Modern Roses: Polyanthas and Floribundas (Cluster-Flowered Roses)

On Tuesday, I wrote about Hybrid Teas, one of the most popular rose types today, the other type being the Floribundas, or as they are now known, the Cluster-Flowered Roses, which developed from the Polyanthas, so I will discuss the latter first.

Polyanthas

The first Polyantha rose, Paquerette, was a cross between a low growing, perpetually flowering R. multiflora and an unknown Dwarf China hybrid (possibly Old Blush China) by Sisley, France, and was introduced by Guillot, France, in 1875.

Another early Polyantha was Mignonette, Guillot, France 1880, a cross between R. chinensis and R. multiflora, and the earliest Polyantha rose still available. Both bore large sprays of very small, pompom-like, soft rosy-pink flowers, like those of R. multiflora, fading to white with age. Here is a photo of a Multiflora rose, Phyllis Bide.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9508

They were originally classified as R. rehderiana and were called Polypompoms. While they all possessed cluster blooms in the one florescence, they exhibited great variability in their growth habits and the size and shape of their blooms. It was not until the early 1900s that there were enough uniformly distinct characteristics to form a splinter group, known as the Dwarf Polyanthas.

Adaptable, floriferous, hardy and low maintenance small roses (with only an occasional tendency to mildew) with large, tightly-packed clusters of small, slightly cupped, semi-double flowers (unfortunately, with little or no fragrance) throughout Summer, they were useful shrubs in colder climates, where the less hardy Hybrid Teas required mollycoddling in the cold Winters.

They were hugely popular in the period between the two World Wars, with a large number of varieties introduced, most of which have since disappeared with their declining popularity after the Second World War, though there was a brief revival of interest in the 1980s, when they were used as a ground cover, in group plantings and shrubberies or as specimen roses at the front of borders, especially where the soil was poor.

Some well-known Polyanthas are:

The Fairy, Bentall, United Kingdom, 1932: A cross between Polyantha, Paul Crampel, and Hybrid Wichuraiana, Lady Gay, it was one of the first hybrids to have a trailing habit. It has sprays of tiny ‘China’ pink, continuous blooms, with little scent and good disease-resistance. It makes a handy ground cover on embankments. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/fairy/.

China Doll, Lammerts, United States, before 1936: A cross between Polyantha, Mrs Dudley Fulton and Miniature rose, Tom Thumb, it is one of the lowest borderers and bears huge heads of rich ‘China’ pink blooms almost to the ground. See: http://www.1001-landscaping-ideas.com/china-doll-roses.html.

BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.29Climbing Pinkie, discovered by EP Dering, United States, 1952: A sport of Pinkie, bred by Swim, United States, in 1947 and whose parents were China Doll and an unknown rose, this climbing version is very vigorous and will grow without support to form a graceful cascading plant. It is constantly in flower with large trusses of cupped, semi-double, rosy-pink fragrant blooms on thornless stems. The photos above and below are Climbing Pinkie.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.35Green Ice, Moore, United States, 1971:  A cross between (R. wichuraiana x Floribunda, Floradora) and Miniature rose, Jet Trail, this free-flowering miniature has small, double, white, slightly scented  blooms, tinged with green, especially in cooler weather. It has thick glossy foliage and reaches up to 0.5 metres high. It makes a useful ground cover and also looks good in a hanging basket. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/green-ice/.

Polyanthas were important in rose history, as they led directly to the development of the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses or Floribundas.

Floribundas

Hugely popular in Europe, especially Germany, Floribundas have a mixed pedigree, with its ancestors being R. multiflora (large trusses of flowers) and Hybrid Chinas (long flowering season).

In 1910, the Danish breeder, Poulsen, crossed Dwarf Polyanthas with Hybrid Teas in an attempt to increase the hardiness and cold tolerance of the latter. He crossed Polyantha, Mme Norbert Levavasseur, with Hybrid Tea, Richmond, to produce Rödhätte (Red Riding Hood) with semi-double, cherry-red flowers in large clusters. It was distributed in 1912, but was lost in the turmoil of the First World War.

Crosses of Dwarf Polyantha, Orléans Rose, with Hybrid Tea, Red Star, by Poulsen’s son, Svend, produced two new roses in 1924: the pink semi-double Else Poulsen and the red single Kirsten Poulsen. These were the start of the Poulsen Roses and were soon followed by Karen Poulsen 1932 and the first yellow Cluster-Flowered Rose, Poulsen Yellow, in 1939.

Poulsen Roses were taller in growth and had larger flowers than most Polyanthas and, as more breeders experimented with them, they were renamed Hybrid Polyanthas for two decades, and then, Floribundas, in the 1950s. Most of them have been superseded by the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses and only a few survive today.

Quickly gaining in popularity, Floribundas were used as bedding plants, providing massed colour over a long period throughout the Summer. They have been interbred with other rose types as well, including R. wichuraiana; R. rubiginosa; R. rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia. Over the last twenty years, they have been interbred so much with Hybrid Teas, that it is difficult to separate them genetically.

The earlier Floribundas often had single or semi-double blooms, opening flat, but now, many Cluster-Flowered Roses have blooms as large and shapely as those of Hybrid Teas. The big advantage of Floribundas was not only their hardiness in cold climates, but also the fact that they are much more free-flowering than Hybrid Teas. Here is a photo of an early Floribunda, Gruss an Aachen.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9730Another breeding aim has been to introduce flowers with veined or hand-painted petals eg McGredy, using Kordes’ rose, Frühlingsmorgen.

Here are some well-known Cluster-Flowered Roses, in order of their introduction:

Gruss an Aachen, Hinner, Germany, 1909: A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Hybrid Tea, Franz Deegen, this Floribunda bears large, full, mildly fragrant, light-pink rosette blooms with a salmon-pink centre, ageing to cream.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.43.44Dainty Maid, LeGrice, UK, 1938: A cross between DT Poulsen and an unknown rose, it has single large flowers, which are clear pink on the inside and carmine on the exterior, and have a slight scent. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/dainty-maid-bush-rose.html. It is a parent of Constance Spry, one of the first English Roses bred by David Austin;

August Seebauer, Kordes, Germany, 1944: A cross between Hybrid Tea, Break O’Day, and Else Poulsen, it bears small clusters of large, double, deep pink, mildly fragrant blooms with a high centred form.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9719Iceberg, Kordes, German, 1958: A cross between Hybrid Musk rose, Robin Hood, and Hybrid Tea, Virgo, this rose holds the distinction of being  the most popular rose today and is one of the best Floribundas ever bred. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1983. Nearly every non-rose person knows this one!!! It has large clusters of small, lightly double white flowers, opening wide; smooth slender stems and glossy, light green foliage.

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I never really appreciated Icebergs until I saw them at my sister’s garden at ‘Glenrock’.
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Here is a closer photo from another Iceberg rose.

For an even closer view, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/iceberg;

BlogModRosesReszd20c 2013 017Just Joey, Cants, UK, 1972: A cross between Fragrant Cloud (a Hybrid Tea, with a strong fragrance, which was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1980) and Dr AJ Verhage, another Hybrid Tea. Photos above and below;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0424BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_1869Friesia, Kordes, Germany, 1973: A cross between two Floribundas, Friedrich Wörlein, and Spanish Sun, this rose has small clusters of deep yellow, high-centred ruffled blooms with a strong fragrance.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 14.04.00Gold Bunny, Paolina, France, 1978: A cross between Poppy Flash and (Charleston x Allgold), all parents being Floribundas, this rose flowers continuously. I grew this on our wall at rainy Dorrigo and, despite its reputation for susceptibility to black spot, my climber was superb, with shiny glossy healthy leaves and a multitude of golden pollen-rich blooms over a long period. It had so much pollen that I experienced hayfever symptoms for the first time ever with dry itchy eyes and a runny nose, but it was worth it and I suspect a distinct selling point when we sold the property!;BlogModRosesReszd30%DSCF2073BlogModRosesReszd30%DSCF2065Oranges and Lemons, McGredy, New Zealand, 1992: A cross between Floribunda, New Year and Freude, this striking rose has large, bright lemon-yellow blooms with vermillion orange stripes.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 018Scentimental, Carruth, USA, 1996 : A cross between a yellow and red Floribunda, Playboy, and a striped Floribunda, Peppermint Twist, it is one of the new Floribundas with Hybrid Tea-like blooms on small clusters. They are creamy-white, striped and splashed with burgundy-red, each petal being different, and so, each bloom being different too.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 039Victoria Gold, Welsh, Australia, 1999.  Released in 1999 to commemorate the centenary of the Victorian Rose Society, the first rose society in Australia, it has rich golden yellow blooms, with a fine red edge in cooler weather, borne in clusters up to 7 blooms per stem, and contrasting dark green foliage.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 14.00.26 A child of Gold Bunny, it is one of the first roses to flower in spring and can regularly repeat bloom until early winter. It is very disease resistant, a good performer in the  hot Australian climate and can be grown as an individual bush, a standard rose, grouped to form a bed of roses or a low hedge. At the Victoria State Rose Garden at Werribee Park, it is a feature plant around the old rotunda.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 14.00.12

Finally, there are two more sub groupings I should mention, which cover Floribundas at either end of the height scale!

Grandifloras

An American classification only, referring to large-flowered, taller Floribundas, forming an intermediate group between Floribundas and Hybrid Teas. They include:

Queen Elizabeth, Lammerts, USA, 1954: A cross between a Hybrid Tea, Charlotte Armstrong, and a Floribunda, Floradora, it reaches 3 metres high, is incredible disease-resistant and has continuous-flowering clusters of long, high-centred, clear-pink buds, which open into large, deeply- cupped, lightly fragrant blooms. It was voted the Best Rose at the World Rose Convention in 1977 and its popularity after the Second World War was such that, along with Peace, it is found in almost every garden at some stage (though I haven’t got one yet!!!).

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I’m pretty sure that these are Queen Elizabeth.
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Both photographs were taken at Moidart, in the Southern Highlands, in mid-November.

For a closeup, see: http://www.all-my-favourite-flower-names.com/queen-elizabeth-rose.html.

Gold Medal, Christensen, USA, 1982: A cross between Yellow Pages x (Granada x Garden Party), all Hybrid Teas, this golden yellow rose with copper shadings is the classic Hybrid Tea form, with high-centred buds, opening to cupped, reflexed blooms.BlogSohoReszd5013-06-09 12.43.49Fragrant Plum, Christensen, USA, 1990: A cross between a Floribunda, Shocking Blue, and (Blue Nile x Ivory Tower, both Hybrid Teas, x Floribunda, Angel Face), it has large, double, mauve blooms with a strong, fruity fragrance.BlogModRosesReszd2016-10-28 13.51.47Miniatures, Ground Cover and Patio Roses

Bred from Dwarf China rose, Rouletti, long grown on the window sills of Swiss cottages and rediscovered by Henri Correvon in 1922, these roses are miniature versions of their larger Floribunda cousins, with smaller blooms, foliage, stems and prickles. You can see a photo of Rouletti on:http://www.paulbardenroses.com/minis/rouletii.html.

The slightly larger varieties are known as Patio Roses and are increasingly popular with people living in units or on small properties. An example is:

Queen Mother, Kordes, Germany, 1991: A cross between a seedling of R. wichuraiana and Floribunda, Toynbee Hall, it was bred for the Queen Mother’s 90th birthday to support the Royal United Kingdom Beneficent Association, of which she was the Royal Patron. It has small clusters of medium to large, semi-double, light pink flowers with a mild fragrance, which open flat.BlogModRosesReszd50%april 016The smaller varieties are known as Miniatures or Fairy Roses and have been crossed with Floribundas and Wichuraianas to develop blooms with new colours and shapes.  They are often grown in pots.

Ground Cover Roses, also known as Procumbent Shrub Roses,  are just that. Examples include: Sea Foam, Schwartz, USA, 1964; and Snow Carpet, McGredy, NZ, 1980. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/type/shrub-roses/ground-cover-roses for more.

Over the next two weeks, we will be looking at the Modern Shrub Rose and Modern Climbers, starting with David Austin’s English Roses, as well as the progeny of other breeders. We have already discussed Pemberton’s Hybrid Musks, which also fall into this category.

Modern Roses: Hybrid Teas (Large-Flowered Roses)

And now to the roses of the Twentieth Century: the Hybrid Teas, Polyanthas and Floribundas, which represent the majority of all rose plants and have been interbred so much that they are now very difficult to separate on a genetic basis.

Both groups are short bushes, 1m to less than 2m tall and less than 1 metre to 1.5 metres wide, with an upright growth habit, bred to be grown in rose beds and cut for floral arrangements in the home. They repeat-flower with several flushes, 6 to 8 weeks apart and lasting several weeks long, throughout the season, from late October and mid-November to pruning time the following Winter, here in Australia. The first two photos are of Just Joey.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-12 13.48.23Most blooms have the traditional modern form with a high-pointed bud, opening to a circular outline with a high spiralling centre. However, there are more informal types with a lighter, more airy arrangement of petals, while others have tight rings of petals in rosettes or cupped formations.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0384To add to the confusion, most roses of either group can form multiple heads (clusters) on the top of strong water shoots in Spring, and even cluster-flowered roses can throw a good number of single stems on older, lightly pruned plants.

