part of my Southern Highlands garden post, because it was part of our terrific weekend away- in fact, it was the initial draw card, as its Spring Fair was being held this particular weekend and Glenmore House was only a 45 minute drive from Mittagong, where we were staying.

Glenmore House

Moores Way, Glenmore, near Camden

http://www.glenmorehouse.com.au/

Glenmore House is a very dreamy romantic garden and we were delighted to be able to visit it for their annual Spring Fair, having originally read about Mickey Robinson’s Kitchen Garden in the ABC Organic Garden magazine and subscribing to her blog. Her home and garden are an absolute delight and a must for anyone who loves organic vegetable gardening, as well as old farm buildings! Mickey, an interior decorator, and her husband Larry, a leadership communication consultant, bought the dilapidated old Georgian sandstone cottage (1840) with all its equally dilapidated outbuildings in 1988 and have renovated them all to the wonderful state they are in today. They also developed a beautiful garden with many different spaces, all visible from the house and full of plants, chosen for their scent and the family memories they evoked.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1234 Mickey has written about their journey in a beautiful coffee table book called ‘The House and Garden at Glenmore’, which was launched at the Spring Fair and contains many beautiful photographs and very informative text, as well as some delicious recipes! She describes all the different garden areas in detail, which have been illustrated in this map by Catherine O’Neill:blogsth-highlds30reszdimage-196blogsth-highlds50reszdimage-197 Her favourite section is the kitchen garden and she gave us a very interesting tour and talk on the day.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1149 She also runs lots of workshops, which are advertised on her website and include:

Kitchen Gardening Days: Seasonal vegetable gardening with Linda Ross: crop rotation; successional planting; staking and structures; pruning; harvesting and storage; seed collection; compost making; pests – basically everything to do with planting and growing produce. Includes a delicious seasonal lunch in the loggia.

Seasonal Cooking Days:

Making stocks and broths: Michelle Schoeps: http://michelleschoepsorganic.blogspot.com.au/

Making risottos; desserts; cordials; jams and marmalades;

Preserving days; Slow Food days;  and Tomato days.

Special Events:

Open Garden and Spring Fair

Spring Chamber Music Concerts

Other creative workshops:

Natural Christmas : Christmas decorating and table settings.

Christmas Willow Vines and Foliage workshop with Penny Simons.

Flower Workshops with Jardine Hansen, who arranges lovely blowsy bouquets of seasonal local flowers.

Herbal Garden workshops with Anthia Koullouros, a naturopath and herbalist, who founded Ovvio Teas (http://www.ovvioorganics.com.au/), which are totally organic and certified, and include a range of 38 teas – quite delicious, as we later discovered, having purchased three different varieties at the fair.

Collaborations with Nature: an Ephemeral Art Workshop with Shona Wilson, who creates fascinating  artwork. See: http://www.shonawilson.com.au/.

Still Life Painting with Justin Van den Berg.

Natural Dyeing workshops with India Flint: Bag Stories; Botanical Alchemy.

A Journey Round Italy with Stefano Manfredi.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1179blogglenmore20reszdimg_1223We had a wonderful morning exploring all the different sections of the garden, as well as looking at the stalls including :

Secret Garden : Herbs and perennials

Camden Park : Rare plants

Patio Plants : Vegetable seedlings

Sibella Court : Tinkered hardware

Twig Furniture : Rustic garden furnitureblogglenmore20reszdimg_1189Mickey was also selling garden tools, baskets, vases, soaps and creams, scented water and and her trademark hat dress and apron from the Barn, the centre of her interior decorating business.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1158Like Red Cow Farm, there is so much to this garden. It is well worth buying her book for more detail, but here are a few photos, illustrating some of our favourite aspects :

