Tantalizing Tea Roses

Last month, we discussed China Roses and their enormous impact on rose breeding in the West. The other oriental rose of note was Rosa gigantea, which when crossed with Rosa chinensis, produced two of the Stud Chinas:

Humes’ Blush Tea-Scented China R. odorata odorata    and

Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented China R. odorata ochroleuca (photo below), both introduced to the West in 1810 and 1824 respectively. While possessing the positive attributes of prolonged flowering and yellow blooms, they were not robust in the cooler English climate and very susceptible to weather damage.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.25.27Hybridization of these two roses with Dwarf Chinas, Bourbons and Noisettes produced a new race of Teas, with a wide colour range (red, pink, blush, white, yellow and pale orange) and a bud with a high pointed centre, different to other roses of the day. Crossing Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented China with Fortune’s Double Yellow (R. odorata pseudoindica),  another old Chinese garden rose with few thorns, dark green glossy foliage and loosely-formed double, buff-yellow fragrant blooms with tints of orange (photos below), produced the early yellow Teas of the 20th Century.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-01-46blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-01-54Originally called Tea-Scented Chinas, the name of these new roses was abbreviated to Tea Roses. There is much conjecture over the fragrance and origin of the name – some say these roses have the faint fragrance of fresh China tea, while others attribute the name to the fact that the roses were stored with the wooden tea containers during their voyage from China to Europe in the tea clippers of the East India Company. Despite their slender weak stalks and tenderness in the cooler climate, they quickly became popular with Victorians, who wore the blooms in their buttonholes. In cooler climates, most Teas were grown in greenhouses or against a warm, sheltered wall, but they thrived in the warmer climates of the Mediterranean areas; South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and warmer parts of America like California. Their heyday was from 1882 to 1910, with over 250 Tea Roses introduced between 1830 and 1840. Many were produced by French breeders like Gilbert Nabonnand (1829-1903), based at Golfe Juan on the Cote d’Azur, who specialized in breeding Chinas and Teas, producing 78 Teas between 1872 and 1903. Tea Roses remained popular through the Edwardian Era, but the outbreak of the First World War meant that there was no longer the time, money or staff to maintain these tender roses in heated glass-houses. The new Hybrid Teas, as well as climbers, ramblers and Polyanthas were gaining in popularity and competed for space in gardens. Sadly, most of the Tea varieties, known to the Victorians, are now extinct, many killed off by severe frosts in Britain.

The Climbing Teas were much hardier with large, vigorous, thick stems and healthy glossy foliage.  We are very lucky in Australia to have a large collection of Tea Roses at Rustons’ Nursery, Renmark, South Australia. The warm climate is very suitable for Tea Roses. In fact, there is a whole book written about them by 5 Western Australian authors:

‘Tea Roses: Old Roses for Warm Gardens’  by Lynne Chapman, Jenny M Jones, Billy West, Noelene Drage, Di Durston and Hillary Merrifield  2008 (http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3225298-tea-roses).BlogTeaRosesReszd25%Image (616)

The famous Australian rose breeder, Alister Clark, crossed Tea Roses back with R. gigantea to produce some very vigorous famous old Climbing Teas like Lorraine Lee 1924 (photo below) and Nancy Hayward 1937, perfect for the hot dry Australian climate, but I am devoting a separate post to him at the end of this month!blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9113While we are lucky to still be able to appreciate their nodding slightly fragrant blooms here in Australia, their big claim to fame in Europe is their major role in the development of the modern rose, being one of the parents (the other being Hybrid Perpetuals) of Hybrid Teas.

Description

In warm climates, Teas form large, vigorous, densely-foliated bushes with a branching habit and often a twiggy growth pattern. The new leaves are greeny-bronze to copper-brown, dark red or purple, while the elongated shiny mature leaves are often evergreen.

Recurrent-flowering with subtle colours and a unique Tea fragrance, the blooms are generally cup-shaped, opening out flat, with a wide range of petal arrangements from cupped, globular, imbricated, quartered or muddled. The petals are silky and translucent.

Tea Roses display cymose inflorescences : each shoot ends in a bud, which is the largest and opens first. Many Tea Roses have nodding heads.

The hips are medium to large in size, yellow or orange, deepening to red with cold weather, and usually globular in shape with a flattened top.

Cultivation

Needs a warm frost-free climate or environment (glasshouse or warm sheltered wall) and well-drained fertile soil. Like China roses, they also resent hard pruning, so only prune lightly to maintain the shape of the bush, thin out old growth  or remove dead wood.

NOTE: The height and size of Tea Roses is very dependent on the climate. Most Tea roses in the United Kingdom are less than 3 feet tall, while their counterparts in warmer climates are much taller.

Varieties of Tea Roses

Tea-Scented Rose: Rosa gigantea :

Tall climber, over 2 metres high, with evergreen foliage and the largest flowers and hips of any rose.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.24.37Large single primrose blooms 7 – 14 cm across, fading to white, in Summer.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-27 12.59.58

Originally found in the Shan Hills, North Burma in 1882, but later also in North-Western China. Performs poorly in cooler Northern climates, but very well in California, Australia and Mediterranean regions.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9334Adam

Also known as The President and bred by Adam, United Kingdom, 1833    Unknown parentage.

Credited as being the first Tea Rose and named after its breeder, its pioneer status is erroneous, according to the ‘Tea Roses’ book mentioned above, as it was actually bred in 1838, and in fact, there were many other extinct Teas bred before 1833. It is best used as a climber, which reaches up to 2 metres in height.blogsummer-gardenreszd20img_1065Plentiful large dark green leaves and large, fully double, often quartered when fully open, blooms of buff, amber and apricot with pink tints deep in the centre.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1115 I love the warm colours of this beautiful rose and am growing it on the northern end of the main pergola, where it flowers well throughout the season.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1162Safrano (Aimé Plantier)

Bred by Beauregard in France 1839 of unknown parentage (according to Peter Beales, though Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix suggest it is possibly a cross between Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented Rose and Mme Deprez, the Bourbon  of 1831), Safrano is one of the oldest Teas still in existence and was considered as one of the best cut roses in France until 1900, being sent in vast quantities from the Mediterranean area to Paris. It was very popular as a buttonhole rose.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.24.18Its high-centred buds open out flat to  large, semi-double, fragrant,  apricot-yellow to saffron blooms. Very floriferous, it has plentiful mid-green foliage and will grow to 2 metres tall in a warm climate.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.39.01Triomphe de Luxembourg

Bred by Hardy, France, 1839, it also is of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9307Less than 1 metre tall, with dark green foliage and clusters of fully double salmon-pink blooms, fading to pinkish-buff with age.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9306BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9308Devoniensis  (the Magnolia Rose)

Bred by Foster, United Kingdom 1841 of unknown parentage, it also has a climbing sport from 1858. A very hardy Tea, it will climb to 3 metres in height, especially if grown in warm climates, though it does better in British conservatories. The stems have few thorns and ample light green foliage and it repeat-flowers well with large, fragrant, creamy, occasionally blush-pink, flowers.bloghxroses20reszdimg_0731 One of my favourite Teas, I am growing it opposite Adam on the northern end of our main pergola. I first saw it over an arched pergola at Walter Duncan’s Heritage Garden, where its beautiful nodding heads were shown off to perfection.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9628BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9415Souvenir d’Un Ami

Bred by Bélot-Defougère, France, 1846,  of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.47.02BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.46.57A vigorous bush with a branching habit, rich green foliage and fully double, cupped, very fragrant rose-pink and salmon blooms.

Sombreuil

A very hardy Climbing Tea, bred by Robert in France in 1850, it grows to 4 metres tall, has ample lush green foliage and repeat-flowers well with fully double, sweetly scented, flattish pure white flowers with a hint of cream in the base. In my garden, it forms one side of the arch opposite Cornelia, at the gate into the chook yard.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_0877blognovgarden20reszdimg_0189BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1039Duchesse de Brabant (also known as Comtesse de Labarthe; Comtesse Ouwaroff; and in Australia, Countess Bertha)

Bred by Bernède, France, 1857 of unknown parentage.

A vigorous, spreading, well-foliated, free-flowering bush, up to 1.5 metres tall, with large, shapely cupped and very double, clear-pink  to rose-pink blooms with a strong Tea fragrance. There is also a climbing form, up to 4 metres tall. BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.22.57Very hardy and disease-resistant, it is one of the Earth-Kind Roses (see: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/earthkindroses/cultivars/duchesse-de-brabant/).BlogTeasReszd50%Image (220)Said to be a favourite of Teddy Roosevelt’s, it is certainly one of mine. I first grew it as a cutting, taken from an old garden belonging to Ross’s uncle, which has since formed part of the Gold Coast Botanical Gardens. I grew the climbing form in my old Armidale garden and now have the bush form here in Candelo, though it is still a bit of a weedy specimen and needs to pull it socks up!BlogTeasReszd2017-04-06 12.13.51Catherine Mermet

Bred by Guillot Fils, France, 1869, of unknown parentage.

Once widely grown for the cut flower trade, this rose is best grown in glasshouses in the United Kingdom. It has plentiful healthy mid-green foliage with copper tinges and longish stems, bearing shapely, high-centred buds, which open out to semi-double lilac-pink flowers with blush-pink centres.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9299Marie Van Houtte

Bred by Ducher, France, 1871, a cross between Mme Falcot, a medium yellow Tea, similar to Safrano, and Mme de Tartas, a light pink Tea used extensively in Victorian times for breeding.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.49.50A vigorous plant with a sprawling habit, this rose has rich green foliage and is very free-flowering. Large pointed buds open out to very fragrant, cream nodding flowers, tinged with carmine pink, with a buff colour at the base of the petals. Will reach 2 metres on a warm wall.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.49.45Anna Oliver

Also bred by Ducher, France, in 1872, of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.31.12A vigorous branching bush with good, mid-green foliage and shapely, high-centred, fragrant, flesh- pink blooms.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.47.31BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9305Mme Lombard

Introduced by Lacharme, France, 1878, this rose is a seedling of Mme de Tartas and looks very similar, apart from the colour.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.48.45A vigorous bush with dark green foliage and very double, full, fragrant, salmon blooms.

Général Schablikine

Bred by Nabonnand, France, 1878, of unknown parentage and one of his most famous roses.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.15.16A very useful rose, with compact well-foliated growth and very double copper-red and cherry-red blooms, which open out flat.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.16.42Mlle Franziska Krüger

Another Nabonnand rose, launched in 1879, and thought to be a cross between Tea Roses, Catherine Mermet and Général Schablikine.