Within each group, there is huge variety  in the foliage canopy (dense/sparse), leaf appearance (matt/glossy), height (tall/short) and bloom colour and shape, enabling the choice of roses for a wide variety of purposes and situations:

Floral arrangements and cutting blooms: Consistently single shapely blooms on long stems eg Mr Lincoln, Julia’s Rose, Blue Moon, Fragrant Plum (2nd photo below), Pascali  (long regarded as one of the best white Hybrid Teas and a cross between Queen Elizabeth and White Butterfly) and Double Delight. Here is a vase of Mr Lincoln (dark red) and Lolita (orange, pink and gold):BlogSohoReszd50cember2011 200Exhibition/ Competition blooms:  Consistently large blooms with a good form, but not necessarily long stems eg Peace;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-04 11.25.11Attractive garden plants: Plentiful eye-catching blooms on thick, well-rounded plants eg Apricot Nectar; Lolita (main tall rose in photo above); and Fragrant Plum (photo below);BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_1987Bedding Roses: Tidy growth habit, dense foliage and free-flowering eg Iceberg, La Sevillana (photo below) and Queen Elizabeth;BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-27 11.26.08Roses for Low Borders: 0.5 to 1 metre tall eg Polyanthas

Ground Cover, Patio and Miniature Roses: See later.

Single Blooms eg  Mrs Oakley Fisher, Ellen Willmott, White Wings (photo below) and Dainty Bess; and

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General Purpose Roses: Combine a number of the above attributes eg Gold Bunny, Just Joey (photo below) and Peace.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-23 15.13.08 In 1971, Hybrid Teas and Floribundas were reclassified as Large-Flowered Roses and Cluster-Flowered Roses respectively. I will now focus Hybrid Teas for the rest of this post, then Polyanthas and Floribundas (Cluster-Flowered Roses) in Thursday’s post.

Hybrid Teas

Hybrid Teas are the result of a cross between Tea roses (for their elegance and perpetual flowering) and Hybrid Perpetuals ( for their robustness and freedom of flowering) in the mid-19th Century.

The earliest Hybrid Teas were:

Victor Verdier, bred by Lacharme, France, 1859: A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Jules Margottin, and Tea rose, Safrano, and the first reliably documented rose, that could be classified as a Hybrid Tea, according to David Austin. See: http://www.petrovicroses.rs/en/roses/old-roses/hp/victor-verdier;

La France, bred by Guillot Fils, France, 1865: This rose has uncertain origins. Guillot thought it was possibly a seedling of Tea rose, Mme Falcot, the current position taken in  Peter Beales’book, Classic Roses, while David Austin attributes its parents as Hybrid Perpetual, Mme Victor Verdier (not to be confused with Victor Verdier) and Tea Rose, Mme Bravy. It had a good scent, vigorous growth and was very free-flowering. At the time, it was considered to be another Hybrid Perpetual and was a nearly sterile triploid, as were the early Bourbons. For a long while, it held the honour of being the first Hybrid Tea. For a photo, see: http://www.paulbardenroses.com/hybridteas/lafrance.html. It was soon followed by:

Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, Bennett, UK, 1882 (photo below): A cross between Devoniensis (Tea) and Victor Verdier (Hybrid Perpetual), it was a fertile tetraploid and was the parent of many early British Hybrid Teas. Thought to have disappeared, it was rediscovered in 1975 by Keith Money, Norfolk. Bennett, long regarded as the Father of the Hybrid Teas, was the first to use the term Hybrid Tea or as he put it ‘Pedigree Hybrids of the Tea Rose’. Bennett was also, along with French breeder, Sisley, the first to apply systematic deliberate cross breeding to roses with certain objectives in view, thus being the first modern rose breeders.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.48.16Other early varieties included:

Grace Darling 1884. Unknown parentage. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/grace-darling-bush-rose.html;

Mme Caroline Testout 1890 ( a cross between Tea Rose, Mme de Tartas and Lady Mary Fitzwilliam);BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9267Lady Waterlow 1903 (Hybrid Tea, La France de ’89 X Mme Marie Lavalley);BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.20.40Irish Elegance, Alexander Dickson II, United Kingdom,1905, a cross between R. hibernica and an undocumented Hybrid Tea. Salmon buds open to highly fragrant, single, flat peach blooms, fading to salmon-buff. This rose is very disease-resistant and blooms in flushes throughout the season.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAChâteau de Clos Vougeot, Pernet-Ducher, France, 1908: Unknown cross;blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0247Mrs Herbert Stevens, McGredy, UK, 1910, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Tea Rose, Niphetos;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0479Ophelia 1912 (a seedling, which arrived in a consignment of Antoine Rivoire – photo below). For a photo of Ophelia, see: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/ophelia-bush-rose.html; andBlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9703Mme Butterfly 1918, the bush form a sport of Ophelia. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/mme-butterfly.

While many of these early Hybrid Teas have been superseded by the more modern varieties, they still hold their own in their climbing forms, which are either crosses or sports involving the bush forms. For example:

Climbing Mme Caroline Testout 1901;

Climbing Château de Clos Vougeot 1920, both sports of their bush form;

Climbing Mrs Herbert Stevens 1922, one of the most popular white climbers, which is frequently found in old gardens;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-04 12.23.39Climbing Lady Sylvia 1926, the bush form itself also a sport of Mme Butterfly, and one of the most popular roses of the 1930s. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/lady-sylvia; and

Mme Gregoire Staechelin (Spanish Beauty) 1927, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Hybrid Tea, Château de Clos Vougeot. The first two photos below were taken at Walter Duncan’s home at the Heritage Garden, Clare, while the last photo was our old verandah at ‘Creekside’, Armidale.

BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9498BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9631BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (221)Ophelia, Mme Butterfly and Lady Sylvia all exhibit the ideal for perfect Hybrid Tea buds with their exquisitely scrolled formation and have few rivals, even today. They only differ in their colour: Ophelia is blush-pink; Mme Butterfly is a slightly deeper shade and Lady Sylvia is blush, suffused with apricot. In all three, the colour deepens towards the centre. All are reliable growers, reaching 80 cm in height, but are prone to blackspot. The neat foliage is grey-green and the flowers highly scented. All have excellent climbing sports. Ophelia alone was responsible for at least 36 sports!

For more photos of  the Early Hybrid Teas, see:http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/gallery/early-hybrid-teas.

The next advance was the first yellow Hybrid Tea! In 1910, Pernet-Ducher crossed a  clear-yellow  R. foetida persiana with a red Hybrid Perpetual, Antoine Ducher, to produce a seedling, which was then crossed with R. foetida bicolor  to produce the first yellow Hybrid Tea, Rayon d’Or.

Rayon d’Or is now extinct, but another yellow form of the same crossing (Antoine Ducher x R. foetida persiana) still survives: Soleil d’Or 1900.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA For a better photo, see: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/soleil-d-or-bush-rose.html.

Originally known as the Pernetianas and now reclassified as Hybrid Teas or Large-Flowered Roses, they had yellow or orange blooms with little scent and were very thorny and highly susceptible to blackspot. In fact, they are the source of most of the yellows and bright colours in modern roses, as well as the source of their susceptibility to blackspot!

Another important breeding program was the introduction in 1945 of R. wichuraiana genes by Brownlow, Rhode Island, to produce hardier varieties, more resistant to blackspot and suitable for growing in the colder climate of North-Eastern USA, which he called Sub-Zero Hybrid Teas. For more information on these roses, see: http://www.midwestgardentips.com/sub-zero_tea_roses.html. Some were later used by German breeder, Kordes, to produce varieties suitable for Germany.

There are now thousands of Hybrid Teas on the market, with at least ten large rose specialist breeders around the world, including: Kordes (Germany); Meilland (France); Dickson (Northern Ireland); McGredy (formerly Northern Ireland and later, New Zealand); Harkness (England) and Fryer (England); Cocker (Scotland); Jackson and Perkins (USA); and Weeks (USA), as well as countless smaller and amateur breeders.

Description

Tall upright growth with sparse foliage towards the base.

Large solitary specimen bloom with a high-pointed bud and variable degrees of scent. The photo below of Mrs Herbert Stevens shows the typical long pointed and spiralling buds.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-02 13.33.22Recurrent flowering.

Not as hardy or tough as Old Roses and more susceptible to diseases like black spot.

Most widely grown rose type and according to Deane Ross, the most popular rose type in Australia and New Zealand. Below is a photo of a bush of Mme Caroline Testout.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9266

Varieties

I have already mentioned a few early Hybrid Teas. Here are some more very famous and popular varieties in order of their introduction. Please note that it is only a miniscule portion of the vast number of Hybrid Teas available, the selection being based on the few Hybrid Teas, which I grow in my garden, and other personal photos from other gardens! Where I did not have suitable photos, I have included a link, as in the first rose below.

Mrs Oakley Fisher, Cant, UK, 1921. Single deep orange-yellow blooms with a good scent and golden-brown stamens. Unknown parentage. See: http://www.rosenotes.com/2014/08/mrs-oakley-fisher-rose.html;

Dainty Bess, Archer, UK 1925, a cross between Ophelia and Kitchener of Khartoum, both Hybrid Teas, it has single rose-pink blooms with a deeper pink on the outside, contrasting red-brown stamens and fringed petals.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Ellen Willmott,  Archer, UK, 1936: A cross between Dainty Bess and Tea Rose, Lady Hillingdon with large, single, creamy flowers, tinged with pink at the edges, wavy petals and golden anthers and red filaments;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9670Peace, Meilland, France, 1945: One of the most popular roses of all time, the story of its creation immortalized in Antonia Ridge’s beautiful book ‘For Love of a Rose’. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/.

Peace is the result of crosses between (George Dickson x Souvenir de Claudius Pernet) X ( Joanna Hill x Charles P Kilham) X  Margaret McGredy and was also called Gloria Dei (Germany), Mme A Meilland (France) and Gioia (Italy). For a shorter version of its story, see: https://www.gerbera.org/gardening-magazine/the-gardener-index/june-2005/peace-rose/. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1974;BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (190)White Wings, Krebs, USA, 1947 : A cross between Dainty Bess and an unknown rose, it is another Hybrid Tea with pure white single blooms with chocolate anthers;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9666Sutter’s Gold: Bush form: Swim, USA, 1950; Climbing form Weeks, USA, 1950: A cross between Charlotte Armstrong x Signora, both Hybrid Teas. A lovely rose, with whose climbing form I grew up. See: http://www.treloarroses.com.au/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=2466;

Meg, Gosset, UK, 1954: A cross between Paul’s Lemon Pillar X Mme Butterfly, both Hybrid Teas and another beautiful single golden rose;BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.52.10Papa Meilland, Meilland, France, 1963: A cross between Chrysler Imperial X Charles Mallerin, both Hybrid Teas. A  velvety deep red rose with a perfect formation and delicious perfume. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1988, however it can be a tricky rose with poor growth in Britain. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/papa-meilland/;

Mr Lincoln, Swim and Weeks, USA, 1964 : Another cross between the same two Hybrid Teas, Chrysler Imperial X Charles Mallerin. Another beautiful deep red rose with a divine scent and very long stems, making it very popular with florists;BlogSohoReszd50%IMG_9022BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_2319Blue Moon, Tantau, Germany, 1965:  A cross between Hybrid Tea, Sterling Silver, and an unknown seedling, this rose has upright growth and highly fragrant lavender exhibition blooms. One of the earliest and most successful of the blue roses that will flower through Summer and Autumn. See: http://rankinsroses.com.au/product/blue-moon/;

BlogModRosesReszd2016-10-29 12.10.20Lolita, Kordes, Germany, 1973 A cross between Hybrid Tea, Colour Wonder and an unknown seedling. Continuous slightly scented apricot flowers, tinged with pink on long straight almost thornless stems. I love it at all stages from the tight bud (photo above) to a high-pointed, classic-shaped rose through to a full bloom showing its stamens;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.25.03Julia’s Rose, Wisbech, UK, 1976: A coppery coffee-coloured rose with a slight scent, which is a cross between two Hybrid Teas, Blue Moon and Dr AJ Verhage;BlogSohoReszd50%late apr 2013 124Double Delight, Swim and Ellis, USA, 1977: A cross between Granada and Garden Party, both Hybrid Teas,  it has creamy-white, highly scented continuous blooms with red edges, but the leaves are susceptible to mildew. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1986. See: http://www.all-my-favourite-flower-names.com/double-delight-rose.html;

The Children’s Rose, Meilland, France, 1995: A cross between (Perfume Delight x Prima Ballerina, both Hybrid Teas) X The Mc Cartney Rose, another Hybrid Tea, this tall robust disease -resistant rose has highly fragrant, fully double fat, soft pink blooms, mainly borne singly, but sometimes in clusters on almost thornless stems. It starts to bloom in the mid-Spring, the flowering being constant throughout the season and right up to Winter pruning. It was introduced in the United States under the name, Frederic Mistral;BlogModRosesReszd20c 2013 202Our Copper Queen, Kordes, Germany, 1996: Tall healthy plant with large, fragrant, deep golden yellow solitary double blooms, borne in flushed throughout the season;BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_0380BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_4487Ice-Girl, Kordes, Germany, 1997: A cross between Frederic Mistral and Osiana, both Hybrid Teas, this rose has ivory-white, medium, double and quartered blooms in small clusters in flushes throughout the season;BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.24.52Best Friend, Meilland, France, 1997: A cross between (Tino Rossi x Rendez-Vous) x  Sonia, all Hybrid Teas, this tall, disease-resistant rose has medium-pink blooms with a fruity fragrance, borne on long strong stems in flushes from late Spring to late Autumn.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.57.36 A perfect rose for floristry, it was named by the RSPCA to honour the unconditional love of man’s best friend (below is another photo of the rose with my best friend, my husband, Ross!) and has been awarded a Gold Medal at the Rome Rose Trials in Italy, and Fragrance Awards at the same trials, as well as at the Nantes Rose Trials and Bagatelle Rose Trials in France; Le Roeulx Rose Trials in Belgium and the Geneva Rose Trials in Switzerland; and lastly,BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.58.02Heaven Scent, Carruth, USA, 2001 A cross between a Floribunda, Blueberry Hill, and a Hybrid Tea, New Zealand, this is a strong tough rose with large highly scented (Damask scent) orchid-pink roses with a darker reverse and slightly frilled petals on long thornless stems, perfect for floral arrangements. It is the pink rose in the foreground. Lolita is the rose in the background.BlogModRosesReszd2016-11-06 13.10.49BlogNovGarden20%Reszd2016-11-08 15.27.37On Thursday, I will be discussing the Polyanthas and Floribundas or the Cluster-Flowered Roses, as they are known today.