1.The Persimmon Lawn at the entrance with its old Silk Floss tree Cebia speciosa; the peppercorn tree, under-planted with orange clivias; a pair of old persimmon trees; an old macadamia tree and a hoop pine.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1280blogglenmore20reszdimg_12612. The old stone cottage was very sympathetically restored with two new wings, separate to the house, so it did not compromise the integrity of the original dwelling, and so similar in style that it is difficult to discern that they are not original. The front courtyard has a round pond of bulrushes, a dry stone wall and huge dramatic agaves  Agave americana. Beautifully- scented frost-tender plants like ginger, ornamental banana, stephanotis, justicia, shell ginger and coral cannas fill the space between the main cottage and the bedroom wing. There is also a bed of Bourbon roses: Mme Isaac Pereire, La Reine Victoria and Souvenir de la Malmaison next to the house.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1266blogglenmore20reszdimg_1264blogglenmore20reszdimg_1263blogglenmore20reszdimg_12673. The back courtyard with the steps to the gallery flanked by a pair of bay trees; a raised hexagonal stone pond with white lotus Nelumbo nucifera ‘Bliss’; crazy paving; a pair of timber Lutyens-style benches; a copper of Japanese Iris; verandahs clothed in grape vines; and numerous terracotta pots of succulents; pelargoniums; box spheres and pyramids; and mint and chives for the kitchen nearby. I loved its emphasis on white with hybrid musk rose Prosperity, Viburnum plicatum ‘Mariesii’ and Viburnum opulus; Hydrangea quercifolia and Japanese windflowers.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1168blogglenmore20reszdimg_1171blogglenmore20reszdimg_1252blogglenmore20reszdimg_12574. The arc between the house, driveway and paddocks with its old peppercorn tree, yuccas, germander row and sphere; phlomis; romneya; philadelphus; santolina and salvias;  Rosa brunonii along the fence; and a firepit.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1258blogglenmore20reszdimg_1251blogglenmore20reszdimg_11675. The Barn Garden with its Malus ioensis plena in full flower, a White Cedar tree, their daughters’ old cubbyhouse, a juniper hedge, philadelphus, maybush and roses.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1161 Rambling rose Félicité et Perpétue grows over the Barn and an espaliered pear tree ‘Sensation’ is trained on the end wall in between topiared balls of cotoneaster.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1278blogglenmore20reszdimg_1177 I loved the belfry and the stable doors, painted with auriculas by artist Xanga Connelley.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1259blogglenmore20reszdimg_1260blogglenmore20reszdimg_1247blogglenmore20reszdimg_12486. The Old Stables, which were converted to a pool house and have a pair of frangipani trees planted on the front wall, under-planted with Gardenia radicans, and a Climbing Cécile Brünner rose over the end of the building.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1175blogglenmore20reszdimg_1279blogglenmore20reszdimg_1176 The fence is covered with Trachelospermum jasminoides, with further scent provided by an apricot Datura and an Osmanthus fragrans at the bottom end of the pool enclosure.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1180blogglenmore20reszdimg_1276blogglenmore20reszdimg_1277blogglenmore20reszdimg_11847. The beautiful 3 metre wide double herbaceous borders, which ran the length of the pool fence and were a riot of colour and scent with plantings of : Daybreak Yoshino Cherry Prunus yedoensis ‘Akebono’; New Zealand Flax Phormium tenax with its strappy bronze leaves; striking stands of Miscanthus sinensis; Rugosa roses Sarah Van Fleet and Fru Dagmar Hastrup; apricot canna lilies and burgundy pompom dahlias; cardoons and Buddleja davidii ‘Black Knight’; Achillea ‘Moonshine’; pink Valerian; Salvia guaranitica; clary sage; Russian sage Petrovskia atriplicifolia ; pink peony poppies; and Knautia macedonia. The southern end is marked by two timber lattice obelisks, supporting the rose New Dawn and a murraya hedge (bottom photo).blogglenmore20reszdimg_1182blogglenmore20reszdimg_1241blogglenmore20reszdimg_1240blogglenmore20reszdimg_1185blogglenmore20reszdimg_12468. The Dairy Garden with Iceberg roses, Lavandula angustifolia and a wire heart against the wall. The Dairy now has a semi-commercial kitchen and is used for weddings and workshops.blogglenmore20reszdimg_11469. The old hayshed, where Martin Boetz put on a splendid lunch for the day.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1186blogglenmore20reszdimg_118710. The Croquet Lawn, complete with Labyrinth, where the stalls were set up, in front of the orchard of almonds, olives, apples, figs and crab apples, all protected with substantial wire guards.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1275blogglenmore20reszdimg_114511. The Dairy Garden and Chook Citrus Yard (Valencia and Navel oranges, a Clementine and a grape fruit), a perfect combination as their scratching keeps the citrus surface roots free from weed competition. The chooks have the delightful names of Cabbage and Rose!blogglenmore20reszdimg_1191blogglenmore20reszdimg_1193 Ross was very impressed with the picket fence of tomato stakes topped with rusty tin cans.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1235blogglenmore20reszdimg_1230 I loved the red walls of the dairy covered with jasmine and the shady garden of Acanthus mollis beneath the huge Peppercorn tree.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1152blogglenmore20reszdimg_1238blogglenmore20reszdimg_123112. And the pièce de résistance, Mickey’s Kitchen Garden! It was so impressive with its black bamboo and mulberry supporting structures;blogglenmore20reszdimg_1239blogglenmore20reszdimg_1221blogglenmore20reszdimg_1220 raised  traditional beds with crop rotation from legumes to leafy greens, fruit and root vegetables and the occasional green manure crop and chook cleanup at the end of the season; blogglenmore20reszdimg_1156blogglenmore20reszdimg_1200blogglenmore20reszdimg_1222 the intermingled guild beds, which confused the pests;blogglenmore20reszdimg_1236blogglenmore20reszdimg_1237 the espaliered fruit trees and apple tunnel;blogglenmore20reszdimg_1215blogglenmore20reszdimg_1196 the fully netted raspberry house;blogglenmore20reszdimg_1199blogglenmore20reszdimg_1154 and the use of numerous companion plants: wild poppies; fennel; nasturtiums; tansy; wormwood; borage; lovage; calendula; sorrel and oregano.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1217blogglenmore20reszdimg_1224blogglenmore20reszdimg_1225We also loved the behind-the-scenes area, hidden behind the potting shed, with beds of garlic, leek and onion; lots of potted plants; four huge compost bays, worked by a tractor; two aerobins for kitchen scraps; a worm farm in a bath and sinks of comfrey tea; as well as new workshop plots for natural dyeing and herbal remedies.blogglenmore20reszdimg_1205blogglenmore20reszdimg_1204blogglenmore20reszdimg_1208blogglenmore20reszdimg_1203blogglenmore20reszdimg_1207blogglenmore20reszdimg_1212And finally, there are informal areas beyond the garden fence, as well as the rest of the farm beyond. Mickey and Larry run a small herd of Red Angus cattle. blogglenmore20reszdimg_1210blogglenmore20reszdimg_1211blogglenmore20reszdimg_1272Tomorrow, I will post the last section of our Southern Highlands garden treat!