A repeat-flowering heat-tolerant Tea with a susceptibility to mildew, it reaches 1 metre in height and has large, fragrant, very double, cupped, orange-pink blooms with pink undertones and yellow centres.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.33.13Monsieur Tillier

Bred by Bernaix, France, 1891 of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.35.39Tall, lax, vigorous growth with large, loosely-double, blood-red flowers with violet smudges and very little scent. Repeat-flowers well.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9168

This rose is often confused with the next rose:

Archiduc Joseph   also goes under the spelling: Archduke Joseph)

Bred by Nabonnand, France, 1892, and a seedling of Tea Rose, Mme Lombard, this outstanding rose is a hardy shrub or small climber, few thorns and plentiful dark-green glossy foliage.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9273 It repeat-flowers well, the colour of the blooms varying with temperature, the petals a mixture of pink, purple, orange and russet, with tints of yellow and gold in the centre.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1116My rose (above and below) was sold to me as Archiduc Joseph, but could well be Monsieur Tillier!blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-18-21  Here is a site exploring the differences: http://www.annchapman.net.nz/content/archduc-joseph-and-mons-tillier-rose-any-name-looks-just-good-and-smells-sweet. There is also a discussion of the difference in the ‘Tea Rose’ book mentioned: See https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a2_g1faKWdYC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=Archiduc+Joseph+and+Monsieur+Tillier&source=bl&ots=AlFw23cloU&sig=o-1HAKDpgVIY6nTOhXiaarhYQzM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiuhPafl57TAhVLkpQKHdjEBKYQ6AEIUzAM#v=onepage&q=Archiduc%20Joseph%20and%20Monsieur%20Tillier&f=false.

Either way, it has been a wonderful rose- very tough and hardy, it still thrives near the Pepperina tree and is very generous with her beautiful orange-pink blooms!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-18-30-56

Maman Cochet

Bred by Scipion Cochet, France, 1893, this rose is a cross between Tea Roses, Marie Van Houtte and Mme Lombard, and was once a famous exhibition rose.

It has vigorous growth, few thorns, leathery dark green foliage and is very free-flowering with large, globular pale-pink blooms, which open out blowsy and are deeper in colour towards the centre, with  lemon-yellow at the base of the petals.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.40.23White Maman Cochet is a sport, bred by Cook, USA, 1896 (photo above). It has both bush and climbing forms and repeat-flowers well with creamy-white, fragrant, shapely, high-centred blooms, with a lemon centre and cherry-pink outer petals.

Francis Dubreuil

Bred by Dubreuil, France, 1894, of unknown parentage

With moderately thorny stems and sparse glossy dark-green foliage, this rose repeat-flowers well. Its large pointed buds open to high-centred fragrant, dark-red velvety blooms, which open out blowsy and pale slightly with age.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9662Mrs Dudley Cross

Bred by William Paul, UK, 1907

Thornless upright shrub to 3 metres, which repeat-flowers with medium, double, moderately fragrant, muddled yellow blooms, which blush to pink and then crimson as they age.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.19.30 Very resistant to blackspot, it is also an Earth-Kind rose. See: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/newsletters/hortupdate/2011/apr/ek-roses-2011.html.

Lady Hillingdon

Bred by Lowe and Shawyer, UK, 1910 from a cross between two Tea Roses, Papa Gontier and Mme Hoste. It has a climbing form, bred by Hicks, USA 1917.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.25.04

A very famous and hardy old rose, with thornless plum-coloured stems, plentiful dark-green foliage, with copper mahogany tinges and long slender buds, which open to highly fragrant, large, blowsy, semi-double rich yolky-yellow blooms. I grew the climbing form on our tennis court fence in our old garden in Armidale (photo below).BlogTeasReszd50%Image (218)Rosette Delizy

Bred by Gilbert’s son, Paul Nabonnand, France, 1922 from a cross between Général Galliéni, one of his father’s Tea Roses, as well as being  one of the most popular roses of its day, and another Tea Rose, Comtesse Bardi (a cross between Noisette Rose, Rêve d’Or, and Tea Rose, Mme Lombard).BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9679A branching bush, which has good foliage and repeat-flowers well with large full blooms of a lovely combination of rose-pink, buff and apricot and a fruity scent.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.26.07 Will reach 1.8 metres on a wall.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.26.03

Susan Louise

Bred by Charles E Adams, US, 1929, this vigorous disease-resistant climber is a seedling of the Gigantea Hybrid, Belle Portugaise.

Almost 5 metres tall, with spreading thornless stems and large semi-glossy medium-green foliage, it blooms prolifically with flushes throughout the season. Large long pointed buds, borne in  small clusters, open to slightly fragrant, medium to large (up to 9 cm across), semi-double, light pink blooms.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.45.39Please note: While all the photographs of the Tea Roses mentioned above are mine, not all the roses are! I have specified the Tea Roses growing in my garden in the text. Next week, we will be discussing Rustons Roses and the Renmark Rose Festival, but first, I have an extra post on Thursday, my response to a surprise Blue Sky Tag!

Captivating Chinas

The late 18th century was a time of great excitement: the discovery and introduction of new plant species from plant hunting expeditions to the Orient and the opening up of trade with the East, with the giant clippers of the British East India Company plying their way across the seas back home with cases of tea imports; fancy furniture, cane and lacquer ware from China and Japan and exotic plants and roses like Rosa chinensis (though it used to be called Rosa indica, meaning ‘of China’) in the newly-developed Wardian cases. Native to the Guizhou, Hubei and Sichuan Provinces of China, Rosa chinensis has been cultivated in China since 3000 BC, its blooms depicted in early Chinese paintings of the 10th century. Chinese garden roses display considerable hybridity from this long period of cultivation.

The introduction of China roses in the 1790s changed the Western rose world forever, as they were so different to the Old European roses. Not only were they a different shape with a lighter airy growth and sparser foliage, but their blooms had a different scent and colour and flowered continuously, and their introduction opened up a whole new set of genes to be used in rose breeding, resulting in an explosion in the number of different rose varieties: Portands, Bourbons, Noisettes, Hybrid Perpetuals, Tea Roses and eventually the modern Hybrid Tea roses. Little wonder that European gardeners were so entranced and captivated by these new roses! The photo below is Cécile Brünner, one of my favourite China roses!BlogChinasReszd20%IMG_0207 The early Chinas or the four Stud Chinas, as they became known, were:

Old Blush China , also known as the Monthly Rose or Parsons’ Pink and Pallida (after its parents). It was brought to Europe in 1751, but introduced to Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1789, after bringing it back from Canton, China (photo below);

Slater’s Crimson China, also known as the Bengal Rose, introduced in 1792;

Hume’s Blush Teascented  China 1809;   and

Park’s Yellow Teascented China 1824

See : http://www.vicstaterosegarden.com.au/about-our-roses/rose-stories for more on their arrival.

Unfortunately, these roses are not cold-hardy, so while they thrived in the warmer parts of Europe, like France and Italy, they remained small (60 to 90 cm in height, compared to over 1.8 metres in warmer areas) or had to be grown in greenhouses and conservatories in colder areas. BlogChinasReszd2014-10-25 09.36.08

Description :

Twiggy irregular bushes, 1 to 2 metres tall with a light branching habit, purple-brown stems and few thorns;

Glossy, smooth, pointed, pinnate foliage, which has red tints when young; The leaves have 3 to 5 leaflets, 2.5 to 6 cm long and 1 to 3 cm wide.

Continuous flowering of dainty blooms with distinct bright colours: deep reds; maroon; pink; white, as well as warm yellow; saffron; salmon and orange. The colour intensifies with age, rather than fading to pale like the Old European roses. The hips are red and 1 to 2 cm long. The rose photographed below is Perle d’Or.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-27 14.04.10

Cultivation :

China roses will do best with fertile, well-manured soil and a sheltered warm north-facing (Southern Hemisphere) position, protected from the wind. They dislike hard pruning, so only remove dead and dying growth. The rose below is Old Blush.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.45.46Species:

Rosa chinensis var. spontanea

The wild form of the rose, it was first seen by Dr Augustine Henry in 1884 and described by him in The Gardener’s Chronicle in 1902. It was found again in 1983 by Mr Mikinori Ogisu, of Tokyo, in the Chinese Province of Sichuan and was photographed in the Royal National Rose Society’s Journal, The Rose, accompanied by an article by Graham Thomas in September 1986.

Growing into trees up to 3 metres tall, it bears blooms 5 to 6 cm wide, which vary in colour from pink to crimson (the colour being darker in areas of higher altitude).

Old Blush or Parson’s Pink 1781    Parsons’ Pink China x R. odorata ‘Pallida’

Still quite common, Old Blush is a dainty, upright, robust, almost thornless shrub or short climber with dainty, small, loosely informal, pale silvery-pink (deepening with age), continuous flowers in small clusters. The strong scent has been described as being similar to a sweet pea. It was brought to Sweden in 1752 by Peter Osbeck, was growing in Holland in 1781 and introduced in England in 1789. It was found growing in a garden at Rickmansworth, in the garden of Mr Parsons in 1793.  Often the first rose to start flowering in Spring and the last to finish in Winter, it produces flowers continuously through the Summer, hence its other name: the Monthly Rose. While usually growing to 1.2 metres, it can be considerably taller (up to 3 metres against a warm wall) in favourable conditions.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-27 12.51.10

Slater’s Crimson China, also called  the Bengal Rose, Semperflorens and  Old Crimson China

Also known as the Bengal Rose, because it arrived in tea clippers from Calcutta, India, in 1792. Seldom seen today, this rose was important , as it introduced rich pure reds into a gene pool, where the crimsons invariably turned to purples and mauves. Its flowers are truly single, 9 cm across, blood red, fading to crimson, and have a slight tea fragrance. A small rounded bush 1 to 1.2 metres tall in Britain, it will grow to twice the height in hotter climates. It needs a warm sheltered position to do well and prefers warmer climates, where it will flower 12 months of the year.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.14.31Hume’s Blush Teascented China     R. indica odorata

Discovered by John Reeves in 1808, but named after rosarian, Abraham Hume, this rose was sent from the Fa Tee Nursery in Canton in 1810. The fully double blooms are a creamy flesh pink, fading to creamy white,  with a pink reverse and a strong tea fragrance and are borne continuously from Spring to Autumn. The original hybrid introduced to the West may very well be extinct, as it disappeared from commerce in the 19th century.