Bucket List of Rose Gardens in Italy and Germany

My final bucket-list post features the wonderful rose gardens of Italy and Germany, starting with one of the most famous romantic rose gardens of all time:

Ninfa (Giardini di Ninfa)

Via Provinciale Ninfina, 68, 04012 Cisterna di Latina LT, Italy    Near  Sermonetta

http://gardentravelhub.com/garden-ninfa-worth-superlatives/

http://www.madeinsouthitalytoday.com/garden-of-ninfa.php

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMssohopSzo

Ninfa has been described as one of the 10 most beautiful gardens in the world. In fact, Monty Don states in his video, Italian Gardens (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Y8wh7Xqw7U, at the 2:48:20-2:56:0 mark), that he considers it to be THE most romantic garden in the world!

It is located in the province of Latina, 40 miles south-west of Rome (one hour drive), at the foot of the Lepina Mountains, from which numerous springs run down to form a small lake, which feeds into a river, which runs through the centre of the town, which was surrounded by marshlands.

Ninfa was an ancient Etruscan town, founded in the 8th Century, by the Volscians and named after a small temple near the springs, dedicated to the Nymph goddess, Ninfa. During the Middle Ages, it was a rich merchant stopover between Rome and Naples on the Appian Way. It included a 12th century castle; seven churches; palazzos; medieval clock towers; a town hall, mills, bakeries, a blacksmith; a 1400 metre long defensive wall, bridges, two hospices; and 2000 people living in 150 homes. It was acquired by the Caetani family in 1298.

In 1381, the town was sacked by mercenaries and pillaged by neighbouring towns during a civil war, caused by a schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Attempts to resettle were thwarted by outbreaks of malaria and gradually, the town was abandoned and overgrown with ivy and weeds. It lay sleeping for six centuries, still attracting the odd visitor for its melancholic air, like Edward Lear in 1840, who also described it as one of the most romantic visions in Italy.

In 1921, Gelasio Caetani, the second youngest son of Prince Onorata Caetani and his English-born wife, Ada Wilbraham, drained the marshes; cleared the undergrowth, weeds and ivy;  restored some of the medieval buildings, in particular, the tower and town hall, for a Summer residence; and started a garden in the romantic English Landscape style.

His sister-in-law, Marguerite Chapin (1880-1963), who was married to musician, Roffredo Caetani, in 1911, planted on a grand scale with thousands of trees and shrubs, imported from from all over the world, including fastigiate cypress, Chamaecyparis sempervirens; holm oaks (Quercus ilex); poplars; beeches; crab apples; prunus; magnolias; camellias; rhododendrons; and roses. Their daughter Leila continued her work after World War II, leaving the garden to the Roffredo Caetani Foundation.

While the whole park is 105 hectares (260 acres), the garden is 8 hectares (20 acres) and is managed organically by a curator and six full-time gardeners. It is only open 25 days a year between April and October and attracts 70 000 visitors a year. Guided tours of up to 20 visitors are conducted on a prescribed path 10 to 15 minutes apart and last 1.5 hours. It is best in April and May for rose lovers!

It is a gorgeous wild garden, which thrives with the rich well-drained moist soil, benign Winter temperatures and hot Summers. Plants ramble over ruined towers, walls and archways and overhang the stream.

Other trees include: Stone pine, Pinus pinea;  Judas trees; Ribbonwood, Hoheria sexstylosa (New Zealand); wattles; birch; hawthorne; liquidambars; Persian Silk Tree , Albizia julibrissin; Dragon’s Claw Willow, Salix matsudana ‘Tortuosa’; walnuts; weeping cherries; maples like Acer griseum; Himalayan and Mexican Pines; American walnuts; Gingko biloba; Catalpas; Dogwoods; Casuarina tenuissima; and banana trees.

Other shrubs include: bamboos; papyrus; buddleja; viburnums; smoke bush, Cotinus coggygria ‘Flame’; Photinia serrulata; lavenders andMagnolia stellata.

Climbers include Clematis armandi; star jasmine, Trachelospermum jasminoides; Wisteria floribunda ‘Macrobotrys’ and climbing hydrangea, H. petiolaris.

Hazelnuts; Acer saccharinum; Liriodendron tuilpifera, Arum lilies, Iris and Gunnera manicata line the river.

Other plantings include: Salvias; lilies; cannas; anemones; alliums; Iris; Acanthis mollis; and ferns.

The rock garden contains Iberis; Eschscholzia; Veronica; Golden Alyssum; Aquilegia; Dianthus and Pomegranates.

There are over 200 different roses including: a hedge of 100 plants of R. roxburghii plena; R. hugonis; R. bracteata; American Pillar; Banksia rose; R. filipes ‘Kiftsgate’; Rambling Rector; Paul’s Himalayan Musk; Mme Alfred Carrière and Gloire de Dijon; Général Schablikine; Mutabilis; Complicata; Iceberg; Max Graf; The Garland; Desprez à Fleurs Jaunes; Seagull; Comtesse du Cayla; Dr W Van Fleet; Cramoisi Supérieur; R. brunonii ‘La Mortola’; Rêve d’Or; David Austin roses and Hybrid Musks: Penelope; Vanity; Ballerina and Buff Beauty. Penelope is such a beautiful romantic rose, I have chosen it as my feature photo for Ninfa (see below)!

Ninfa is on the flyway for migrating birds between Africa and Europe and 152 birds have been sighted. In 1976, under the auspices of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 2000 acres were set aside for a wildlife sanctuary with brush plantings and the creation of more wetlands, as well as re-establishing 15 ha (37 acres) of native vegetation. The river contains brown and Mediterranean trout populations.

If you would like to read more about Ninfa, Charles Quest-Ritson wrote Ninfa: the Most Romantic garden in the World in 2009.blogsummer-gardenreszd20img_0813Because I adore the rose Mutabilis, I would have to include La Landriana on my bucket list!

La Landriana

Via Campo di Carne, 51, 00040, Tor San Lorenzo, Ardea (Roma)

https://www.romecentral.com/en/luoghi-segreti-vicino-roma-giardini-della-landriana/

A few kilometres from Rome, in the city of Ardea, this 10 ha garden is owned by the Marquise Lavinia Tavernain, who started it from scratch in 1956. She commissioned Sir Russell Page to design a series of themed rooms, arranged  in a geometric pattern.

There are 23 different areas in the garden with many Australian and South African plants due to the  maritime Mediterranean climate. They are separated by clipped hedges of Buxus sempervirens; Viburnum tinus and Laurus nobilis.

The house is covered in climbers including roses:  R. laevigata; R. banksiae lutea; and R. bracteata ‘Mermaid’, as well as Solanum jasminoides; Solanum crispa; Vitis coignetiae and Vitis ‘Brant’.

There is a pergola covered with Wisteria sinensis and Rosa bracteata, as well as a lily pool and a water fountain.

It is worth consulting the map on the website for an idea of the different garden areas, but for this post, I will be concentrating on the roses, of which there are 350 different varieties, contained mainly in the Rooms of the Rose; the White Walk; the Antique Rose Valley; and Valley of Roses Mutabilis.

Rooms of the Rose: Hundreds of plants of Bonica 82 are planted beneath olive trees and a Pinus pinea along this cobbled walkway, interplanted with Pittosporum tenuifolium ‘Silver Queen’;

White Walk: Flanked by Hybrid Musk, Penelope, and semi-procumbent Seafoam; and many white and grey plants, including Romneya coulterii and Carpenteria californica, with Mme Alfred Carrière in the background;

Antique Rose Valley: A large informal area with wide grass walkways between irregular beds and borders of different shapes and sizes, crammed with roses, underplanted with lavender, nepeta, pinks and Pavonia hastata. They include:

Rugosas (eg Blanc Double de Coubert; and Sarah Van Fleet); Gallicas;  Damasks; Centifolias and Mosses; Portlands (eg Jacques Cartier; Comte de Chambord; and Rose de Rescht); Hybrid Musks (eg Prosperity; Cornelia; and  Moonlight); David Austin roses (eg Abraham Darby; Claire Rose; and Mary Rose);  and finally, there is …

The Valley of Roses Mutabilis: 300 bushes of 2 metre high Mutabilis are grown en masse in huge drifts with mown walkways between. Their peachy-pink, yellow, orange and crimson single open flowers bloom right through to Christmas, giving the appearance of a host of butterflies hovering over a dark sea of Ophiopogon japonicus. A rare tea rose, ‘Belle Lyonnaise’ climbs up Melia azederach trees.

The garden is open to the public from April to November and there are two major plant fairs in Spring and Autumn.blogvsrg50reszdnov-2010-253Il Roseto Botanico Gianfranco and Carla Fineschi

Casalone 76, 52022, Cavriglia (Arezzo),Italy   50 km south of Florence

http://www.rosetofineschi.it/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fd1h8jpZLHA

And for those of us who cannot read or speak Italian:

http://oldroses.nl/essays-articles-and-books/visit-to-roseto-botanico-carla-fineschi-cavriglia-arezzo-italy/   and

https://fromatuscanhillside.blogspot.com.au/2013/05/the-carla-fineschi-botanical-rose.html.

Charles Quest-Ritson dedicated his book, Climbing Roses of the World, to his wife and  ‘Gianfranco Fineschi, who has done more for the rose in one lifetime than the Empress Josephine herself ‘, so I would have to visit this amazing living museum, dedicated to the rose!

Professor Gianfranco (1923-2010) started his rose collection fifty years ago in 1967 on his family estate in Casalone, near Cavrigio, overlooking the Tuscan Hills. It is now the world’s largest private rose garden in the world with 6500 different species of rose, each represented by a single plant, which is tagged with its botanical name; its year of introduction to Europe and its ability to hybridize.

Roses are organized according to their scientific classification and are planted in separate beds according to their species, subspecies and hybrids, with climbers and ramblers forming division walls.

Many of the beds of modern roses are grouped according to their hybridizers eg Lens, Kordes, Harkness, Buisman, Leenders, Mc Gredy, Meilland, Poulsen, Noack, Beales, Austin, Dickson, and Verschuren. This botanical and historical emphasis makes this garden particularly valuable for rose historians.

Its reputation as the world’s largest private rose garden refers to the number of rose species in the collection, rather than the size of the garden, which is only one acre! Hence, the roses are planted very close together, which necessitates the use of chemicals to control diseases! The garden has been reopened and can be visited in May and June.

I have chosen R.brunonii as my feature photo for this garden, as well as the main feature photo for this post on Italian rose gardens, as it has a hybrid ‘La Mortola’, named after the famous Italian garden, La Mortola, in Liguria.BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9523And finally, and especially for my daughter, who is living in Germany and still hasn’t visited this amazing garden!:

Sangerhausen

On the Rosengarten 2a
06526 Sangerhausen, Germany  South-West of Berlin and just west of Leipzig

http://europa-rosarium.de, translated into English at:

https://translate.google.com.au/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=http://europa-rosarium.de/&prev=search

http://oldroses.nl/essays-articles-and-books/my-visit-to-sangerhausen/

http://oldroses.nl/essays-articles-and-books/sangerhausen-the-greatest-rosary-in-the-world/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3PzS00H9xc

Map: http://europa-rosarium.de/fileadmin/files/Lageplan_2015_SEgeschlossen.pdf

Brochure: http://sangerhausen-tourist.de/fileadmin/Flyer/Flyer_Rosarium_07-11_engl_.pdf.

Sangerhausen is a huge historic public rose garden, the German equivalent of L’Hay des Roses, France, with 75 000 rose plants of over 70 classes of rose; and 8 600 rose cultivars, including 500 species roses, 1 350 historic roses, over 2 000 modern roses since the 1950s and 850 climbing roses. 2 000 cultivars are only found in Sangerhausen. According to the Guinness Book of Records, it is the largest collection of roses in the world!

It was proposed by rose breeder, Peter Lambert, in 1898, as a refuge for roses and rose classes at risk of oblivion with the rising dominance of the Hybrid Tea and as a genetic pool for hybridizers. Albert Hoffman donated his rose collection of 1 100 different roses as a basis for the new rosarium.

In 1899, landscape architect Friedrich Erich Doerr, Erfurt, designed a formal rose garden, which was extended to include an agricultural area in 1902. The 1.5 ha garden, at that stage owned by the German Rose Society, was opened to the public in 1903 with a collection of 1 500 roses. It was extended in 1913 to 12 ha and became a trial ground for testing new German roses prior to their introduction. By 1939, there were 5 000 roses and the site was extended again to its current size of 12.5 ha (31 acres).

Sangerhausen was kept going through the Great Depression; the Second World War and the Cold War by Richard Vogel and his son, Max. Being located in what became East Germany after World War II and the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961, rosarians in the West were largely cut off from contact from it for over thirty years. The first visits from the West occurred in the early 1970s, but direct exchange and donations of roses were still not allowed, so would often reach Sangerhausen via Poland. During this time, 800 different cultivars of Polyanthas were planted together en masse for a spectacular effect and the irrigation system renewed.

The rosary was revived with the reunification of Germany. In 2003 (its 100 year anniversary), a new entrance gate with bright tourist-attracting modern roses; a restaurant and three new gardens were created, including a Jubilee Garden (a classical rosary design showing the historical development of the rose in the last 100 years); a Sea of Roses and an ADR Garden, ADR standing for Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprufung, the group which conducts rose trials, assessing roses over three years for disease-resistance; hardiness; attractiveness; and habit and judging 50 new cultivars annually.