Park’s Yellow Teascented China  R. indica ochroleuca, now assigned Rosa odorata var. pseudindica

Named after plant collector, John Damper Parks, who discovered this cloudy sulphur-yellow, scented rose in 1824 on a Royal Horticultural Society expedition to China, it is thought to be the result of a cross between R. chinensis and R. gigantea, from which it inherited its larger, thicker and more waxy petals. The yellow tea roses of the early 20th century were the result of crossing this rose with Fortune’s Double Yellow, a Tea Rose with yellow, buff and red blooms, found by Robert Fortune on the wall of Chinese mandarin’s garden in Ningpo, Northern China, 1845, while a cross of Parks Yellow Tea-scented China with Noisettes produced the Tea- Noisettes. It is likely that the original was lost over 100 years ago. According to Mr. George Gordon (1806-1879), Superintendent of the Gardens of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick near London, ‘Rosa indica ochroleuca‘ was extinct before 1842. The Tea-scented Yellow China, which was widely distributed, was ‘Rosa indica flavescens‘, a seedling of Hume’s Blush. The pale sulfur yellow original was a small shrub, that rebloomed, set hips, and had only a moderate Tea scent. The rose presently in commerce under this name is creamy white, once-blooming, strongly Tea-scented and does not set hips. Here is a photo from the Victorian State Rose Garden at Werribee Park, Victoria:BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.25.27Now for a discussion of the modern day China roses available.

Cécile Brünner   Sweetheart Rose/ Mignon and the Maltese Rose

A delightful little rose, bred by Pernet-Ducher, France, 1881, it is a cross between a Polyantha rose and Tea rose, Mme de Tartas.  It is often confused with the taller Bloomfield Abundance, but the buds on the latter have long sepals, an identifying feature.BlogChinasReszd20%IMG_1822 Cécile Brünner is only short (120 cm tall and 60 cm wide) with spindly, thornless, compact growth; sparse, semi-glossy, dark-green foliage; and perfectly scrolled, delicate soft pink blooms in clusters in Summer. The blooms are popular with florists for use in corsages and buttonholes.BlogChinasReszd20%IMG_1944 There is a white form, as well as a climbing sport, Climbing Cécile Brünner, which is much more vigorous, reaching 7.5 metres tall and 6 metres wide, growing into trees and scrambling over arches. It is tolerant of most soils and is well-endowed with dense, dark-green foliage, which often hides the tiny shell-pink flowers. The photo below is our Climbing Cécile Brünner over the arch leading to our old guest cottage in Armidale. We have planted another specimen in our new garden at Candelo over the entrance arch on the lane, leading to our front door, and already it has covered one side of the arch totally.BlogChinasReszd50%Image (228)

Bloomfield Abundance  (Spray Cécile Brünner in the USA)

A cross between Sylvia and Dorothy Page Roberts, bred by Thomas, USA in 1920 and one of the largest bush Chinas at 1.8 metres tall and 1.2 metres wide. Smooth purplish-brown, often spindly wood; dark-green smooth foliage and large well-spaced clusters of tiny compact shell-pink flowers on long stems. Long sepals extending beyond the petals, while those of Cécile Brünner are shorter and fold back to the receptacle.BlogChinasReszd50%Image (166)Perle d’Or (Yellow Cécile Brünner ) Dubreuil, France, 1884

A cross between a Multiflora seedling and Mme Falcot, it can grow over 1.8 metres, but is usually more like 1.2 metres tall. Very similar to Cécile Brünner, it has dense growth, twiggy, almost thornless stems, ample rich dark green foliage and clusters of spaced small orange-buff yellow, turning a softer peachy pink, flowers with a slight fruity fragrance.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-27 14.04.06Hermosa (Armosa)

A hybrid between a China Rose and another unknown parent, bred by Marcheseau, France in 1840. The growth is branching and more sturdy than most Chinas with numerous, small, grey-green leaves and it bears small, mid-pink, slightly fragrant globular cupped flowers continuously through Summer.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.45.46 The blooms have a Bourbon-like appearance, though are smaller and more delicate.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.45.51BlogChinasReszd2014-10-27 12.53.24Mutabilis (Tipo Ideale)

I love this rose, whose beautiful light single papery, loose blooms of variable colours remind me of a host of butterflies.BlogChinasReszd50%april 029 Copper-yellow pointed buds open to single copper-yellow flowers, which turn to pink then crimson with age.BlogChinasReszd20%IMG_1983 A dense twiggy plant, with plum-red shoots and glossy dark green leaves (juvenile leaves are bronze), British descriptions of this rose claim its measurements as 90 cm tall by 60 cm wide, though David Austin has seen 2.5 metre high shrubs against a warm sheltered wall. It performs very well in the warmer climate of Australia, reaching over 3 metres in Walter Duncan’s Heritage Garden in Clare, South Australia. La Landriana, a garden created by Marchesa Lavinia Taverna at Ardea, near Rome, has over 300 specimens of this beautiful rose, covering two acres. See: https://www.romecentral.com/en/luoghi-segreti-vicino-roma-giardini-della-landriana/. What a sight to behold this valley  in full bloom!!! Given to Henri Correvon of Geneva by Prince Ghilberto Borromeo of Isola Bella, Italy, in 1896, there is little known about the origins of this rose.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-253

Viridiflora    R. viridiflora

Introduced in 1855, this small rose is a sport from Old Blush China, to which it is very similar in growth. A very unusual rose, the petals have been replaced by numerous green sepals, hence its other name, the Green Rose. The bracts also have rust-red tinges, which turn purplish-brown with age, and it’s a very interesting rose to use in floral arrangements.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.44.18

Use of China Roses

In Chinese medicine, all parts of the rose are used. The leaves and roots are used to treat arthritis, boils and coughs, while the hips are applied to sprains, ulcers and wounds. The flower buds are used to treat dysmenorrhoea, poor circulation, swelling and stomach pains. The other interesting fact, which I discovered in my research, is that China roses can be used as a natural acid-base indicator. The rose petals are soaked in hot water for half an hour until the water turns pink. When added to acids, the colour turns a magenta red, while mixing it with a base will turn the colour to a yellowish-green or green. See:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SggBRVQ0gtg and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDiU5-CKbY4.

Next month, we will discuss some of the different types of new roses available to the Victorians after the introduction of the Chinas: the Boursaults, Portlands, Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals.

 

Sumptuous Centifolias and Mosses

The final group of Old European Roses to be discussed, the heavy, globular, cupped, once-flowering fragrant blooms of the Centifolia Rose make it the quintessential Old Rose! They have been portrayed in art, textiles, wallpaper, postcards, decorative papers, furniture…the list is endless! Please note: The first four photos of this post are courtesy of Pixabay (https://pixabay.com). vintage-1077954_1280R. x centifolia, also known as the 100-petalled Rose or the Cabbage Rose, was once thought to be a species, but DNA studies have revealed that it is a complex hybrid, whose genetic background includes genes of R. gallica; R. phoenicia; R. moschata; R. canina and R. damascena. It first appeared in the late 16th century and over 200 varieties (including the mosses) were bred in the period between 1600 and 1800, only 22 varieties of Centifolias now commonly available. victorian-christmas-1834247_1280 They were much featured in Dutch and Flemish still-life paintings of the time (http://scvrs.homestead.com/roseart2.html), as well as later works by Renoir and Van Gogh, hence two more titles: the Holland Rose and Rose des Peintures. See: http://scvrs.homestead.com/RosesInArt3.html. painting-1654823_1280 It is also the rose featured in Victorian wallpapers, textiles, curtains, chintz sofas and tapestry bags. The first photo is a decorative paper, based on a textile printing pattern from the 1880s to the 1920s. BlogCentifoliasReszd20%IMG_0307fabric-1325745_1280BlogCentifoliasReszd20%IMG_0308 Its commercial production in Morocco and France to produce rose oil for the perfumery industry, especially in the area around Grasse, has given it its final name, the Provence Rose. There is even a special annual Rose Festival for Centifolia roses in Grasse. See: http://www.cntraveler.com/stories/2015-04-05/french-town-has-the-worlds-best-roses-grasse and http://www.villadesparfums.com/grasse-rose-festival-8-10-may-2015/. This year’s festival is from the 12th to the 14th May 2017. See: http://www.frenchriviera-tourism.com/CALENDAR/expo-rose-grasse-N4fiche_FMAPAC0060000119-rub_103.html. It is also possible to visit a Centifolia rose farm at Domaine de Manon, Plascassier, near Grasse. See: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/france/grasse/attractions/domaine-de-manon/a/poi-sig/1025273/359254 and http://www.le-domaine-de-manon.com/index-page=the-centifolia-rose.php.html. The fragrant petals of these beautiful May roses are also used to make potpourri. BlogCentifoliasReszd2014-10-19 13.11.08Centifolias have produced a number of different variants or sports (mutations), including Moss Roses; dwarf Centifolias and striped and spotted varieties of Centifolias. In R. x centifolia muscosa, a mutation of the glands has produced a thick covering of green or reddish-brown , resinous hairs (moss) on the stems, buds and sepals. The moss covering is very sticky and balsam-scented. This unusual feature made them very popular with Victorian gardeners, who loved anything different or exotic. Victorian catalogues listed 30 to 40 varieties of Moss Roses. More later…

Description :

Centifolias are lax, open shrubs, 1.5 metres to 2 metres tall, with long, drooping, very thorny canes, which bow under the weight of the blooms. They need lots of room to spread out, though can benefit from staking or training.

Their large, rounded, drooping, coarse, grey-green pinnate leaves have 5 to 7 leaflets.

The flowers are very distinctive- huge globular deeply-cupped flowers (up to 10.2 cm wide), made up of numerous tissue-thin, overlapping, tightly-packed petals. Usually pink, with some whites, a few dark red-purples and lavender-violets (eg Tour de Malakoff) and a few spotted or striped varieties, the once-flowering blooms are highly fragrant with a distinctive Centifolia fragrance (clean and sweet with a hint of honey) and their abundance makes a wonderful display in Summer.The hips are insignificant.BlogCentifoliasReszd2014-10-19 13.11.30 Centifolias are extremely hardy and require little pruning, except the removal of very old wood after flowering. They can be shortened by 1/3 growth in late Winter. They like full sun and plenty of space and air circulation to prevent mildew and black spot. There are some dwarf hybrids, which are more dense and upright,  with smaller leaves and flowers.