Since then, a Rose Information Centre with a lecture hall and souvenir shop; a glasshouse conservatory for the more tender roses; and a fragrance garden has been opened. There is also an arboretum of over 250 rare trees and shrubs and an outdoor theatre.

Situated 170 metres above sea level on the scenic mountain slopes of the Southern Harz, with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and a continental climate of hot dry Summers and minimum Winter temperatures of Minus 20 degrees Celsius, it would need a glasshouse for some of the more delicate Tea and China roses!

No chemical pesticides have been used since 1997 and the garden is managed by 27 gardeners. It is now owned by the City of Sangerhausen. In 2003, the World Federation of Rose Societies awarded Sangerhausen an Award of Garden Excellence.

The main blooming season for the Old Roses (pre-1867) is from the end of May to the middle of June, but other roses bloom till October, followed by a superb display of rose hips. Apparently, the old city entrance is very romantic with all the old roses in bloom.

Sangerhausen attracts a huge number of visitors. The garden had over 132 000 visitors in 2009 alone! On the last weekend in June, there is a Festival of Mining and Roses and on the 2nd Saturday in August is a  ‘Night of a Thousand Lights’ featuring fireworks, food, music and dance .

The garden is also an important research centre, being named the German Rose Gene Bank in 2009, as well as acquiring a New German Rose Library, and also is a major supplier of budwood for hybridizers.

Below is a photo of Maigold, bred by German breeding family, Kordes, in 1953. Wilhelm Kordes II was very involved in implementing ADR testing in the 1950s, so this rose is a very suitable feature rose for Sangerhausen!

BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9505I hope you have enjoyed my bucket-list of overseas gardens and that you (and I!) get to visit them some day, but here is the thing about blogging! Even if we never make it overseas again, I have had so much pleasure researching all these beautiful gardens to the extent that I almost feel that I have been there! Even though nothing can really replace the real experience, the enjoyment of such visits can be tempered by huge  crowds in Summer, the peak rose blooming time, bad weather and sheer fatigue! And their websites these days are so comprehensive, so many lessons can be learnt digitally from these gardens from garden design to companion planting for roses!

For the next month, I am returning to further reviews of the books in our home library and some wonderful visual treats, with two weeks dedicated to architecture books and the following fortnight to art books, before returning to posts on today’s roses: the Hybrid Teas and Floribundas; and David Austin roses.

Bucket List of Rose Gardens in France

While Britain is famous for its roses, France is equally blessed, having produced a number of famous rose breeders over the years. Lyon alone had 36 rose breeders, introducing new roses between 1840 and 1924, including Jean Beluze; Joseph Schwartz; Jean-Baptiste Guillot; and Joseph Pernet-Ducher. Their famous roses included Souvenir de la Malmaison (Beluze), which is the main feature photo for this post; Mme Alfred Carrière (Schwartz); La France (Guillot) and Cécile Brünner and Soleil d’Or (both bred by Pernet-Ducher). See: http://www.lyon-roses-2015.org/en/roses-lyon_famous_roses.htm for more! One of the best places to see these roses is:

Roseraie de l’Hay

Rue Albert Watel, 94240 L’Haÿ-les-Roses 12 km from the centre of Paris, west of the Val-de-Marne.

https://roseraie.valdemarne.fr/

https://roseraie.valdemarne.fr/jardin-13-collections

Roseraie de l’Hay is the French equivalent of Mottisfont, holding the National Collection of Roses since 1991. Dating from 1910, it is extremely important historically, as it was the first single-species garden and the first garden totally devoted to roses, resulting in the coining of a new term, the Roseraie. Jules Gravereaux, its originator, was responsible for the conservation of many of the old rose varieties and species in danger of being lost forever.

Roseraie de l’Hay is now the oldest rose garden in the world and is considered to be one of the world’s greatest collections of Old Garden Roses, with a very comprehensive collection of Modern Roses as well. The garden was so important in its day that the name of the town, l’Hay, was changed to L’Hay des Roses in 1910. It is also commemorated in the name of my favourite Rugosa hybrid, which has a heavenly scent! See photo below. The garden was placed on the supplementary inventory of Historic Monuments in 2005 and became a Jardin Remarquable in 2011.

It was created in 1910 by a prominent businessman, Jules Gravereaux, who was also a keen early photographer. His wife, who was worried about his health and the length of time he was spending in the dark room, asked him to create her a flower garden. Little did she realize what she was setting in train!

Starting his collection in 1894, he had 1 600 species and varieties of old roses by 1899. By 1910, this number had  increased to 7 500! Gravereaux commissioned landscape architect, Edouard André, to design him a garden specifically for his roses. He created a classically French garden, with geometric beds, long allées, sculpture and a central octagonal pool. The roses were displayed not just as bushes, but trained into different shapes, grown on trellises, along wires and over arches, on pillars and cultivated in pots and urns. It is a wonderful way of showcasing the diversity of the rose from ramblers and shrub roses to tree roses and climbing roses.

Gravereaux also collected a huge number of objects and documents concerning the rose: Postcards; playing cards; medals; stamps; letters; scientific papers; books and  journals; posters; carpets; silks; woodwork; ceramics and paintings, which are now housed in the Archives Department of the Val de Marne. The museum now holds 11 000 objects dating from 1701 to 1961. On his death in 1916, his son Henri took over the work at the Roseraie de l’Hay, which was eventually given to the municipality of Val de Marne in 1937.

The 1.5 hectare garden now holds 11 000 roses of 2 900 species and varieties, which are organised into 13 collections, all labelled with their name and explanatory signs describing their origins, history and varieties. It is well worth listening to the website audiotapes (in both French and English), describing each section. They include:

La Roseraie décorative à la française (Decorative French style Rose Garden): Central pool and central axis of the whole rose garden with 6 collections on either side. The bush, standard, climbing and landscape roses in this section are displayed on pylons, domes, pergolas and even cradles and replicate the formal elements of classical French gardens, like the edging pink and red climbing roses, trained into pyramids like clipped yews;

L’Allée de l’historie de la rose (Alley of the History of the Rose) with iconic roses, important in the development of the rose, like R. canina;  Rosa gallica; R. moschata; R. centifolia; R. foetida; and R. chinensis;

Les Rosiers botaniques (Species roses): Wild roses, the height of trees, from all over the world. The birds love the rosehips! Eg R. canina; R. moyesii; and R. pimpinellifolia;

Les Rosiers rugeux (Rugosa roses): Tough, disease-resistant roses with rugose leaves from Japan. Gravereaux experimented with Rugosa roses for perfume production eg Rose à parfum de l’Haÿ;

Les Rosiers pimprenelle (Scots Burnett roses, R. pimpinellifolia): Tough hardy roses, which flower early and have black hips. They were used by rose breeder, Kordes, in his breeding programs, to create yellow flowers;

 Les Roses galliques (Gallic Rose Garden): Fragrant roses grown in Grasse for perfume production and also used for its medicinal properties since Ancient Roman times eg R. gallica officinalis. In 1828, 1 200 out of the 2 500 varieties known were in the Gallicanae genus and included Gallicas, Damasks, Centifolias and Mosses; and Portlands;

 Les Roses de la Malmaison (The Malmaison Rose Alley): the roses of Empress Joséphine, 250 varieties of Gallic roses. Gravereaux planted an exact copy of her garden at Malmaison in his garden eg Maiden’s Blush; and Souvenir de la Malmaison. There is a bust of Empress Joséphine at the entrance;

Les Roses d’Extrème-Orient (Roses of the Far East); Roses of Japan, China and Persia eg R. foetida; R. chinensis mutabilis; Bengal rose; Persian Yellow; and R. sempervirens. These roses were very important in the hybridization of the rose with their yellows and their recurrent blooming ability. Support structures are made out of bamboo, stone edging replaces the box edging of the other garden beds, and there are two ceramic statues at the entrance;

Les Roses horticoles anciennes (Old horticultural roses); Largest area of the garden. Roses bred between 1845 and 1940 from crosses between the European roses and the newly introduced roses from China: the Noisettes; Bourbons; Polyanthas; Floribundas; and Hybrid Teas;

Les Roses étrangières modernes (Modern foreign roses); Roses bred in Belgium, England, Germany and America after the 1950s by breeders like Louis Lens; David Austin; Kordes and Walter Lammerts;

Les Roses françaises moderns (Modern French Roses) eg  ‘Rouge Adam’ (Adam), ‘Chartreuse de Parme’ (Delbard), ‘Persane’ (Dorieux), ‘Coraline’ (Eve), ‘Pénélope’ (Gaujard), and ‘Poker’ (Meilland);

Les Roses thé (Tea Roses): 100 tea roses, planted on the south-facing outer wall in the warmest position of the garden and mulched with straw in Winter. A cross between a Bourbons and a Noisette produced the first Tea rose, Adam. Tea roses have a delicate perfume and are recurrent blooming;

La Roseraie de Mme Gravereaux: Mme Gravereaux’s alley of flowers for cutting, the original reason for the garden. Roses arranged in coloured squares;

There is a map on : http://www.rosegathering.com/lhay4a.html.

The Formal Garden has all the vocabulary of a classical garden with statues; domes; pergolas and the Temple of Love, popular for weddings. Originally hosting the outdoor theatre and other performers of the Belle Époque (comedians, musicians, poets, singers and dancers), it is still a venue for  musical events, as well as lectures and workshops on rose planting, cultivation, training and  pruning.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-15-13-41-50While I prefer roses grown as part of a garden, complemented by a wide variety of trees, shrubs, climbers, perennials, annuals and grasses, like the next two gardens, I would not miss visiting Roseraie de l’Hay for its educational aspects alone!

La Bonne Maison

99 Chemin de Fontanières
, 69350 La Mulatière, Lyon, France

https://sites.google.com/site/labonnemaisoneng/

If I ever get to France again, La Bonne Maison is a definite must on my bucket list. I did in fact send my daughter there in 2012 and she returned with Odile’s beautiful book about her garden, especially her beloved roses , which I reviewed briefly in my post at:  https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/. See photo below.

Odile Masquelier is an Old Rose expert, who has published numerous articles on the subject and has lectured at conferences all over the world.

Odile and her husband, Georges, bought the walled 2.5 acre (1 hectare) property back in 1966, when the original garden comprised of: An old orchard in the upper part of the garden with difficult stony soil; a kitchen garden to the east; a gravelled courtyard to the north and to the south, a lawn with Polyantha roses and some large ornamental trees, including 3 Catalpa trees (Indian Bean tree); a Chestnut Tree; pines; an Atlas Cedar; a Weeping Willow and an allée of six sycamore maples, which she immediately removed. The lower part of the garden had the richest soil and was divided between sunny and semi-shaded areas.

Over the next 10 years, they established lawns and built 12 low drystone walls and steps out of dressed slabs of Burgundy to link the six terraces of the garden and create unity, as well as limit erosion from the stormwater runoff. A trip to Scotland in 1975 opened Odile’s eyes to the soothing potential of pastel, grey and white colour schemes, as well as introducing her to Old Roses, many with French names.

She planted six hedges (Cedar stricta; Laurus cerasus; Chamaecyparis lawsonia columnaris, Thuja candensis, box and yew) to protect the garden from the northerly and southerly winds and create micro-climates for bulbs and clematis. The soil is a mixture of heavy clay and limestone pebbles and is slightly alkaline. Its fertility has been improved over the years with peat and home-made compost, the recipe being on her website.

Odile ordered her first Old Roses from England, as well as an old, now long gone, nursery in Angers, Pajotin & Chedane. She has also bought many roses from André Eve, Pithiviers (see below), as well as a grower in Ardèche. I wonder if the latter is my next rose grower, Éléonore Cruse? Many of the roses have been grown from cuttings, some of them given to her by Professor Gianfranco Fineschi, of Cavriglio, Tuscany, Italy, also featured below, like the Macartney Rose, R. bracteata, growing up a Thuya; and a double form of R. hugonis.

She had wrought-iron arches made locally and built large porticos at the entrance to the different garden areas.

In 1987, she opened the garden to the public and in 1989, established the first old rose society in France, the Association des Roses Anciennes de la Bonne Maison, to preserve and research old roses. In 2006, the garden was awarded 2 stars in the Guide Vert Michelin Lyon Drôme Ardèche for its rose collection and in 2010, was given the label of Jardin Remarquable.

It certainly deserves its title! This is a very impressive garden, over 50 years old, which is constantly in flower from March to November. There are:

Over 800 varieties of roses, all labelled with their name, date, origin and family, which flower from early April till the first frosts. They are grown as shrubs or hedges;  supported on pillars; arches and pergolas; against garden and house walls; and high up into trees like the Peace Cedar; the Paulownia; the Sophora; the Prunus and the Holm Oaks, their rosehips complementing the Autumn foliage of deciduous trees;

110 varieties of clematis;

60 varieties of daffodils;

A collection of tree and herbaceous peonies; and

A collection of pest-resistant hostas, 26 listed on the website.

There are mature trees, including Cedars and Cypresses; Deodars; Golden Thujas; Buxus sempervirens trees; Paulownias; Judas Tree, Cercis siliquastrum; Japanese Pagoda Tree,  Sophora japonica;  two different species of Tamarisk; Gingko biloba; Golden Robinia, Robinia pseudo-acacia ‘Frisia’; Golden Rain Tree, Koelreuteria paniculata; Magnolia grandiflora; Weeping Pussy-Willow, Salix caprea pendula; Weeping Silver Pear, Pyrus salicifolia pendula; Weeping Laburnum; Silver Birches; Liquidambar; Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa chinensis, and White Dogwood, Cornus alba ; Chestnuts; Malus (Golden Hornet and a Purple Crab); a variety of Prunus; Flowering Cherries; Cherry, Morello Cherry and Greengage Plum trees; and Pear, Quince and Apple trees.