R. x centifolia is a graceful, lax, open shrub, 1.8 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide with large coarse leaves and 7.6 cm wide very double, heavy, highly fragrant, deep pink globular blooms, borne singly or in small clusters on long stems. See the last two photos, as well as the photo of the shrub below.BlogCentifoliasReszd2014-10-19 13.10.59Fantin Latour: Named after the French artist and well known rose painter, Henri Fantin-Latour (1836-1904), this rose has an unknown lineage. It is a well-formed shrub, 1.5 metres tall and 1.2 metres wide, with almost smooth, arching canes and smoother, rounder, dark green leaves. It grows well in a bed or border and has a relatively short blooming period in late Spring. On either side of the entrance arch to our harp-shaped herb garden in Armidale, we grew two specimens, from which we took cuttings for our new Candelo garden, where it is growing on the shed fence next to Bourbon rose, Mme Isaac Pereire.

BlogCentifoliasReszd50%Image (225)BlogCentifoliasReszd50%Image (226) It produces large clusters of very double, cupped, delicately-fragrant, pale blush pink blooms, 5 to 7.6 cm wide, which flatten out with a swirl of petals and a button eye. It is very hardy with moderate disease-resistance.BlogCentifoliasReszd50%Image (185)Sports of the Centifolia roses include :

R. x centifolia bullata is another sport, with fewer thorns and very large crinkly leaves, hence its name the Lettuce-leaved Rose; and

R. x centifolia variegata or Village Maid, a striped variant;

Rose de Meaux, a miniature Centifolia, 60 cm high and wide, with tiny foliage and tiny 3.8 cm multi-petalled, rosy-pink dianthus-like blooms;  There is also a white form.

And  the Moss Roses with a wide range of sizes, habits and colours from white to rose-red, due to their mixed breeding. Hybridization with crimson Chinas over the years has produced some deep crimson mosses, a colour lacking in their Centifolia parents, as well as some slight repeat-blooming. Today, there are 32 types commonly available, though Peter Beales lists 52 different types.

Nuits de Young has dark mossing; very dark maroon-purple, highly fragrant blooms and a tendency to sucker and spread.BlogCentifoliasReszd20%IMG_9722Mme Louis Lévêque is a small upright shrub 1.2 metres tall and 90 cm wide, with long, pointed, bright green leaves and bright pink mossy buds, which open to 10 cm large, soft warm pink, full cupped, silky  flowers, which fade to a lighter pink. There is some repeat flowering later in the season. Unfortunately, the buds ball (do not open) in wet weather.

Alfred de Dalmas, also known as Mousseline, 1855, is another repeat-blooming moss with a short tidy growth (90 cm tall and 60 cm wide) and was bred from the Portland Damasks. It blooms continuously from Summer to late Autumn with creamy-pink, semi-double scented flowers.

Chapeau de Napoléon, the most famous Moss of all! Found on a convent wall in Fribourg, Switzerland in 1820, R. x centifolia cristata, also known as the Crested Moss, was introduced to commerce by Vibert.BlogCentifoliasReszd2014-11-22 14.26.37 Identical to R. centifolia, except for the mossy growth on the sepals, it is a tidy medium shrub 1.5 metres tall and 1.2 metres wide, which blooms only once in Summer, but over an extended period, lasting  several weeks. The heavily mossed, feathery looking buds have extended calyces, giving them the appearance of Napoléon’s cocked tricorn hat, hence its name.BlogCentifoliasReszd50%Image (172) The buds open to fully double deep silvery pink, highly fragrant  cabbage like blooms. It is moderately vigorous and disease-resistant, but may require some support.BlogCentifoliasReszd50%Image (173)With the introduction of China Roses from the East to Europe, rose breeding started in earnest and there was literally an explosion in the number of different rose varieties available to the Victorian gardener. Next month, we will look at China Roses in detail and the reason they caused such excitement and made such an impact in the Western world.

Rose Nurseries

In Australia, Autumn is the time to start thinking about ordering your bare-rooted roses for planting in Winter. I like to place my order in April, so I don’t miss out if stocks are limited. Having said that, the rose ordered may still not be available, even though it is in the current catalogue, because the plants may not be sufficiently developed for sale, so it is wise to maybe think about possible substitutes for the rose company to replace your missing order. Also, remember these rose companies may have a late clearance sale for all those roses, which didn’t fill orders, and these are often at a markedly reduced price. But, if you order this way, you take the risk of not getting the rose you want! While I ordered most of my heritage roses from Bleak House for my old garden in Armidale 30 years ago, the nursery is no longer open to the public. Now, I tend to order from Treloars, Victoria, for my David Austins and more common heritage varieties, as their stock is solid and healthy and the prices slightly less than my other source, Misty Downs, which has a more extensive range of Old Roses, as well as the less common varieties. In South Australia, Knights, Ross Roses and Thomas Roses supply the state, though they will send roses to other states. This year, I am trialing Thomas Roses, as their prices are the best of the lot! With all nurseries, roses are sent out between June to mid-August.

Treloars,

216 Princes Highway, Portland, South-West Victoria    Ph (03) 5529 2367

www.treloarroses.com.au

Operating for over 50 years and in its 3rd generation, Treloars is the largest rose grower in Australia.BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4336BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4334BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4331 It is well worth visiting their show garden if you are in the area, especially between November and April, when 200 varieties are in bloom. It is open 7 days a week. The 2nd and 3rd photos below show the ground cover rose, Amber Sun, which won International Gold and Silver Awards and a Certificate of Merit at the National Rose Trial Garden of Australia in 2010.BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4337BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4328BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4329Their 2017 catalogue is now out and can be ordered online. BlogExtrasReszd30%Image (557)

Not only do they stock a huge range of roses, but also sell books and DVDs; name plates and plaques; stakes; arm guards and gloves; Felco secateurs, loppers and pruning saws; fertilizers, fungicides and eco-oil; vases; and gift vouchers. I have been very lucky to have been the recipient of the latter through my Mum for my birthday and the roses are accompanied by a lovely birthday message with photographs of the roses.

Their stock is always healthy and strong and very reasonably priced @ $15.95 per rose or more. Soho Roses, my ex-work place, used to order all their scented Hybrid Teas and David Austin roses from Treloars.BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_4332They also sell charity roses, including the Betty Cuthbert Rose ; the Gallipoli Centenary Rose ; the Jane McGrath Rose ;  the Make a Wish Australia Rose ; Parkinsons’ Passion ; Sweet Memory (for Alzheimers) ; and the Transplant Australia Thank You Rose. They also provide lots of information about rose care. See: http://www.treloarroses.com.au/index.php?route=information/information&information_id=111&generalrosecare=3.

Misty Downs

The Tangled Maze, 2301 Midland Highway, Springmount, Victoria   Ph (03) 5345 2847

Open Monday to Friday 10 am to 2.30 pm

https://mistydowns.com.au/

Has been selling old-fashioned and heritage roses, rare and unusual perennials and peonies for over 25 years. It is now under new management. I love their display gardens and it’s a great way to see all their catalogue roses in bloom.

BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2514-11-26 15.32.19BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2514-11-26 15.31.48 Roses are roughly in the $18.50 range, though there is a 10 per cent discount for roses ordered before 31st March (works out about $16.65) and there is also an end-of-season sale. The roses below are: the Hybrid Musk rose, Autumn Delight, and the Scots Rose, R. spinosissima Single Purple.BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2514-11-26 15.24.34blogspeciesrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-15-28-51 Knights Roses

44 Jack Cooper Drive, Gawler, South Australia

Monday to Friday 8.30 am to  4 pm.

http://www.knightsroses.com.au/

Operating for 50 years, Knights is the largest wholesale rose supplier in South Australia, producing over 350, 000 rose bushes annually of over 700 varieties. They are also the sole agent for a number of European breeders, including Guillot Roses, France; Rosen-Tantau, Germany; Harkness, England; and James Cocker and Sons, Scotland. Like Treloars, they have a collection of special cause roses including Daniel Morecombe; Black Caviar and Peter Brock ; as well as a large range of gift-ware from gardener’s balm and soap; rose soaps and candles; cosmetic bags and tea towels; gloves; oven mitts; pot holders; aprons and cushions; and even a rose wall clock. I may still yet buy Sonia Rykiel, a Guillot rose from Knights (see photos below), even though it is a bit more expensive ($19.95).BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_9490BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_9491Ross Roses

St Andrews’ Terrace, Willunga, South Australia  Ph (08) 8556 2555

10 am to 4.30 pm 7 days a week, except Christmas Day, New Years day, Good Friday and until noon on Anzac Day

http://rossroses.com.au

Established in 1902, Ross Roses is Australia’s oldest specialist rose nursery and has been four generations in the one family. The display garden is well worth visiting from October to December and late March to May with 5000 roses of 1000 varieties. They have a large range of Old Roses, but they are a bit more expensive @ $17 to $19.50. The newest garden is a Hybridizing and Trial Garden , which will add a further 2000 roses, bred by hybridizers and being tested for their suitability for Australian conditions. And finally…..

Thomas Roses

Lot 171 Kayannie Rd, PO Box 187, Woodside, South Australia  Ph (08) 8389 7795. Dawn till Dusk. The link below is an old catalogue, but gives you an idea of their range, but please phone them if you want a current catalogue:

http://www.roses.hains.com.au/Thomas%20For%20Roses%20Catalog.pdf

Roses are available from 1st June to 31st August and can only be paid by cash, cheque or money order. Catalogues are available for $4. Individual rose prices appear to be cheaper than the other nurseries at $15 each and there is a very comprehensive range of Old Roses available.

BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_1123I decided to place an order with them this year, as their catalogue included the names of a number of Old Roses, which I could not source anywhere else! Over the phone, I ordered Souvenir de St. Anne ; Rosa Mundi; Maigold  (top row in order); Chapeau de Napoléon, Mme Hardy and York and Lancaster (bottom row in order). I found the owner to be very helpful and am now waiting for confirmation that all my roses ordered from the catalogue are in fact available. I do so hope that they are, as they are some of my old favourites!

I can’t wait to receive my roses in June! Ross is busy preparing their bed down by the old shed. Next month, I will be discussing rose planting and cultivation. BlogRoseNurseriesReszd20%IMG_1188 The photo below is the nursery from the street…BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2014-10-27 11.25.46And the rose in the bottom photo is the Floribunda rose, La Sevilliana, a perfect eye-catcher for the front fence of this nursery!BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2014-10-27 11.26.16BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2014-10-27 11.26.29BlogRoseNurseriesReszd2014-10-27 11.26.08 Please note:  I have not included Rustons Roses in this post, as it is not a retail rose nursery, but supplies budwood to all the major nurseries, as well as holding the National Rose Collection of Australia, and warrants its own post later on.