Shrubs include: Kolwitzia ‘Bridal Wreath’; Corylopsis; Box; Ceanothus; Sarcococca; Smoke Bush; Purple Berberis; a wide range of different species of Hydrangeas, Viburnums, Philadephus and Magnolias; Plumbagos; Moroccan Broom, Cytisus battandieri; Erica carnea; Weigela; Spiraea japonica; Choisya ternata; Cistus; Daphne; 4 different types of bamboo; Miscanthus variegatum; a variety of lavenders; tree and herbaceous peonies; Canadian lilacs; Fuchsia magellanica; yuccas and old-fashioned rose shrubs, species roses and ramblers; while climbers include Boston Ivy, Honeysuckle Clematis montana; Golden Hop, Humulus lupula ‘Aureus’, and many climbing roses.

Roses include Opaline; Fontanières; Albertine; R. brunonii La Mortola; Thalia; Mme Grégoire Staechelin; City of York; R. primula; La Bonne Maison; Pauline; Alida Lovett; R. hugonis;R. laevigata; Jaune Desprez; Sandler’s White Rambler ; Duchess de Portland; Suzie; Cornelia; Lawrence Johnston; R. cantabrigiensis; Souvenir de la Malmaison; René André; Madeleine Selzer; Primavère; Mrs FW Flight; R. ecae; R. foetida persiana; Gardenia; Princesse Marie; Thérèse Bugnet; Honorine de Brabant; Rose du Maître d’Ecole; Duchesse d’Auerstädt; Inès; Buff Beauty; Cornelia and Félicia; Albèric Barbier; Francis Lester; Stanwell Perpetual; Mme Alfred Carrière; Constance Spry; Phyllis Bide; Bleu Magenta; Léontine Gervais;Aviateur Blériot; Mme d’Arblay; Maria Lisa; Easlea Golden Rambler; Rambling Rector; Alister Stella Gray; Mme Ernest Calvat; Souvenir de St Anne; Salet; Honorine de Brabant; Hero; Cynthia; Charles de Mills; Tuscany Superb; Jenny Duval; Goldfinch; Kew Rambler; Blush Noisette; Meg; Laure Davoust; Aimée Vibert; Lady Hillingdon; François Juranville; Ghislaine de Féligonde; Max Graf; and Rêve d’Or.

The roses are under-planted with herbaceous perennials, annuals, biennials and bulbs. The former three plant types include in alphabetical order:

Allium giganteum and Allium hollandicum; Aquilegias; Arabis; Asters; Aubrietias; Basil; Bergamot; Brunnera macrophylla; Campanulas (25 different types); Candytuft( Iberis sempervirens); Caryopteris; Clary Sage; Convovulus; Crambe cordifolia ; Delphiniums;  Dianthus; Dicentra spectabilis; Dusty Miller (Senecio cineraria); Dyer’s Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria); Echinops ritro; a variety of Epimediums and Euphorbias; Fennel; Ferns; Foxgloves; Gaillardias; Geraniums; Giant Sea Holly (Eryngium giganteum); Goats Beard (Aruncus sylvester); Golden Marjoram; Hebes; Helianthemums; Hellebores (H. niger; H. orientalis; and H. argutifolius); Herbs; Heucheras; Hostas; Indian Pinks;  Japanese Anemones; Jerusalem Sage (Phlomis); Lady’s Mantle; Lysimachia mummularia aurea; Purple Loosestrife( Lythrus salicania);  Meadow Rue (Thalictrum flavum); Nepeta;  Nicotiana; Oriental Poppies;  Penstemon;  Poppies ; Potentilla fruticosa; Primula japonica; Rue; Salvias (15 different species;); Santolina neapolitana; Saxifraga; Sedum spectabilis; Snow-in-Summer, Cerastium tomentosum; Solanum; Stachys; Sweet Peas; Tagetes; Thrift (Armeria maritima); Thyme; Tiarellas; Tradescantia virginiana; Veronicas of different varieties; Violets; Virginia Stock (Malcomia maritima); Water-Lilies; White Rose Campion (Lychnis coronaria alba); Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and Zinnias.

Bulbs include: Agapanthus; Crocus; Colchicum; Cyclamen; many Daffodils; Fritillaries; Galanthus; Hemerocallis; a wide variety of Iris: Iris acuminata; Iris chinensis; Iris florentina; Iris germanica;  Iris intermedia (Bearded Iris); Iris pacifica; Iris reticulata; Iris stylosa; Iris susiana; Iris tectorum; and Iris unguicularis; Jonquils; many different Lilies; Nerines; Schizostylis; and Tulips (Species and Hybrid).

It is well worth consulting the website for the plants blooming in each month.

There are a number of sweeping lawns; curving paths; a pond, a well and a swimming pool; pots and statues; seats and lots of different garden areas to explore: The Courtyard; The Glass House and Cold Frames Area; The Heather Slope; The Potager and Herb Garden; the Main Lawn; the Mixed Border; the Yucca Garden; the Small Wood; the Secret Garden; the Apple Lawn; the Swimming Pool;  the Species Rose Garden; the Hydrangea Beds and Magnolia Lawn; the West Border; the New Enclosure; the New Garden, both enclosed by hedges; the New Well Gardens; the Iris Walk and the Pond.

Here is a photo of a map of the garden from pages 154 to 155 of Odile’s book and a key:BlogBucketFranceReszd2017-08-17 10.40.00BlogBucketFranceReszd25%2017-09-22 15.14.52.jpg

The book describes each area in detail and the photographs of the garden are superb. Odile has a wonderful eye for beautiful colour combinations.

There are 5 pergolas with 65 arches:

The Hard-Packed Path Pergola, the path bisecting the upper and lower parts of the garden and bordered with bearded iris and poppies in sunny areas and herbaceous and tree peonies in the shade.; the Yucca Garden Pergola; the Orchard Pergola; the Well Pergola; and the Secret Garden Pergola.

The garden has been organically managed for the last 15 years, with no weedicides, insecticides or fungicides used.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-223Another French garden that I would love to visit is the wonderfully wild and blowsy garden, La Roseraie de Berty, belonging to Éléonore Cruse:

Roseraie de Berty

07110 Largentière, France

http://www.roseraie-de-berty.com/

Another leading French rose specialist is Éléonore Cruse, who owns a lovely romantic rose garden, the Roseraie de Berty, in the valley of the Roubreau, 6 km (15 minutes drive) from the medieval village of Largentière, 2 hours drive south of Lyons. This area experiences severe Winters and heat waves in Summer, so plants have to be tough!

Éléonore bought the 18th century stone farmhouse and land, which had been an old peach orchard, in 1970. The schist soil was very poor, acidic and regularly leached. Initially, she used it for self-sufficiency, grazing goats and sheep, and growing dye plants and vegetables. Gradually, she improved the soil with goat, sheep and cow manure and crops of rye, phacelia and potatoes. Her partner, Christian Biette, slowly rebuilt the low stone walls. She started experimenting with roses, which are tough enough to withstand the extreme climate, learning much from André Eve and garden writer, Michel Lys.

The 1.2 acre (0.5 ha) rose garden was created in 1984 and is comprised of terraces on several different levels and has a naturalistic informal romantic style, so different to the formality of the traditional French rose garden, though structure is still provided by clipped yew and box to create secret areas of the garden. Éléonore has an artist’s eye, creating beautiful harmonious pictures with roses, perennials and ground covers.

It is a collector’s garden with 600 to 700 old roses and species roses, some as tall as trees, tumbling over walls, arches, pergolas and arbours and covering the house walls. They include the Scots Burnett roses; Rugosas; Zéphirine Drouhin; Alexander Girault; Albéric Barbier; Constance Spry; Mme Alfred Carrière; and New Dawn. I have chosen Scots rose, Stanwell Perpetual, to be my feature photo for this wild romantic garden. See below.

They are interplanted with shrubs, perennials and medicinal and aromatic companion plants, including sage, thyme, lavender and rosemary, to avoid the problems of monoculture and minimise pests and diseases. Minimal sprays and no fertilizers are used, except for a dose of manure on planting. A Bordeaux (Copper sulphate) mixture is applied at leaf fall and bud swell and roses, susceptible to downy mildew, may be dusted with sulphur by hand.

The roses are underplanted with heartease, Viola tricolor; wild pansies; perennial geraniums (Geranium sanguineum; G. psilostemon; and G. grandiflorum); Tradescantia virginiana; epimediums; Phyla nodiflora; Californian poppies; rose campion, Lychnis coronaria; nepeta; and grasses. The walls are covered with Erigeron karvinskianus. Ground covers include: wild strawberries; Matricaria tchihatchewii; and Frankenia laevis.

The outer edges of the garden blend seamlessly into the natural landscape without any clear boundaries. The steeply wooded slopes are covered in arbutus; box; bay (laurel); holly oak; chestnuts and heather. The stream below the garden regularly floods, so its banks are left to rough grass, interspersed with wild orchids, and is mowed twice a year.

In 2010, the garden was designated a Jardin Remarquable. It is only open to the public in June. There is a small tearoom and nursery, whose catalogue lists 309 varieties of rose, available bare-rooted between November and March. Éléonore has written a number of books on roses, including: Les Roses Sauvages 2001; Roses Anciennes 2005; and Leçons pour un Jardin de Roses 2007.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-10-09-19-11‘Les Jardins d’André Eve’

http://york.zenfolio.com/jun-12-andre-eve-roses-v2.pdf

André Eve (1931-2015)  was a famous French nurseryman and rose breeder, responsible for the conservation and rediscovery of many old roses, as well as being a mentor to my previous two rose gardeners, so I would have to include a visit to his nursery and gardens! He moved to Pithiviers in 1958, where he trained under the elderly French rose breeder, Marcel Robichon, then bought his nursery in 1968 , specialising in rose breeding and landscaping.

Nursery: Les Roses Anciennes André Eve 

Domaine du Château de Chamerolles 301 route de Courcy – Gallerand 45170 Chilleurs-aux-Bois      North-east of Orleans

http://www.roses-anciennes-eve.com/

The first rose he bred was a bright pink Polyantha, Sylvie Vartas, in 1968. He and his nursery team went on to breed and introduce 33 more varieties, including: Red Perfume; Sophie; Prestige de Bellegarde; Sandrine; Coraline; Suzie; Suzette; Suzon; Miss Lorraine; Mme Solvay; Carla Fineschi; Albert Poyet; Pierre Perret; Moraya Rouge; Belle de Clermont; Eccentric; Lépine; Château du Rivau; Roville; Rose des Cores; Rose des Blés; L’Auberge de l’Ill; Garden of Granville; and of course, André Eve!

His first catalogue in 1985 listed 275 varieties of roses, including 60 species roses and now offers 600 varieties.

He created a beautiful, romantic, informal walled garden, 18 metres wide by  80 metres long, hidden behind a terraced house and accessed by a narrow passage. Starting in the 1960s, it is now over 50 years old, but unfortunately is rarely open to the public, but can be visited on the links below:

Private Garden:

28 Faubourg d’Orleans, Loiret, Pithiviers, 45300 Orleans 37 miles (60 km) south of Paris

https://translate.google.com.au/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://baladesetjardins.fr/le-jardin-dandre-eve-2/&prev=search

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=45Qn4N2XJDE

http://threedogsinagarden.blogspot.com.au/2014/04/a-visit-to-andre-eves-rose-garden-in.html.

It is such a beautiful, blowsy old garden, created on chalky soil with a pH of 7.5, with 500 roses of rare and historic cultivars, like Ghislaine de Féligonde, Bobbie James, Lady Hillingdon; Blairi No 2; The Garland; May Queen; Claire Jacquier; Rosa gigantea; R. palustris; R. omeiensis pteracantha; R. carolina; Cerise Bouquet; Felicia; Buff Beauty; Nur Mahal; Kathleen; Prairie Dawn; Golden Wings; Mme Hardy; Charles de Mills; Chapeau de Napoléon; ; Complicata; R. gallica officinalis; R. moschata; R. gallica splendens; Rosa eglanteria; Cécile Brünner;  Alba Semi-Plena; Empereur du Maroc; Gloire de Dijon; Albéric Barbier; Maria Lisa; Albertine; Mme Pierre Oger;  Belvedere; Céleste; Souvenir de Mme Léonie Viennot; Souvenir d’Alphonse Lavallée; Mutabilis and many Noisettes (see photo below: Mme Alfred Carrière); spilling over garden walls, climbing through trees and over the sedum-covered roof of the Summer House, as well as the glasshouse and potting shed!  He sourced them from Roseraie de l’Hay; old nurseries; private gardens; and England.

He was a strong proponent of an informal style of garden with narrow curving paths, seats, and many different trees, shrubs, climbers, foliage plants of differing colour, texture and pattern, bulbs and perennials, annuals and grasses mixed in with the roses, which he planted in groups of three. Trees include silver birches and flowering cherry, Prunus Kanzan.

Here is an extensive list of his plantings, which is worthwhile including for ideas of companion plants for roses:

Aegopodium podagraria variegatum (Variegated Ground Elder);

Allium cristophii;

Ammi majus;

Anchusas;

Aquilegias;

Asparagus;

Asters;

Bearded Iris- often bicoloured  eg French Can Can;

Campanulas eg Campanula persicifolia;

Clematis including Brunette; Lord Neville, Vyvyan Pennell; Will Goodwin and Niobe;

Crocus;

Delphiniums;

Digitalis;

Euphorbia characias characius Burrow Silver;

Ferns;

Forget-me-nots;

Geraniums;

Heucheras eg dark purple Binoche and warm orange Marmalade;

Hostas (130 varieties);

Iris pseudacorus Roy Davidson;

Jerusalem Sage (Phlomis);

Lavenders;

Meconopsis;

Moon daisies;

Mulleins;

Narcissi;

Nepetas;

Nigella;

Oriental Poppies;

Peonies;

Pinks;

Raspberries;

Rhubarb;

Salvia nemerosa Ostfriesland;

Tulips;

Veronica umbrosa Georgia Blue; and

Welsh Poppies.

André Eve retired in 2000 and moved to Morailles in the late 1990s to concentrate on creating this display garden, close to the nursery, which is open to the public. It was expanded in 2005

‘Jardins d’André Eve’

1, rue André Eve, Z.A. Morailles – Pithiviers-le-Vieil, Pays De La Loire 45300 Cedex 

https://www.rustica.fr/tv/visite-jardin-andre-eve,6836.html.

There is an English translation at:

https://translate.google.com.au/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=https://www.rustica.fr/tv/visite-jardin-andre-eve,6836.html&prev=search, though the video is still in French.

All year :
Monday to Friday from 9 am to 12.30 pm and from 2 pm to 6 pm.
From April to June, exceptional opening on Saturdays, Sundays and bank holidays from 9 am to 6 pm. (Please inquire beforehand)
Closed between Christmas and New Year.

This garden is typical of his style: Sweeping curved beds, outlined by grass paths, and full of  mixed perennials amongst the roses. The entrance is via a long birch wood arbour, covered in climbing roses and clematis, with secondary grassed aisles leading off it. There are over 600 roses!

André Eve died in 2015 at the age of 84 years old. His successor is Guy André, whose real name is Guy Delbard.BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-05 18.37.23And finally, while in France, I would have to visit a rose farm in season:

Domaine de Manon

36 Chemin du Servan, Plascassier village, 06130 Grasse

http://www.le-domaine-de-manon.com/index-page=the-centifolia-rose.php.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEQVZ_28iSg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LePGMpt9pVw

Farmed by three generations of the same family since the 1930s and now grand-daughter, Carole Biancalana, the 3 ha farm is devoted to growing the Centifolia Rose (also called the May Rose, seen in the photo below), as well as Jasminium grandiflorum (August to October) for the Grasse perfume industry, specifically for Christian Dior (Rose Absolute is used in J’Adore L’Or; Poison, Miss Dior, Diorissimo and Miss Dior Original).

The rose harvest lasts four to six weeks, from May to early June, depending on the amount of sunshine, and the blooms are harvested daily from 8 am to 11.30 am. It takes a day to pick 100-300 kg of rose petals, 30 roses produce a single drop of essential rose oil; and 800 kg of rose petals to produce 1 liter of Rose Absolute.

At Domaine de Manon, the roses are grown organically and are still gathered and processed much as they were three centuries ago. The blooms are cold-washed and processed by extraction.BlogCentifoliasReszd2014-10-19 13.11.08My final bucket-list of overseas rose gardens is tomorrow and features some wonderful Italian and German rose gardens.

Bucket List of Rose Gardens in England

Now, it’s time to get down to the nitty-gritty with overseas gardens featuring my favourite plants, roses! Today’s post features English rose gardens, exemplified by David Austin rose, Heritage, the main feature photo for this post, while French rose gardens are discussed tomorrow and those of Italy and Germany on Thursday. This is just a small selection of the huge number of rose gardens in England and no doubt, there are many other wonderful gardens to visit, but here goes…! Firstly, the holy grail of old rose gardens: the National Old-Fashioned  Rose Collection at Mottisfont Abbey

Mottisfont

North Romsey, Hampshire SO51 0LP

https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/mottisfont/features/mottisfonts-rose-garden

These beautiful  walled gardens hold over 500 varieties of pre-1900 once-flowering Old Roses, which reach their peak in the last two weeks in June, as well as some newer repeat-flowering rose varieties as well. They are open from March to October and attract over 350 000  visitors.

It was created by Graham Stuart Thomas (1909-2003), a plantsman, nurseryman and garden writer and one of the most important figures in 20th-century British horticulture. As a 22 year old foreman at the Surrey nursery, T Hilling and Co. in 1931, he was mentored by 88 year old Gertrude Jekyll, who shared her knowledge about plants, plant groupings, methods of cultivation, colour theory and garden design as art. While at Hillings, he in turn influenced fellow employee, Peter Beales, my next entry!

It was around this time that Graham began to collect old shrub and climbing rose varieties, many of which had fallen out of favour, because they only flowered once during the season.

In 1956, Graham became a partner and director of Sunningdale Nurseries, a position he held until 1971. He established a collection of old roses, sourcing them from all over the world, trialling and selecting the best for British conditions and listing them in his nursery catalogue ‘The Manual of Shrub Roses’.

He went on to write 19 garden books, including his famous trilogy: Old Shrub Roses 1955 (constantly updated and reprinted); Shrub Roses of Today 1962; and Climbing Roses Old and New 1965, all illustrated with his own drawings and paintings.

Graham was an informal advisor to the National Trust from 1948 , when he worked on their first garden, Hidcote Manor, being appointed as their official garden advisor from 1955 on. He was also responsible for the restoration of over 100  gardens, including Sissinghurst Castle (http://www.countrylife.co.uk/gardens/country-gardens-and-gardening-tips/the-history-of-sissinghursts-roses-58258), Stourhead and Mt Stewart, Ireland. He was awarded an OBE for his work with the National Trust in 1975 and the Dean Hole Medal from the National Rose Society in 1996, and is even remembered in the name of one of David Austin’s beautiful golden roses Graham Thomas (photo below).

When he wanted a site to preserve his collection of old roses, he sought permission from the National Trust to use the old walled kitchen garden at Mottisfont. By 1974, he had created a garden that combined roses with a mix of herbaceous perennials in attractive colour combinations to give a season-long display and which showed his strong sense of design and his immense knowledge of plants and love of roses. Planting schemes were based on form, foliage and texture, as well as flower colour.

A gateway set in a sunny, rose-covered wall leads to the first rose garden, with deep box-lined borders, full of rambling roses (Wichuraiana and Multiflora) and climbing roses (Noisettes and Climbing Teas) and clematis, trained on the high brick wall behind, as well as on arches, pillars and pergolas, and beds filled with Bourbons; Hybrid Perpetuals; Chinas; Scots Roses; and a few Rugosa Hybrids.

The main paths crossing the site converge on a central round pond and fountain, surrounded by eight clipped Irish yews, the box-edged paths creating four quadrants each with a central lawn,  to house his Gallicas, Damasks, Portlands, Albas, Centifolias and Mosses, under-planted with many of his favourite perennials, chosen for their structure, scent and wide colour palette.

Agapanthus, aquilegias, geraniums, iris, poppies, eryngium and peonies mingle with pinks, allium, bergenias, lilies, campanulas, erigeron, yarrow, phlox, scabiosa, nepeta, lavender and naturalised purple, pink and white Linaria purpurea. The centres of the borders are a mass of soft blues, pinks and whites, whilst stronger yellows, oranges and dark pinks draw your eye along the length of the border. In June, the roses are accompanied by striking spires of white foxgloves. The northern section of the walled garden, with its wide paths, is deliberately planted with a cool colour palette to provide a counterpoint to the central rose garden.

The gardeners dead-head all our modern varieties and any old-fashioned  roses that flower more than once, but otherwise leave the hips on the old roses for Winter feed for the birds.

It is an excellent place to study the differences in all the different old rose types: the Gallicas with their large sweetly-scented flowers, up to six inches across; the Damasks with their soft grey-green leaves and pink and white flowers; the Mosses with their resinous stems and buds; and the Teas and Musks with their distinctive scents.

Here is a YouTube videos of the garden , showing its design clearly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n-QZExHApYw.

The rose Graham Thomas is on the left of the walk and is the climbing form.BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.52.59BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.53.19Peter Beales Roses

London Rd, Attleborough, Norfolk NR17 1AY

https://www.classicroses.co.uk/

Peter Beales (1936-2013) was a British rosarian, author and lecturer and a leading expert on species and classic roses. He worked under Graham Stuart Thomas, later succeeding him as foreman, at T Hillings and Co., Chobham, Surrey,  then the home to the most comprehensive collections of old roses in the United Kingdom.

Peter started his own nursery at Swardeston, Norfolk, in 1967, raising bedding plants, then breeding his own roses, moving to the current site at Attleborough in the late 1970s, when the business outgrew its premises.

He specialised in old-fashioned, rare and historic scented  roses, growing 1 200 different varieties at his nursery. He won 19 gold medals at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show over his lifetime (now 23) and was the President of the Royal National Rose Society from 2003 to 2005. He was given the highest RHS award, the Victorian Medal of Honour, in 2003 and an  MBE in 2005. He is also the holder of the National Collection of Rosa Species, holding more than 100 types of wild species roses in Britain. He has written a number of books including Classic Roses  in 1985 and Visions of Roses in 1996, see: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/.

We also own his romantic VHS video titled ‘A Celebration of Old Roses‘, in which he attributes the start of his love affair with Old Roses with the Alba rose, Maiden’s Blush, at his childhood home. In lieu of this rose, since I don’t have a decent photo yet (!), I have featured another famous old Alba, Alba Maxima (see below).

In 2015, Peter Beales Roses launched the Peter Beales Garden Centre, a specialist rose and plant centre, selling roses, shrubs, climbers and herbaceous perennials. It also has a two acre display garden, a gift shop with garden supplies, tools, books and rose-related products, and a licensed tea room and restaurant. I would love to visit their nursery and display garden in June. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/tours-courses-events/our-gardens/our-gardens.html.

The gardens show historic, rare and contemporary roses, growing in unison with complimentary plants like foxgloves, salvia, campanulas, iris, daisies, nepeta and anemones. The roses are displayed along paths and arches, including the iron St Albans Walkway, comprising of four arched walkways, joined together at the centre of a six metre gazebo. There is also a specially designed wildlife garden, pond, children’s woodland play area and stunning observation turret.blogelegantalbasreszd20%2014-10-27-13-07-44David Austin Roses

Bowling Green Lane, Albrighton, Wolverhampton, WV7 3HB

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/

http://www.davidaustinrosesaustralia.com/australian/handbook.pdf

David Austin (1926-) is the other big name in the United Kingdom rose world. He started rose breeding in the early 1950s, releasing his first commercially available rose Constance Spry (a cross between a Floribunda, Dainty Maid, and Gallica, Belle Isis) in 1961, followed by Chianti (a cross between Floribunda, Dusky Maiden, and Gallica, Tuscany Superb) in 1967 and Shropshire Lass in 1968.

His early roses were once-flowering in Spring and early Summer, but by 1969, he had  produced a series of remontant varieties, bred by back-crossing Constance Spry with other Floribundas and Hybrid Teas, their names based on Chaucer’s Cantebury Tales. For example, Wife of Bath; Cantebury; The Prioress; and  The Yeoman.

David’s aim was to produce a rose combining the best of the old Gallica, Damask and Alba roses (form, character, disease resistance and scent) and new Hybrid Teas and Floribundas (repeat-flowering and wide colour range).

Since founding David Austin Roses in 1969, he has introduced over 190 new rose cultivars of English Roses. They are named after:

Family Members eg his wife, Pat Austin; his father, Charles Austin and his mother, Lilian Austin; his daughter, Claire Austin; his son, James. L. Austin, and James’ wife, Jayne Austin; and grand-daughter Olivia Rose Austin, the daughter of his other son, David Austin Junior;

Well-known Rosarians: Graham Thomas; Gertrude Jekyll; Constance Spry; and  Trevor Griffiths;

Geographical Landmarks in Britain: Winchester Cathedral; Windermere; and Glamis Castle;

British Gardens: Harlow Carr; Munstead Wood; Wisley; and Kew Gardens;

Historical Ships: Mary Rose (Henry VII’s flagship); and The Mayflower (the English ship that transported the Puritans from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620);

Historical Characters and Famous People: William Morris; Charles Darwin; Charles Rennie Mackintosh; Sir Walter Raleigh; Thomas a Beckett; Anne Boleyn; Vanessa Bell; and today’s famous actress, Dame Judi Dench;

The works of writers:

Chaucer: Chaucer; The Pilgrim; The Nun; The Reeve; The Friar; The Yeomen; and The Squire;

Shakespeare: William Shakespeare; Wise Portia (The Merchant of Venice); Sweet Juliet (Romeo and Juliet); Prospero (The Tempest); Desdemona (Othello); and Cordelia (King Lear);

Christopher Marlowe: Christopher Marlowe; and Leander;

Thomas Hardy: Tess of the d’Urbevilles; and Jude the Obscure (photo below); and

Coleridge: The Ancient Mariner.

Since then, the roses have been further separated into four groups:

Old Rose Hybrids: These have the appearance of Old Roses, but are recurrent, with a wide colour range eg Brother Cadfael; Eglantyne; Jude the Obscure; LD Braithwaite; and  Sharifa Asma;

Leander Group: Wichuraiana parentage; Larger bush with arching growth; Suitable for pillar or use as a low climber eg Golden Celebration; William Morris; and The Alnwick Rose;

English Musk Rose: Iceberg and Noisette parentage; Pale green, slender and airy growth, but musk scent absent in most cultivars eg Evelyn; Heritage; Graham Thomas; Lucetta; and Windermere;  and

English Alba Hybrids: Tall, blue-leafed bushes eg Shropshire Lass; and Cordelia.

He has written a number of books about Old Roses (eg The Heritage of the Rose 1990; The Rose 2009/ 2012) and his English roses (eg: Old Roses and English Roses 1992; David Austin’s English Roses 1993/1996 and The English Roses : Classic Favourites and New Selections 2007). See: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/.

He has won 23 gold medals at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show and was awarded the RHS Victorian Medal of Honour in 2003; an OBE in 2007; and was named a ‘Great Rosarian of the World’ in 2010.