Next week’s post is on the Elegant Albas, one of my favourite types of Old Rose!

Rose Websites

A shorter post this week with plenty of information for you to chase up and digest! These are my favourite rose websites!

  1. Heritage Roses in Australia Inc.    http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/

This is the Number 1 website for Australian Old Rose growers! Formed in 1979 for lovers and collectors of Old Roses, its aim is to preserve, cultivate, distribute and study Old Roses, including roses no longer in general cultivation, roses of historical importance, and species roses and their hybrids. There was also a particular interest in finding and conserving Australian bred roses, for example those of Alister Clark, Frank Riethmuller and Mrs Fitzhardinge.

There are regional groups in New South Wales (Blue Mountains, Illawarra-Southern Highlands, Orange-Central Tablelands, Sydney, Riverina), Queensland (Brisbane, Darling Downs), Tasmania (Northern Region, Southern Region), South Australia (Adelaide, Barossa & Beyond), ACT (Canberra), Victoria (Goldfields and Beyond, Greater Melbourne, Mornington Peninsula, State Rose Garden, Western Districts) and Western Australia (Perth, Great Southern, South West).

The website includes tabs for :

News and Events around the world and in Australia;

Membership : Benefits include garden visits and lectures by renowned speakers about Old Roses and their visits to Old Rose gardens around the world and attendance of national (every two years) and international conferences;

Quarterly Journal: Informative and interesting articles from renowned experts, details of coming events and regional reports;

Articles: Index and Gallery of roses; Rose breeding/ propagation/ pruning; History of Rose: General/ Australian breeders: Alister Clark; and Videos.

Links Page: http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/links : particularly useful for more rose websites.

  1. National Rose Society of Australia      http://www.rose.org.au/

Another important website for Australian rose growers, though it encompasses modern roses as well.

This national body was formed in 1972 with representatives from all the state societies. It is also a member of the World Federation of Rose Societies. Its aim is to encourage, improve and increase the cultivation of the rose in Australia by means of exhibitions, publications and the co-ordination of all State Rose Societies.

Each state society has its own website, each of which is quite comprehensive with details of shows and meetings; articles on rose care, choice, breeding and pruning; a rose care calendar, videos and publications and a query forum; a list of public rose gardens and rose growers and suppliers and most importantly, more links to reference sites; other rose and garden societies; gardens to visit and vendors’ web sites. Here are the links to the state societies:

Victoria:  http://www.rosesocietyvic.org.au/

NSW: http://www.nsw.rose.org.au/

SA:  http://sarose.org.au/

WA:  http://www.wa.rose.org.au/

QLD: http://www.qld.rose.org.au/

There is also information about the latest rose conventions around the world. For example, the 18th  World Rose Convention: A Fairytale of Roses : to be held in Copenhagen, Denmark from 28 June to 4 July in 2018 : http://www.wrc2018.dk/.

The above website also has as a list of Australian Bred Roses: http://www.rose.org.au/ausroses.html. In fact, if these are your particular interest, there is also a specific site for Australian Bred roses:

  1. Australian Rose Breeders’ Association Inc : http://www.arba.rose.org.au/. It includes articles on Australian roses and their breeders; hybridizing and propagating roses and more links : http://www.arba.rose.org.au/links.html.
  1. World Federation of Rose Societies http://www.worldrose.org/.

The umbrella organization for all the rose societies of the world, this site includes a Heritage Rose Newsletter and a Rose Conservation Data Base and all the news and events from around the world. They also have a world rose directory : http://www.worldrose.org/rosedirectory/directory.asp

  1. Heritage Rose New Zealand Inc http://www.heritageroses.org.nz/

Well worth looking at for Australian growers, as New Zealand is part of our region and grows beautiful roses. Features include: a Rose Register and lists of fragrant Old Roses; gardens to visit in New Zealand; and local rose suppliers and growers, not to mention some great recipes for rose water and rose vinegar (See: http://www.heritageroses.org.nz/pdfs/RoseWater.pdf) ; rose petal yoghurt and rose petal sugar and rose hip syrup, which I have yet to try! I remember making rosehip jelly as a teenager and removing all the irritating hairy seeds from the small dog rose hips was a very time-consuming job, as the tiny amount of remaining flesh necessitated the use of a huge number of hips! Heritage Rose New Zealand also produce a rather luscious-looking quarterly journal!

6. There is also another website called The Rose Garden on New Zealand Roses Online in NZ : http://www.netlist.co.nz/Gardens/rosegarden/, which is worth investigating. It has articles on the different rose groups; photos of roses and rose gardens and links to other websites, mail order suppliers and special garden events.

7.The American Rose Society : http://www.ars.org/ is the equivalent of the National Rose Society of Australia and is worth consulting for its resources : http://www.rose.org/resources/.

8. Heritage Rose Foundation :  http://www.heritagerosefoundation.org/ is an American organization, established in 1986, for the preservation of Old Roses, as well as ongoing research and education. They have a monthly newsletter, as well as a biannual journal Rosa Mundi, which has some wonderful articles on Old Roses and gardens. For example: La Bonne Maison : http://media.wix.com/ugd/e6654e_3e8ede54ba3df1d99c601b1e9032417b.pdf and The Roses of the Ardennes Region in France: http://media.wix.com/ugd/e6654e_61393f7cd851087d3baedc0e917a40ec.pdf.

9. Roses Anciennes en Francehttp://www.rosesanciennesenfrance.org/ is the French equivalent, but does require a fluid grasp of written French! It is a very active group with lots of activities, articles and photo galleries and links to French rose gardens, associations and suppliers like : Pépinières Les Rosiers des Merles : http://www.roseraie-de-berty.com, Roses Anciennes André Eve : http://www.roses-anciennes-eve.com and the Loubert Rose Garden : http://www.rosesloubert.com/ . Note that Roses Loubert does sell these roses at : http://www.pepiniere-rosesloubert.com/.

Rose Anciennes en France also has an English version of The History of the Rose in Lyon : http://www.rosesanciennesenfrance.org/en/history_of_the_rose.htm.

10. Another French organization devoted to Old Roses is Rosa Gallica: http://www.rosagallica.org , and while mainly written in French, it includes an English newsletter for its foreign English-speaking members: http://www.rosagallica.org/page11/page11.html.html.

11. England has the Royal National Rose Society : http://www.rnrs.org.uk. Established in 1876, it is the world’s oldest specialist plant society. It is best known for its flagship Gardens of the Rose at Chiswell Green in Hertfordshire, on the outskirts of St Albans: http://www.rnrs.org.uk/visit-us/.

12. Rogers Roses : http://www.rogersroses.com/ is the website written by Roger Philips and Martyn Rix, British authors of two books in my rose library, which I discussed early in the month: ‘The Quest for the Rose’ and  ‘The Rose’, part of their Garden Series, which also includes a host of books on other garden plants. The website features almost 5,000 varieties of roses and around 6,000 photos, providing a perfect reference for rose identification. There are also details of the nurseries around the world stocking particular rose varieties.

13. Help Me Find : http://www.helpmefind.com/rose/index.php is also a very useful site, not just for roses, but clematis and peonies as well. Their catalogue includes over 44,000 roses and has more than 160,000 photos, along with thousands of rose nurseries, public and private gardens, rose societies, authors, breeders, hybridizers and publications from all over the world. They also have a huge number of links covering anatomy, care, pests and diseases, hardiness, rose trials, species roses and a category titled: ‘Other’, which encompasses so much, I will leave it to you to explore at your leisure!

14. For dreamy reflections on roses, I cannot go past Rose Gathering : http://www.rosegathering.com/ , which is a delightful site with articles on all the rose classes, as well as on the symbolism of the rose; recommendations about books on roses, general gardening, specific plants and rarer books like the Wilhelm Keller rare rose catalogues of 1828, 1829 and 1833. There is also a list of artworks featuring roses, including postage stamps, and a list of rose societies and references to specific rose gardens. The Links section is also enormous and well worth exploring! See: http://www.rosegathering.com/links.html.

15. Paul Barden has written a website called Old Garden Roses and Beyond : http://paulbardenroses.com/main.html. It is devoted to Old Roses of the 19th Century and before, but also discusses the best modern roses of the 20th and 21st Centuries, as well as David Austin’s English Roses. He also provides lots of information about the growing, pruning, propagating and breeding of the rose, as well as another large resource section. A breeder and rose hybridizer himself, Paul also writes a blog called A Hybridizer’s Journal : http://paulbarden.blogspot.com.au/.

16. The Antique Rose Emporium is a name, which often comes up in the links : https://www.antiqueroseemporium.com/. It is an American mail order rose company, with a lovely mail order catalogue.

17. Botanical.com: A Modern Herbal , written by Mrs M Grieve (http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/r/roses-18.html) has plenty of information about rose history, rose types and the uses of roses throughout the world in medicine and cooking. She includes recipes for potpourri, crystallized roses and even rose petal sandwiches!

18. Brent C Dickerson has written a number of articles on Old Roses : http://web.csulb.edu/~odinthor/oldrose.html.

19. There are also many websites written by rose specialists:

Peter Boyd is an expert on Scots and other Pimpinellifolia roses : http://www.peterboyd.com/scotsroses.htm.

Jerry Haynes has an article on Tea Roses : http://www.rose.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/History-of-Roses-Tea-Roses.pdf.

20. And finally, there are the countless rose nursery websites. For example: Peter Beales: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/ and David Austin : https://www.davidaustinroses.com/.

Happy Reading !!!

Heritage Rose Gardens

Wandering around heritage rose gardens is an excellent way to appreciate not only the wide variety of roses, but also to learn about their history and development. Two wonderful examples are the Victorian State Rose Garden at Werribee Park, Victoria, and the relatively new Heritage Rose Garden at Saumarez Homestead, Armidale, in country New South Wales.

Victorian State Rose Garden

Werribee Park, K Road, Werribee, Victoria 3030

April to September 9.30am – 5pm; October to April 9.30am – 6.30pm weekdays; Open every day. Free.

www.vicstaterosegarden.com.au

This place is a must for anyone interested in roses, especially their history and development, as well as their huge diversity. Officially opened on the 9th November 1986, the 4.75 hectare garden contains more than  5 500 rose bushes.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-58-48blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-047 The initial design was based on a stylized traditional Tudor rose with 5 petals, each with 25 beds of modern roses: Hybrid Teas, Floribundas and 11 standard or pillar roses on tripods. Here is a map of the design from the official brochure.blogvsrg80reszdimage-198 The outer edge of each petal is delineated by chain and wire festoons and swags of rambling and climbing roses, interspersed with 20 tall weeping standards. blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-045blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-270blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-268blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-267blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-269Separating each petal are 5 avenues of standard modern roses (Brass Band, Bridal Pink, La Sevillana (photo 2), Memoire and Perfume Perfection), each leading to an archway of climbing roses (Tradition, High Hopes, Golden Gate, Mme Alfred Carrière (photo 4) and Rusticana).blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-14-00-53blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-271blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-14-02-10blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-053From 1997 to 2000, a 450 m long, 3 m wide Heritage Rose border was added on two sides of the rose garden to show the origins of the modern rose. The photos below show in order: The Provence Rose (Centifolia), R. fedtschenkoana (Species) and Duchesse de Brabant (Tea Rose), also known as Countess Bertha.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-12-12blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-33-00blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-22-57 The heritage rose border has 500 plants of 250 different types of Old and Species roses and separates the Victorian State Rose Garden from the formal gardens of Werribee Park. The photos below show Geranium (Species: R. moyesii); and the China roses: Viridiflora and Slater’s Crimson China.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-259blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-44-18bloghxroses20reszd2014-10-19-13-14-31 The roses are generally planted in family groups, but the main emphasis is on visual appeal. While I cannot remember the names of the white roses in Box 1 below :

Box 2 includes Fortune’s Double Yellow (China Rose 1845: photos 1 and 4); and  R. fedtschenkoana (Species Rose from Asia, 1876: Photo 2).

Box 3 features: The Provence Rose (Centifolia, Pre 1600s); Morletti (Boursault, 1883); Archiduc Joseph (Tea, 1872) and Nancy Hayward (Gigantea hybrid, Alister Clark, Australia, 1937).

The names of the roses, as well as their variety, breeder, country of origin and date of discovery or introduction, are engraved on bricks in the garden edging. The best time to appreciate these once-flowering roses in full bloom and scent is late October to mid November.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-253blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-254The Federation Leaf, planted in November 2000 to commemorate the Centenary of Federation, has 56 beds (and 8 tripods) of 64 different Australian-bred cultivars, which were introduced in the last 100 years (1901 to 2001).  The earliest Australian-bred rose in the collection is Penelope Tea, bred by John Williams, Queensland, 1906. Other breeders include: Eric Welsh and Frank Riethmuller of NSW; Fred Armbrust, John Williams and Eric Long of Qld; George Thomson in SA and R. Watson in Tasmania; Alister Clark, Ron Bell, Bill Allender, Jim Priestley, Ian Spriggs, Bruce Brundrett, George Dawson and Laurie Newman in Vic and Peter Gibson in WA. There is also a trial bed in Leaf B, where six lots of three cultivars are grown for a two-year trial period to assess their suitability to the Victorian climate.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-55-27blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-55-33A David Austin Bud, added in 2001, has 267 roses of 58 cultivars of English Roses, bred by David Austin. The leaf and rosebud are connected to the Tudor rose beds by a stem, created by pathways.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-262blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-51-39blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-51-26 The viewing mounds are also a wonderful spot for children to roll down and the central gazebo a focal point for weddings.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-272blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-263blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-059 Victoria Gold, bred by Eric Walsh, Australia in 1999  to celebrate the centenary of the Victorian Rose Society, graces the gazebo, as well as featuring in the Federation Leaf.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-14-00-12blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-14-00-26blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-14-00-19The garden received the International Garden of Excellence Award from the World Federation of Rose Societies in 2003, the first rose garden outside of Europe to receive this award and the only one at that time cared for by volunteers.blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-048blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-052blogvsrg50reszdaprilmay-058 Today, over 120 Victorian State Rose Garden Supporters prune, feed, spray, deadhead and weed the rose beds on a Wednesday and a Saturday and the grounds are managed by Parks Victoria. The recent State Rose and Garden Show, on the 19th and 20th November 2016, had 12 500 visitors over the two days. For more wonderful photos of this garden, see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMzVuq1PR6M&feature=youtu.be.

For more about Werribee Park, see my post on Historic Homes and Gardens on: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/02/09/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-historic-homes-and-gardens.

Heritage Rose Garden

Saumarez Homestead, 230 Saumarez Rd. Armidale, NSW 2350  Ph: (02) 6772 3616

Open every day of the week, 10 am-5 pm, except Christmas Day and Good Friday .

Grounds only: Adult $7; Concessions $5 (Seniors and Student cards accepted); Children 5 to 12 years $5 (Under 5 years free); Family ticket $15 (2 Adults & 2 Children); National Trust Members Free Entry to Grounds

House tours Weekends and Public Holidays from early September to the middle of June at 10.30 am, 2 pm and 3.30 pm. (3.9.2016 – 12.6.2017). Closed mid June to the end of August.

House tour and grounds – Adult $12, Concession $8; Pre-booked tours & group house tours $8; School groups $6

https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/places/saumarez-homestead/

Created over four years by volunteers from the Northern branch of the Australian Garden History Society (AGHS), after a generous donation of 850 Old Roses in 2011 by passionate rosarian, Miss Catherine Maclean (who grew over 1000 roses on her small city block in Armidale),  Stage One of the Heritage Rose garden was officially opened on the 1st November 2015.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0563It is situated on the old orchard site of Saumarez Homestead, on the outskirts of Armidale, right next to the Armidale Airport- in fact, the road to Saumarez is accessed from the airport. This photo below is of the original grand driveway.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0938 The homestead is a beautiful old Late Victorian-Edwardian house, built in 1888 and extended to a second storey in 1906. It was the original family home of the F.J.White Family and was donated to the National Trust in 1984.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0937blogvsrg20reszdimg_0561 It is one of my favourite National Trust NSW country properties, with much of the original furniture and fittings, and if you are visiting the Heritage Rose Garden for the day, it is well worth taking a guided tour of the old house at the same time.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0945blogvsrg20reszdimg_0944 We were fortunate to visit Saumarez many times during our Armidale years, as well as participating in a ‘Below the Stairs’ tour, experiencing the life of a servant and viewing areas, not often seen by the general public. There are many intact farm outbuildings, quintessential to an old working country property, to visit as well : workers’ cottages, an office, a store, a meat house, a slaughterhouse and boiling-down vat, a poultry yard, stables, a wagon shed and blacksmith’s shop, a hay shed and engine room, a bull stall, a milking shed and an ensilage pit! This is one of the old glasshouses:blogvsrg20reszdimg_0941It is also well worth exploring the old garden (2 hectares; 4.4 acres), as seen in the map from the official brochure:

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For more detailed information about the Saumarez Garden, see: https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/places/saumarez-homestead-gardens/. It has 9 distinct areas. I loved the aviary and glasshouses of the Front West section; the geometric parterre beds, so typical of the time period, and shrubbery of the Front East section; and the formal lawn and mature deciduous trees on the old tennis court of the Front South section. My favourite part of the original garden was Mary’s Garden, rescued from blackberry oblivion, and containing annuals and perennials, winding stone paths, an artificial stream and bridge and a delightfully quaint garden shed.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0568blogvsrg20reszdimg_0569blogvsrg20reszdimg_0918 I was introduced to the notion of a Picking Garden at Saumarez, inspiring my long-desired Cutting Garden.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0926 There is also a vegetable garden, a long avenue of mature pines, planted in 1898, and a service area for the clothes line, wood and tool sheds, meat room, dairy, outdoor toilet and even the old school room.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0541Saumarez has a fascinating history and to my mind is the perfect setting for the new Heritage Rose Garden. Supported financially and physically by the National Trust, the Australian Garden History Society, the Armidale/ Dumaresq Council (mulching and watering) and many local organizations and individuals, it is the only public rose garden north of the Hunter Valley, in NSW, and will ultimately be part of a nationwide rose trail, starting in the South at Woolmers, Tasmania and including all the significant public rose gardens from Adelaide and Renmark to Melbourne (Werribee will definitely be on the trail!), Canberra, Sydney and Parramatta, Cessnock and Maitland (the Hunter Valley Garden at Pokolbin) and finally the Newtown State Rose Garden in Toowoomba, Queensland, in the north. I suspect we may have already visited a number of these gardens, which I will be writing about in my blog this year!blogvsrg20reszdimg_0532blogvsrg20reszdimg_0531blogvsrg20reszdimg_0856But back to the Heritage Rose Garden! We visited Stage One of this new garden in Autumn 2016, so it was not the ideal time, except for rose hips like the rugosa hips (1st 2 photos above) and those of Bourbon rose Gypsy Boy  (3rd photo), but we look forward to watching its progress and development and revisiting in peak old rose blooming time next November. The full collection, when completed, will include over 500 (some sources say 600, others 800!) roses from each of the major rose cultivar groups, the majority from before 1930 (mainly pre-1900!). Here are some photos of the garden from our Autumn visit.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0548blogvsrg20reszdimg_0538blogvsrg20reszdimg_0543blogvsrg20reszdimg_0537 44 rose beds are laid out in concentric circles. divided radially and concentrically by gravel paths, in the pattern of a Tudor English rose, designed by Ian Telford. Here is a map of the design from the official brochure : blogvsrg30reszdimage-199This garden has an different approach to the Victorian State Rose Garden for rose labelling and identification for the visitor, using a code method, which is quite ingenious, though it does rely on your possession of the Garden Plant and Rose Finder brochure, which is given to you on payment of the entry fee. The garden is divided into quadrants A B C and D, with each rose bed allocated a code, indicating its quadrant and bed number, as well as each rose having its own individual code, name and year. For example, B6-2 is Rose Number 2 in Bed Number 6 in Quadrant B, so it is Madame Louis Lévêque, 1898. Alfred de Dalmas, 1855, is coded B6-10. ie: Rose Number 10 in the same Moss bed. Rose numbers are allocated left to right, starting on the internal edge of the bed, facing the central timber structure and continuing anti-clockwise around each bed. Roses in the middle of large beds have an extra M in their code. The code ‘tbi’ means ‘to be identified’.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0535Stage Two of the rose garden will be adjacent to the Formal Garden of Saumarez and will contain a series of beds relating the history of the rose, as well as featuring the rose progeny of prominent Australian rose breeders, including Alister Clark (1864-1949), Frank Reithmuller (1884-1964) and Olive Fitzhardinge (1881-1926). It will also include beds of Hybrid Musks, bred by Joseph Pemberton (1852-1926), because of their enduring popularity. Here are some more photos:blogvsrg20reszdimg_0533blogvsrg20reszdimg_0545blogvsrg20reszdimg_0544blogvsrg20reszdimg_0540blogvsrg20reszdimg_0542 We popped in for a second visit last week to see the garden in high Summer this year and were happy to see more roses in bloom, especially the Teas, Hybrid Teas and Hybrid Musks.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0855blogvsrg20reszdimg_0916The photo below is the Hybrid Musk bed, dominated by the hot pink blooms of Vanity 1920.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0911Some of the roses in bloom included in order: Duke of York (China rose; 1894); Stanwell Perpetual (Scots rose bed; 1838); Baronne Prévost (Hybrid Perpetual; 1842); Schoener’s Nutkana (Species Rose; 1930); Irish Elegance (Hybrid Tea; 1905); and Gruss an Aachen (Floribunda; 1909) in the Floribunda Bed with Lamarque (photo 7) and Crépuscule (photo 8) on the arch at the back of the bed.blogvsrg20reszdimg_0862blogvsrg20reszdimg_0912blogvsrg20reszdimg_0886blogvsrg20reszdimg_0905blogvsrg20reszdimg_0884blogvsrg20reszdimg_0887blogvsrg20reszdimg_0885blogvsrg20reszdimg_0890For more information about the development of this garden, see:http://newengland.focusmag.com.au/heritage-rose-gardens/.

Their blog is: http://saumarezheritagerosegarden.blogspot.com.au/ and their Facebook site is : https://www.facebook.com/Heritage-Rose-Garden-at-Saumarez-889531854478905/. Next month, we will be exploring the public rose gardens of South Australia: the Mount Lofty Botanic Garden and the Adelaide Botanic Garden!

Fabulous Rose Books

Since roses, and particularly Old Roses, are the major focus of my blog this year, I thought it would be useful to discuss a few of my favourite rose books, as a start to my monthly posts on books this year, as well as to provide a reference point and future reading material for those readers, who share my passion or whose interest is piqued! Note: The name Old Roses refer to Heritage or Old-Fashioned  Roses, mostly hailing from the pre-1900s, rather than chronologically old or new bushes!   First up,

 ‘Classic Roses’ by Peter Beales 1985 and 1997

This thick heavy book is THE Old Rose bible and if you can only ever get one rose book, this is it! I could not manage without it! In fact, I actually have two copies: My much-battered original 1st edition hardback from 1985 (photo 1) and an updated, revised and enlarged 2nd edition paperback (photo 2) given to me by my Mum, from whom I inherited my passion for roses (passing it on in turn to my daughter Caro!) in 1997. The first edition includes chapters titled: the History and Evolution of the Rose; Roses in the Landscape; the Cultivation of Roses and a detailed Dictionary of all the major rose cultivar groups and their members; as well as having an appendix of all the major rose gardens in the world at that time.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-208

The 2nd edition is very similar in content, but includes different photographs, more roses including ground-cover or procumbent roses and extra information. For example: the Early Development of the Modern Rose; the Mystery Roses of Bermuda; and Rustling Roses, as well as a World Climatic Map, Height and Colour Charts and lists of Rose Societies and Rose Producers and Suppliers throughout the world in the back.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-218

I consult these books constantly when planning new rose gardens or ordering new roses, though do be aware that Peter’s height and width specifications are for the cooler British and Northern European climate. I find my roses are often much taller and wider here in sunny warm Australia. For example, Mutabilis, my ‘butterfly’ China rose is specified in Peter’s book as 90 cm tall and 60cm wide, whereas I have seen huge shrubs of it here in Australia. Walter Duncan has a bush at least 2 m tall and 2 m wide in his Heritage Garden (photo below).blogrosebooks20reszdimg_9737blogrosebooks20reszdimg_9512 Having said that, Peter Beales (1936 – 2013) was, and still is (through his books), THE  Old Rose authority in the United Kingdom, having grown them from the age of 16 years. He has a wonderful nursery in Attleborough, Norfolk and has been awarded 23 Gold Medals by the RHS Chelsea Flower Show from 1989 to 2016. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/ . Even if you (like me!) cannot visit the nursery, it is well worth exploring this site for its wealth of information on roses and their cultivation. I would have loved to wander round his beautiful, romantic display gardens, but I do have a delightful old VHS video produced by Peter Beales called ‘A Celebration of Old Roses’ , set to the dreamy music of Elgar. While no longer available, the Peter Beales website does sell a DVD called ‘Growing Roses with Peter Beales’, which is out of stock at the moment.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-232 Peter also wrote a lovely large coffee-table book titled ‘Visions of Roses 1996, which explores a large number of exquisite rose gardens in the world, including La Bonne Maison in France; Helmingham Hall and Nymans in England; and Ninfa in Italy (see photos below of its front and back cover). The photography by Vivian Russell is superb and there are boxed descriptions of specific roses. It is a beautiful inspiring book with some wonderful ideas and of course, stunning roses! I would dearly love to purchase his autobiography, ‘Rose Petals and Muddy Footprints’, published in 2008.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-219blogrosebooks25reszdimage-222

David Austin is the other BIG name in roses in the United Kingdom and is possibly even better known to the general public than Peter Beales through his breeding of English Roses, beautiful constantly- flowering roses with all the best attributes of Old Roses. Fortunately, he is still with us, now the ripe old age of 90 (born 1926)! He too has his own nursery on the other side of the country at Albrighton, Wolverhampton in Shropshire, and has won 22 Gold Medals from the Chelsea Flower Show. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.co.uk/. I have two of his books :

David Austin’s English Roses: Australian Edition 1996 by David Austin

The English Roses: Classic Favourites and New Selections 2009 by David Austin.

I love these books for their photography alone, as well as background information about the different varieties. blogrosebooks25reszdimage-209

They are such beautiful roses and form the basis of my Moon Bed. I would love to visit his display gardens one day, but in the meantime can enjoy a taster through his wonderful photographs in the 2009 book !blogrosebooks25reszdimage-216

Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix are also very well-known authorities on all things to do with the garden. In fact, they have produced a wonderfully informative series of books on garden plants from shrubs to perennials and bulbs and … roses!

Roses: The Garden Plant Series by Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix 1994

The Quest for the Rose by Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix 1993

A more compact rose encyclopaedia than Classic Roses, the Rose guide contains colour photographs of the cut flowers, as well as rose shrubs and their landscapes. I also find this book useful, as it has a large section on the more modern roses : Hybrid Teas, Floribundas and Miniature Roses.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-213

The Quest for the Rose is a BBC book, which was made into a film, about their research into the history and origins of the rose, including their journey to the foothills of the Himalayas in Western China to find wild relations of China and Tea roses. It also has interesting snippets about all the important rose breeders, an area about which my knowledge is fairly sketchy!blogrosebooks25reszdimage-217

The other rose encyclopaedia, which I should, but do not have in my rose library is : the RHS Encyclopedia of Roses by Charles and Brigid Quest-Ritson 2011, described as: ‘the definitive A-Z guide to over 2,000 species’. For a look at the cover, see : https://www.dk.com/uk/9781405373852-rhs-encyclopedia-of-roses/. I have borrowed this book from the library, but as the number of new rose breeds increases exponentially every year, I suspect this five year old publication is already outdated and since my major interest is Old Roses, I feel I have it adequately covered by the books that I already have!  Maybe, I will access the online version, found at : http://www.b-alexander.com/encyclopedia-of-roses.pdf.

My next book hails from across the English Channel in Lyon, France :

La Bonne Maison: Jardin de Roses Anciennes by Odile Masquelier 2001

La Bonne Maison is a beautiful old rose garden, developed by Odile Masquelier, a French authority on heritage roses , over the past 50 years. As she recounts in her book, she spent the first six years of her life toddling after her mother in this old orchard and vegetable garden high on a Lyons hillside, before rediscovering it and buying the old property in 1966 as the mother of two young children.  Over the years, the city has expanded and it is now a residential area, dwarfed by a huge block of flats behind.blogrosebooks25reszdp1190564 While it is highly unlikely, I will get to visit her garden in the physical sense, my daughter Jen acted as my proxy on her first European trip in the Spring of 2012.blogrosebooks25reszdp1190543 Unfortunately, it was a little too early for the roses, but she did get to see some beautiful Spring blossom and bulbs (mainly tulips, narcissi and early peonies) and the bones of the garden, as well as meet the charming Odile with her 13 year old grand-daughter, who did speak English and gave Jen a guided tour of the garden.blogrosebooks25reszdp1190593 She bought me her book as a much-desired and hinted-for birthday present. Unfortunately, unless you are fluent in French or can get it translated, this beautiful book is for French readers only! I spent a wonderful week translating it all and it was well worth the effort! Fortunately, Odile does have a website with an English version. See: http://www.labonnemaison.org/  and click on the English Version link.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-223

This wonderful garden is also described in The Secret Gardens of France by Mirabel Osler 1992, along with a chapter dedicated to the rose garden of Andre Eve, a very prominent French rose breeder in Pithiviers, SW of Paris, famous for ‘Les Roses Anciennes de Andre Eve’. See French website: http://www.roses-anciennes-eve.com/epages/rosesanciennes.sf .blogrosebooks30reszdimage-235

While on the subject of French rose writers, Eléonore Cruse has a beautiful wild rose garden called ‘La Roseraie de Berty’ in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Southern France, and has  written a number of books including: Roses Anciennes and Les Roses Sauvages. For information about these books and Eleanor’s garden,  see : http://www.roseraie-de-berty.com.

And now to a number of books by Australian collector, Susan Irvine, who used to own Bleak House, a Victorian nursery from which I sourced many of my old roses in our old garden at ‘Creekside’ in Armidale.

Garden of a Thousand Roses: Making a Rose Garden in Australia 1992

A Hillside of Roses 1994

Susan Irvine’s Rose Gardens : Garden of a Thousand Roses with A Hillside of Roses 1998

Fragrant Roses 1996

Rose Gardens of Australia 1997

The Garden at Forest Hall 2002

Rosehips and Crabapples: A Rose-Lover’s Diary 2007

These are all delightful books, in which Susan writes about her long-term love affair with roses! The first book describes the garden she developed at Bleak House, Malmsbury, Victoria, while its sequel  ‘A Hillside of Roses’ follows the formation of her second garden at ‘Erinvale’, Gisborne, Victoria, which also housed her collection of Alister Clark roses (photos and description in the appendix).blogrosebooks30reszdimage-227

In 1998, both titles were published in the one book: ‘Susan Irvine’s Rose Gardens : Garden of a Thousand Roses with A Hillside of Roses ‘.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-233

In ‘Fragrant Roses’, Susan discusses 62 of her favourite roses (including modern roses), many of which I also love. It is always interesting comparing notes about favourite roses with other rose lovers and wonderful when you meet people with a similar taste and selection of favourites!*blogrosebooks50reszdimage-225‘Rose Gardens of Australia’ is a particular favourite, as it has formed the basis of many of our Australian pilgrimages like David Ruston’s Garden in Renmark; Red Cow Farm in the Southern Highlands (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/12/20/a-garden-weekend-in-the-southern-highlands-part-1/); Carrick Hill and Heide (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/02/09/favourite-gardens-regularly-open-to-the-public-historic-homes-and-gardens/) ; and Bolobek and Cruden Farm (https://candeloblooms.com/2016/08/02/part-2-favourite-private-gardens-historic-gardens-part-2/), as well as Walter Duncan’s Hughes Park, though by the time we visited him, he was living in his new garden at the Heritage Garden, near Clare. We still have plenty more places in the book to visit like Ruth Irving’s Al-Ru Farm at One Tree Hill in South Australia and Heather Cant’s florist garden at Gowan Brae, near Bowral, NSW !  All in all, it is a lovely browsy coffee-table book like Peter Beales’ ‘Visions of Roses’. There is even a Select List of Roses for Australian Gardens  with landscaping suggestions, descriptions and comments for each rose in the back.blogrosebooks20reszdimage-229

By the time Susan wrote ‘The Garden at Forest Hall ‘ (1996), she had moved to a beautiful old derelict Georgian sandstone mansion at Elizabeth Town, near Deloraine, Northern Tasmania, where she restored the house and revived the neglected  garden, the experience documented in her diaries from 2003 to 2005, the basis of her book ‘Rosehips and Crabapples’. She collaborated with photographer Simon Griffiths for her last three books and his photographs are superb.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-228 In 1994,  Susan received the Australian Rose Award from the National Rose Society of Australia and in 2001, became a Life Member of Heritage Roses Australia. She even had a rose named after her in 1996 : the Hybrid Gigantea rose called ‘Susan Irvine‘, which is very fitting given that she has had so much to do with the collection and conservation of Alister Clark roses, many of which involved R. gigantea in their parentage. While it is unlikely any more books will be forthcoming (Susan is in her late 80s), she has certainly left a legacy of beauty in both her gardens and her writings. I particularly loved the antique-looking thick paper and presentation of her final diary.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-226*With reference to the preferences of different rose lovers, especially when it comes to favourite roses, I really enjoyed reading Roses: A Celebration by Wayne Winterwood 2003, in which  34 gardeners and rose lovers write about their favourite rose. Contributors include: Peter Beales, Graham Stuart Thomas, David Austin, Christopher Lloyd, Mirabel Osler, Ken Druse and Dan Hinkley.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-211

Growing Old-Fashioned Roses in Australia and New Zealand by Trevor Nottle 1983

This was one of my first rose books- in fact, it was published the year we were married (so it’s a very old book now!), but it did the job and was very well-thumbed at the start of the increased popularity of Old Roses in the 1980s, before all the luscious rose books came into print.

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Trevor Nottle is a South Australian rosarian, garden historian and heritage consultant, who has written 17 gardening books, many about old roses and Mediterranean and dry-climate gardening, including another book we own : ‘Plants for a Changing Climate’. See his blog at : https://trevornottle.wordpress.com/.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-234

Two more definitive influences in the development of my rose passion and knowledge were : Gardening with Old Roses: An Australasian Guide by Alan Sinclair and Rosemary Thodey  1993   and  Climbing and Rambling Roses: A Guide for Cultivation, Selection and Care by Sally Allison 1993.

The authors of both books hail from New Zealand, a country well-known for its beautiful rose gardens. Alan Sinclair has a huge private rose garden and nursery ‘Roseneath’ , north of Auckland in the North Island, while Sally Allison has been  a past President of Heritage Roses NZ and has a 10 acre country garden Lyddington, near Rangiora, 27 km north of Christchurch on the South Island. Alan’s book is a very useful reference on landscaping with Old Roses, as well as their care and history and has lovely photographs by Rosemary Thodey.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-205 Sally’s book is an excellent guide to climbing roses and ramblers with good notes on their history, cultivation and care, and support and display, and has a terrific dictionary, backed up with her photos, as well as a list of rose gardens to visit in New Zealand.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-204Another early guide (and somewhat soiled copy!) was The Book of Old-Fashioned Roses by Dr. Judyth A. McLeod 1984, a very simple  publication, which relies solely on its written descriptions to entice the reader and is more like a catalogue than an illustrated guide. Judyth is a passionate garden historian, who has written a number of books on Old Roses, lavender and heirloom and cottage garden plants and also had a nursery at Grosevale, in the Lower Blue Mountains, near Richmond called Honeysuckle Cottage, from which we bought some of our old Armidale roses, unavailable through Bleak House, back in the 1990s. Unfortunately, the nursery has now closed, but you can see a video clip about the nursery from 2012 at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQm1rlhG_Hk.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-214

Through the Rose Arbour: Notes From a Gardening Life 2001 by Rosemary Houseman is a delightful little book, into which to delve headlong, her prose rambling amongst stunning photos, which document her journey into the world of Old Roses. She started her own nursery The Rose Arbour in Melbourne, Victoria in 1982.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-212An even tinier rose guide is the pocket-sized  A Little Guide to Old Roses by Hazel le Rougetel 1992. It is a sweet little book with hand-coloured illustrations of 28 iconic and favourite Old Roses. Hazel le Rougetel (1917 – 2010) wrote and lectured about old roses and was a founding member of the Historic Roses Group. Ros Wallinger wrote a piece about Hazel’s life on Page 4 of the Spring/ Summer No. 4 Newsletter for the Hampshire Garden Trust. See: http://www.hgt.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Spring-Summer-newsletter.pdf.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-202blogrosebooks25reszd2017-01-14-17-00-09The Old Rose world is a close-knit community and it was not surprising to learn that Hazel was good friends with Peter Beales and Graham Stuart Thomas, another foremost authority on Old Roses in England. He wrote the foreword to her book  A Heritage of Roses 1988, as seen in the photo above. Graham Stuart Thomas himself wrote the definitive Shrub Roses of Today back in 1962 , reprinted in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1985. He has written a further 13 books on Old Roses and gardens and can lay credit to being responsible for the revival of interest in Old Roses. Graham Stuart Thomas (1909 – 2003) was heavily involved in the restoration of National Trust properties like Hidcote Manor and Sissinghurst Castle and their gardens, his pièce de résistance being the establishment of the National Collection of Old-Fashioned Roses at Montisfont Abbey : see https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/mottisfont  and http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/5819075/Graham-Stuart-Thomas-and-the-Mottisfont-old-roses.html.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-220 He actually met the renowned Arts and Crafts garden designer Gertrude Jekyll (1843 – 1932), revising her 1902 book Roses for English Gardens by Gertrude Jekyll and Edward Mawley in 1983. While bought more for its historical interest, it is still a worthy addition to my rose library, representing a very different era in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when old roses were merely the garden roses of the day and Hybrid Teas were just starting their ascendancy to world domination.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-201-copy Famous writer and gardener, Vita Sackville-West (1892 – 1962), was also a passionate admirer of Old Roses, planting 194 different types of old roses in her garden at Sissinghurst Castle by 1953, and while she did not publish any specific rose books, she does refer to them in her more general garden musings like my copy of V. Sackville-West’s Garden Book 1968.  See : https://sissinghurstcastle.wordpress.com/2013/06/30/roses-are-blooming-part-1-2/  and  http://www.gardensillustrated.com/article/plants/15-roses-sissinghhurst-castle.blogrosebooks50reszdimage-203Two more English books on Old Roses with beautiful photography are:

Designing With Roses by Tony Lord 1999, a sumptuous book with stunning photographs of roses and their gardens and

The Rose Gardens of England by Michael Gibson 1988 

Michael Gibson (1918 – 2000) was a well-known author and passionate rosarian, who specialized in roses and rose history and even though a little out-of-date, many of the rose gardens mentioned still exist and are open to the public, so it is definitely worth consulting if you are planning a tour of English Old Rose gardens in June and then googling your choices on the internet to confirm their continued existence and opening hours.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-221 He also wrote The Book of the Rose 1980, another great find from the secondhand bookstore with an excellent section on rose history and lovely illustrated plates. He once described the rose Fantin Latour, which was rediscovered and named by Graham Stuart Thomas, as “ one of the most beautiful roses of all”.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-206

See: https://www.countrygardenroses.co.uk/about-us/rose-gardener/2011-03-04-rose-of-the-week-7/, a link which leads me very neatly to the books of Antonia Ridge (1895 – 1981),  specifically  The Man Who Painted Roses about the life of French artist Fantin Latour (1836 – 1904), who painted many still-lifes featuring roses (see: https://www.amazon.com/Man-Who-Painted-Roses-Pierre-Joseph/dp/0571105548  ), and my very favourite  For Love of a Rose, a delightfully written, slightly old-fashioned and quaint story of the creation of the Peace Rose and the Meilland and Paolino families behind it. It is a lovely happy read- everyone is decent and hard-working and it just makes you feel good!blogrosebooks50reszdimage-201I could not finish this blog without referring to one of the most famous French rose painters of all, ‘the Raphael of Flowers’, commissioned by Empress Josephine between 1817 and 1824, to paint all the roses in her famous rose collection at her chateau at Malmaison : Pierre- Joseph Redoute (1759 – 1840). Redoubte’s Roses is one of the largest books in our library and contains full-page  reproductions of colour plates of 167 roses with a brief description of each rose and its history.blogrosebooks20reszdimage-231

And finally, Naming of the Rose : Discovering Who Roses are Named For by Roger Mann 2008  is a fascinating read and gives more insight into the romance behind this beautiful flower.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-224

Next week, I will be discussing my favourite Old Rose websites. Till then…!

Postscript: I am adding in The Rose by David Austin 2012, a belated Christmas gift and the most beautiful and comprehensive book with chapters on Species Roses; the Old European Roses; Hybrid Teas and Floribundas; Polyanthas, Patio Roses and Miniatures; Shrub Roses and Ground-Covers; Climbers and Ramblers; and his own English Roses (with details and photos of 18 new roses), as well as information on how to grow these roses in the garden, companion plants for roses; maintenance of roses; and flower-arranging in the home. The photographs are so sumptuous and would be enough to convert any rose sassenach into a true believer!

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