His two acre ( 0.8 ha) display gardens (http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/plant-centre-and-gardens and http://www.davidaustinroses.co.uk/david-austin-rose-gardens showcase 800 varieties of roses: Old Roses; Climbing Roses; Rambling Roses and 150 English Roses, all growing informally within clipped evergreen hedges. Here is a map of the display gardens, from page 272 of his 2007 book: The English Roses.BlogEngRosesReszd2017-09-29 09.24.38The garden is divided into a number of smaller themed areas, including: the Long Garden; The Victorian Walled Garden; the Lion Garden; the Renaissance Garden; the Patio Garden; and the Species Garden. For more on the display gardens, see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ox0PZPv1V98 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Zy3oY0KpFU.

bloghxroses20reszd2016-11-22-17-03-14And now for three private gardens: Kiftsgate; Elsing Hall and Mannington Hall.

Kiftsgate Court

Chipping Campden, Glos GL55 6LN, United Kingdom

http://www.kiftsgate.co.uk/

Map: http://www.kiftsgate.co.uk/garden-map/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8r6dOOB58Y

Famous for its Kiftsgate Rose, this garden is worth visiting for all its other roses, as well as the rest of the garden. This Twentieth Century Arts and Crafts garden is set on the Cotswolds escarpment, overlooking the Malvern Hills, and has been in the same family (three generations of women) for over 75 years.

The house was built from 1887 to 1891 by Sydney Garves Hamilton, who developed a paved formal garden in front of the portico. It was bought by Jack and Heather Muir in 1918. Inspired by Lawrence Johnston’s Hidcote Manor next-door, Heather developed  the garden organically, rather than drawing a precise plan on paper. She started by extending a lawn from the formal paved garden, then built steps in the steep wooded  bank to the lower garden, 150 feet below. She planted hedges of yew and copper beech to create a series of interconnecting gardens, each with its own character. She developed a Yellow Border and a Rose Border and built a summerhouse with views to the west.

Her eldest daughter, Diany Binny, took over the garden in the 1950s, adding a semicircular pool to the lower garden; redesigning the White Sunk Garden to include a small pool and wellhead fountain; and opening the garden to the public on a regular basis.

Dinny’s eldest daughter, Anne Chambers, and husband John have been responsible for the garden since the 1980s and have built a very modern Water Garden on the old tennis court.

Kiftsgate is a typical Arts and Crafts garden with wide herbaceous borders, a four-square garden and terrace, a White Sunk Garden, a Yellow Border, a Rose Border, a rockery, lawns and a bluebell wood. See the website, especially the diary and the map, for more details.

The areas that particularly interest me are :

The Orchard and Wild Garden with Camassias and Tulipa ‘Jan Reus’ blooming under the Spring blossom of heritage apples, medlars, quinces and pears, as well as the Bluebell Wood, filled with English Bluebells, Fritillaria meleagris, wild garlic, Anemone blanda and the odd grape hyacinth inside the entrance gates;

The wide Double Borders of small trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in pinks, mauves and purples with grey foliage;

The White Sunk Garden with white shrubs: Deutzias, Carpentarias; Hoherias and Staphyllea, underplanted with a riot of colour provided by erythroniums and trilliums in Spring, followed by Summer-blooming anemones, helianthemums, dioramas, santolinas and self-seeding Allium christophii. Roses include: R. sericea ‘Heather Muir’, ‘Diany Binny’, R. soulieana, R. alba semi-plena, White Wings, R. brunonii ‘La Mortola’, R. cooperii and ‘Lady Godiva’;   and most importantly of all:

The Double Rose Border, full of old-fashioned, species and modern roses, with a low hedge of Rosa mundi bordering the central lawn path, as well as astilbes, asters and grasses. Some of my favourites are there: Mme Hardy; Stanwell Perpetual; and Honorine de Brabant. The original Rosa filipes ‘Kiftsgate’ rose, planted in 1938 and named by Graham Stuart Thomas in 1951, is said to be the largest in England at over 24 metres wide and 15 metres high and covering three trees. It is covered with panicles of white roses in mid-July. Apparently, 410 flowers were counted on one panicle alone, so it would certainly be a wonderful sight! The Mutabilis on the house wall, climbing 30 feet up to the eaves, would also be spectacular.

Because I do not have the Kiftsgate Rose and am featuring Mutabilis in my post on Italian and German rose gardens, I am featuring William Morris, the name of the founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement and remembered by a David Austin rose, which we are growing in our Moon Bed.bloghxroses20reszd2016-11-17-09-52-09Elsing Hall

Elsing Hall, Elsing, Dereham NR20 3DX, UK

http://elsinghall.com/gardens.htm

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6_dKJz66a0

Elsing Hall is a medieval manor house, near Dereham, Norfolk, dating from 1470, complete with a fully functioning moat with an arched access bridge. The house is set in a small park with old beech, plane, oak and lime trees and newer plantings of specimen conifers, sweet chestnuts and birches.

The 20 acre garden, including the 10 acre arboretum, was established over 30 years ago by Shirley and David  Cargill in 1984 with a number of different areas: a Wild Meadow; Bog Garden; Autumn Garden; Moat Walk; the formal Osprey Garden; a Walled Garden; Arboretum; a medieval Stew Pond, South Terrace Lawn and the village cricket pitch.

It has a unique Gingko Avenue and a maturing Pinetum, but its main claim to fame is its huge collection of over 400 Old Roses covering the walls of the house and walled garden, as well as filling the borders, including: Rambling Rector, Albertine, Francis E Lester, Paul’s Himalayan Musk, Adélaïde d’Orléans, Veilchenblau, Mme. Alfred Carrière, Cardinal de Richelieu, R. gallica officinalis, Souvenir du Dr. Jamain, Charles de Mills, Empress Josephine, Alba Maxima, Great Maiden’s Blush, Celestial, R. centifolia, Fantin Latour, Ispahan, Kazanlik, Blanche Moreau, Mme Grégoire Staechlin (see photo below), Königan von Dänemark, Phyllis Bide, Constance Spry and Roseraie de l’Hay. The Moss roses lining the Stew Pond are particularly romantic and include Général Kléber and Maréchal Davoust.

The property is now owned by Patrick Lines or Han Yap and the garden is open to groups of 20 or more people by arrangement. It also had an Open Day on the 25 June 2017 and there is guest accommodation in the restored old stables/ coachhouse: http://www.bookcottages.com/cottages/105-1165-elsing-hall-old-stables.htm.

I would love to visit the garden in June, when they are in full bloom, but the other seasons hold promise as well: Snowdrops and aconites in January/ February; drifts of daffodils in March and April, camassias, bearded irises, delphiniums, tulips and peonies in May and the herbaceous borders in July and August.

For more on this lovely garden, read pages 42-47 of the February/ March 2016 edition of the English Garden on: https://www.chelseamagazines.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/TEGFebMarch2016.pdf.

BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9498

My last rose garden for this post is:

Mannington Hall

Saxthorpe, Near Itteringham, Norfolk, NR11 7BB

https://www.manningtongardens.co.uk/

Another moated  medieval country house, dated 1464 and owned by Robert Walpole, the 10th Baron Walpole, Mannington Hall is another 20 acre garden famous for its old roses, with over 1000 varieties. In his book, Visions of Roses, on page 43, Peter Beales describes it as ‘one of the finest and most important collections of historic roses in the world’.

The one acre walled Heritage Rose Garden is a living museum of 1000 years of rose history.  It includes:

Species Rose Border against the entire south wall: R. moyesii Geranium, R. chinensis Viridiflora and R. omeiensis pteracantha;

Medieval Garden: Wattle entrance hurdles and fences,  covered with R. moschata and Rambling Rector; Circular beds of Gallicas (R. gallica officinalis, Rosa Mundi (see photo below), Jenny Duval); Albas (Great Maiden’s Blush); and Damasks (Quatre Saisons; Kazanlik) with Scots Rose, R. pimpinellifolia;

Classical Garden: Roses from 1700 to 1836: Centifolias, Mosses, Bourbons and Noisettes: Champney’s Pink Cluster; Blush Noisette, Aimée Vibert and Desprez à Fleurs Jaunes;

Jekyll Garden: Octagonal garden made up of trellises covered with ramblers and climbers popular with Gertrude Jekyll: Dorothy Perkins; Debutante, Minnehaha, American Pillar, Cupid, Silver Moon and Elegance;

Between the Wars Garden: Hybrid Musks: Ballerina, Buff Beauty, Felicia and Belinda;

Modern Rose Garden: Iceberg, Peace, Piccadilly, Silver Jubilee, Constance Spry, Graham Thomas, Chaucer, Mary Rose, Frühlingsgold, Parkdirektor Riggers and Margeurite Hilling; and La Mortola.

Outside the Heritage Rose Garden is:

Victorian Garden: Mosses, Hybrid Perpetuals: Baronne Prévost and Empereur de Maroc; and Bourbons: Belle de Crécy, Boule de Neige, and Mme Isaac Pereire;

Sweet Briars: Meg Merrilees and Lady Penzance;

Rugosas: Blanc Double de Coubert and Roseraie de l’Hay;

Post-Modernist Garden: Recent rose varieties;

Temple Garden: Rambling Rector; and  Pimpinellifolia collection;

Shrubberies: Trial roses from the 1980s: Sadler’s Wells; William and Mary; John Grooms; and Gallica hybrid, Scharlachglut, scrambling 20 feet into a Kanzan Cherry;

Moat banks covered in R. wichuraiana and Fru Dagmar Hastrup;

House gardens: Mixed borders backed with 10 foot walls, including Golden Showers, James Mason, Kiftsgate, R. bracteata, Ramona and Guinée; Formal beds of Hybrid Teas and Floribundas; and a R. banksiae lutescens against the south wall of the house. This garden actually has all four Banksian roses: Single and Double Whites and Single and Double Yellows.

There is also a Knot Garden with scented plants, including Bourbon, Louise Odier, Modern Shrub Rose, Anna Pavlova, and a number of R. eglanteria varieties; a Sensory Garden with plants selected for touch, sound and taste, as well as smell and colour; and a 4.3 hectare wet Wildflower Meadow.  It is also possible to stay there with a small low key glamping venture called Amber’s Bell Tents: https://www.airbnb.com.au/rooms/18353490 and http://www.ambersbelltents.co.uk/mannington-hall.

bloggallicasreszd50image-240Tomorrow, I will be posting my bucket list of French Rose Gardens.

The Romance of Hybrid Musks

Hybrid Musks were developed in the first quarter of the 20th Century, so well after 1867. Consequently, they are not considered to be Old Roses, but rather Classic Roses with so many advantages that they are still very popular today.

The Hybrid Musk story starts with a German rose hybridizer, Peter Lambert, who bred a Multiflora Rambler, Aglaia, also called Yellow Rambler, in 1896 from a cross between R. multiflora and a Noisette, Rêve d’Or. Aglaia has vigorous, upright growth, 2.5 metres up to 5 metres tall and 1.8 metres wide; almost thornless stems; rich light green foliage with bronze tints when young; and small, semi-double, strongly fragrant, pale primrose yellow blooms, fading white, in Summer. Aglaia was one of the three daughters of Greek God, Zeus, and Eurynome and represented beauty. You can see a photo of this rose at: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/aglaia.

In 1904, Lambert released a self-seedling of Aglaia, Trier, a Hybrid Multiflora and the very first Hybrid Musk rose. Trier is a repeat-flowering, upright shrub or small climber, 2.5 metres tall and 1.8 metres wide, with small foliage and small sprays of small, nearly single, fragrant white flowers, tinged with cream and pink. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/trier.

The story then transfers to Reverend Joseph Pemberton (1852-1926) of Essex, England, who was an Anglican clergyman, but also a keen lifelong rosarian. He had an early interest in growing and showing roses, especially the then-popular Hybrid Perpetuals, and was an early member of the National Rose Society, of which he was President in 1911. On his retirement, he started to breed roses, crossing Noisettes, Polyanthas and especially Trier with Hybrid Teas, Teas and Noisettes to produce a new type of rose, the Hybrid Musks.

These new roses were long flowering, highly floriferous shrubs with clusters of fragrant flowers. His first Hybrid Musks were Daphne 1912 and  Danaë and Moonlight, both released in 1913. He established the Pemberton Nursery at Romford, where he grew 35 000 to 40 000 roses for sale annually. He released 25 new roses between 1912 and 1926, with a further ten selected from his seedlings and released by his sister, Florence, after his death.

During the 1930s, his assistants, John (Jack) and Ann Bentall, continued his work, releasing several new Hybrid Musks, including Autumn Delight 1933, Ballerina 1937 and Buff Beauty 1939, released after John’s death by his widow. For more about Reverend Pemberton,  see: http://www.pembertonroses.org.uk/pemberton-family-history and http://www.pembertonroses.org.uk/historical-events.

BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-06 13.08.16Description

Graceful spreading shrubs, which can be trained as low climbers, pillars and cascading feature roses. BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_9277They are quite large shrubs, most at least 1.5 metres to 1.8 metres tall and wide, so they require room.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-27 13.15.17Very vigorous and tough, they can withstand a wide range of soil conditions, temperature and sun. They tolerate partial shade better than most roses and can be grown on south-facing walls (Australia). They have excellent disease-resistance. The photo above is Buff Beauty at the Mt Lofty Botanical Garden, Adelaide Hills, South Australia, while the photo below is Autumn Delight.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.35.00They have long graceful canes, some of which are almost thornless, with large, smooth, shiny, dark green , healthy foliage. Cornelia is the rose in the photo below.BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-10-29 12.06.39Very floriferous, they bloom abundantly and rapidly in Summer and Autumn and are reliable repeat-bloomers, some producing flowers continuously. Because so many flowers are often open at the same time, their pleasing fragrance fills the air for some distance. The scent from Cornelia is superb!BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-05 18.47.34They have huge clusters of small to medium, soft pastel flowers in white, yellow, pink, peach and apricot, though there are a few medium reds like Will Scarlet and Robin Hood. The photo below is Kathleen.BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-06 13.08.54Requirements

Hybrid Musks need plenty of space and good cultivation and adequate manuring to reach their full potential. Because they repeat-flower, pruning is important to encourage new growth, prevent the shrub from becoming leggy and unkempt, and to extend its life. Prune the strong main shoots back by one third in Winter, as well as old weak wood, especially in the centre of the bush. Deadhead during the Summer to encourage new flowers. The photo below is of Penelope.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-27 13.17.05Varieties

Prosperity Pemberton UK 1919

A cross between a Polyantha, Marie-Jeanne, and a Tea rose, Perle des Jardins, I grew this rose in my old Armidale garden as part of a hedge.

Tall bushy upright growth like its Tea parent and can be grown as a climber.  Up to 2 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide.

Strong arching shoots, which bend due to the weight of the blooms.

Shiny dark green foliage.

Large even clusters of small double fragrant creamy white blooms, flushed with blush pink at first, then fading to an ivory white, with a lemon tinge in the centre with age.BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (181)Kathleen Pemberton UK 1922

A cross between Hybrid Musk Daphne and Perle des Jeannes, I tried growing this rose as part of my Hybrid Musk hedge, but it wasn’t a healthy specimen, so I replaced it. It is still alive, but sickly, so I will wait to see if it recovers next Spring before deciding its fate!BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-06 13.09.01Very vigorous (2.4 metres tall and 1.2 metres wide) with greyish green stems; Sparse dark green foliage;BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_9318 And small to medium, fragrant, single, pale pink blooms with deeper shadings like apple blossom.BlogHybridMusksReszd2514-11-26 15.25.03Bloomfield Dainty Thomas USA 1924

A cross between Hybrid Musk, Danaë, and Bloomfield Abundance. The photo below was taken at Werribee Park and features Bloomfield Dainty in the foreground.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.33.19

Spreading arching shrub 2.5 metres tall and 1.2 metres wide.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.33.24Long pointed orange buds open to single yellow saucers with 5 petals, a large central boss of gold stamens and a sweet musky fragrance. The main Spring flush is followed by a lesser display in Summer and Autumn.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.33.29Penelope Pemberton UK 1924

One of the most reliable and popular Hybrid Musks, this rose is a cross between Trier and Hybrid Tea, Ophelia.bloghxroses20reszd2016-11-06-13-09-14 This would have to almost be my favourite Hybrid Musk and it thrived both in my old Armidale garden and my new Candelo hedge.blogsummer-gardenreszd20img_0813Fully branching and spreading habit, 1.8 metres tall and 1.5 metres across, it can be grown as a climber or a low spreading shrub.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-27 13.16.20 The long canes bear large trusses of highly fragrant, semi-double, medium, frilly edged blush pink to peach blossoms, which open from coppery, salmon tinted buds, then fade to a creamy-white.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-27 13.16.56 The flowers reveal centres of gold stamens as they open.BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (192) Continuously blooming, they set coral pink hips, which should be deadheaded to encourage more blooms.BlogHybridMusksReszd2017-05-12 11.54.34Cornelia Pemberton UK 1925 Unknown parentage

Vigorous shrub, 1.5 metres high and 1.8 metres wide, with dark brown shoots;BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-03 10.04.21 Small bronze foliage when young;BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_1982 And large clusters of small , highly fragrant, pink and peach, fully double, rosette blooms with 3 to 4 layers of petals and a central boss of gold stamens.BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-03 10.03.16 Continuously blooming, the Autumn flush is particularly good, with large sprays of deeper pink flowers produced on strong new stems from the base of the plant.BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_1979 I am growing this rose on one side of the chook arch opposite Tea rose, Sombreuil.BlogHybridMusksReszd2016-11-10 09.19.26

Felicia Pemberton UK 1928

Released by his sister Florence after his death, this rose is another cross between Trier and Hybrid Tea, Ophelia.BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (179)A strong reliable broad shapely branching shrub, 1.5 metres tall and 2.7 metres wide, which makes a good hedge. The large, crisp, dark green leaves have crinkled edges and are more like those of Hybrid Teas than many Hybrid Musks.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.35.46 I am growing this rose under the apple tree, but it has much competition both from the latter, as well as the roots and shade of the White Mulberry and Cottonwood Poplar!BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (231)Large sprays of small, informal, muddled, strongly fragrant, rich pink flowers with salmon shadings open from pointed apricot pink buds and fade to blush pink. Very floriferous, it blooms freely from Summer to Autumn.BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_9316

Francesca Pemberton UK 1928

Another seedling released after his death, this rose is a cross between Hybrid Musk, Danaë, and Sunburst.

Large graceful shrub, 1.8 metres tall and wide, it has broad arching growth; Smooth dark stems and is well-foliated with long dark green glossy leaves with pointed ends.BlogHybridMusksReszd2514-11-26 15.24.19Well spaced sprays of large semi-double apricot yellow blooms, with a strong Tea scent, open from long, slim, pointed, elegant buds and fade to a pale yellow. The Autumn blooms are a deeper yellow.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.34.08Autumn Delight Bentall UK 1933 Unknown parentage

Upright bushy shrub, 1.2 metres tall and wide, with almost thornless stems; Dark green leathery foliage;BlogHybridMusksReszd2514-11-26 15.24.34 And large trusses of semi-double, soft buff yellow, continuous blooms, opening from shapely deep yellow buds.BlogHybridMusksReszd20%IMG_9649 This rose graces the far end of the white Hybrid Musk hedge behind the raspberry patch.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-19 13.34.44Buff Beauty Bentall UK 1939

The last of the Pemberton-Bentall Hybrid Musks, this rose is a cross between a Noisette, William Allen Richardson, and an unknown rose.

A vigorous, well-balanced, arching shrub, 1.8 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide, it can be grown as a small climber in warm climates. It was a very large shrub in my Armidale garden.BlogHybridMusksReszd2014-10-27 13.17.27Smooth stems tinted brown and large thick dark green leaves.BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (170)A reliable continuous flowerer, it has small to large clusters of medium, semi-double to double, rich apricot-yellow blooms with a strong Tea fragrance. The colour varies with the weather and the soil from apricot to buff yellow and even primrose.BlogHybridMusksReszd50%Image (167)For a full list of Hybrid Musks available commercially today, with photos, see:

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/type/shrub-roses/hybrid-musk-roses.

In my research, I also discovered that the Pemberton Rose Garden at the St. Francis Hospice in Romford, Essex, has the largest collection of Pemberton Roses in the world. See: http://www.pembertonroses.org.uk/the-garden. What a wonderful place for the terminally ill patients and their families!

Next week, there are three posts on travel books in our library, as a lead up to my Bucket-List of Overseas Gardens, which I would love to visit one day, but for this month at least will be exploring digitally!

Oldhouseintheshires

 

Gracious Noisettes

Noisettes are one of my favourite types of rose, so I have dedicated a special post to them, all of their own! They originated at a similar time to the Portlands, Bourbons and Teas, in fact some of them are referred to as Tea-Noisettes, due to the crossing of Blush Noisette and Yellow Teas to produce the yellow forms of Noisette roses like my signature rose Desprez à Fleurs Jaunes.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (201)Noisettes originated in America, when John Champney, a rice grower from Charleston, South Carolina, crossed a China rose, Parson’s Pink, which he had been given by friend and neighbour, Philippe Noisette, with the Musk Rose, R. moschata, to produce the very first Noisette rose, Champney’s Pink Cluster 1802, which is still with us today (photo below). The Musk rose parent gave the Noisettes their broad shrubby habit and scented large clusters, while the China rose parent contributed the pink colouring, larger flowers and continuous flowering pattern.BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_9248Champney gave the resultant seedlings as a thank you gift to Philippe, who made further crosses, sending both seeds and plants to his brother Louis in Paris. Louis named the first seedling ‘Rosier de Philippe Noisette’, which was shortened to ‘Noisette’ or ‘Blush Noisette’, also still available commercially. Redouté painted Blush Noisette under the name of R. noisettiana in 1821.  Blush Noisette was later crossed with Park’s Yellow China to produce the yellow Noisettes. A cross between the early Noisettes (Musk X China) with Teas produced the Tea-Noisettes. The rose below is Desprez à Fleurs Jaunes at Werribee. BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-19 13.44.44Noisettes are vigorous, free growing climbers, with clusters of flowers, which bloom later than the Bourbons, with many of them repeat or continuous flowering for the whole Summer. They provided a new range of colour, especially yellow, to the climbing and rambling roses of the day. The flowers have the true old rose form- a rosette formation with silky petals and good fragrance.

While they have a reputation for tenderness during the cold Winters of Northern Europe, they will still perform well on a sheltered warm wall, but here in Australia, they thrive like the Tea roses. They require little pruning except for the removal of dead or undesired canes and deadheading to encourage more blooms in the Autumn. Here are some of my favourites:

Champney’s Pink Cluster  Champney, USA 1802

While I have never grown this particular rose, I am describing it here because it was the first Noisette. It grows to 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide, is disease-free, has light green foliage and large, loosely formed clusters of small, blush-pink double flowers in Summer.

BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_9249

Aimée Vibert  (also called Bouquet de la Mariée or Nivea)  Vibert, France, 1828

A cross between Champney’s Pink Cluster and the Evergreen Rose R. sempervirens, the latter passing on its plentiful long graceful, rich green foliage. It was named after Vibert’s daughter Aimée and was one of the first perpetual-flowered climbing roses. Climbing vigorously to a height of 4.5 metres, it bears small to medium open sprays of pink buds and small pure white double 5 cm rosette flowers with gold stamens and a musky fragrance. It repeat-flowers like its Noisette parent from early in the season right through into the Autumn. It has healthy dark green semi-evergreen leaves and almost thornless stems. My plant, grown from a cutting from our old garden, is still in a pot awaiting the construction of the chook shed, over which it will grow, so I have included a link: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/roses/aimee-vibert-climbing-rose.html.

Lamarque      Maréchal, France, 1830

A Tea-Noisette, bred from a cross between Blush Noisette and Park’s Yellow China, this rose reaches 3 metres in England, but much more in warmer climates. We are growing it up the front wall of our house and already, after being planted as a small bare-rooted specimen in June 2015, and then dug up and rotated 90 degrees, so it would grow correctly against the wall (instead of away!), it has reached 3.6 metres high.BlogNoisettesReszd2017-04-27 18.03.14BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-04 19.39.04 It has large flat and quartered rosettes of pale lemon-cream with a superb fresh lemony fragrance.BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-02 13.32.22BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_0413 Lamarque also has copious light green foliage and few thorns.BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-02 16.49.24Madame Alfred Carrière Schwartz, France, 1879

Grown over our front entrance pergola, both in our old Armidale garden (along with Albertine) and our new garden here in Candelo, this rose is very much a favourite for its toughness, continuous flowering and small clusters of beautiful 10 cm large, globular, double, creamy-white blooms with a touch of pink and a strong Tea rose fragrance.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (241)BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (246) It can be grown on a south-facing wall (coldest aspect in Australia) and still blooms reliably.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (245) It will grow up to 6 metres in height and has few thorns.BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-17 08.43.01BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-05 18.37.23Alister Stella Gray (also known as Golden Rambler)  AH Gray, but introduced by George Paul in 1894

I am growing this lovely rose over an arch opposite Reve d’Or next to the cumquat trees. Both are key components of my yellow garden!BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-12 10.06.54 Alister Stella Gray bears small sprays of small scrolled yolk-yellow buds, which open out flat into double quartered gold flowers, which fade to a creamy-white with age. They have a Tea rose scent.BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-25 09.34.13 It can be grown as a climber or a large arching shrub, with few thorns and dark green foliage, reaching 4.5 metres on a wall.BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-25 09.34.18 Rêve d’Or (Golden Chain) Ducher France 1869

A seedling of Tea-Noisette, Madame Schultz, itself a seedling of Lamarque, I fell in love with this rose on our rose trip to Renmark, where I saw it in the garden of Alan and Fleur Carthew.

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It’s a very generous rose and has flowered continuously at the base of our front steps, where it will grace an entrance arch, once we have built it!BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-10 09.10.26 The fragrant blooms are shapely double buff-yellow with pink shadings, fading with age.BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_0183 It has strong growth and dark green foliage.BlogNoisettesReszd2016-11-08 15.21.14Desprez à Fleurs Jaunes (Jaune Desprez)  Desprez France 1835

Another cross between Blush Noisette and Park’s Yellow (like Lamarque) and one of my favourite Tea-Noisettes, which I grew next to the front trellis entrance on the verandah of our old home in Armidale and whose blooms are featured in my header display to this blog. It is a very vigorous and hardy rose, which will reach 6 metres on a warm wall, and is never without a flower. BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (239) Its medium-sized warm yellow-peach double blooms open flat and quartered with a strong fruity fragrance, many silky petals and a button eye. The colours are more intense in Autumn with the cooler weather.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (202)Crépuscule  Dubreuil France 1904

A beautiful rose with rich apricot-gold loose blooms, whose colour varies from apricot to butterscotch and buff with the soil and the season (colours being more intense in cooler weather), fading to a soft yellow with age.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (217) Its prolific continuous display, bronze coloured young foliage, few thorns and strong sweet musky fragrance make it a favourite with many people.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (249) We grew it on the front verandah railing (below) and the vegetable trellis (above) in our old garden.BlogNoisettesReszd50%Image (182) Walter Duncan grows it on the back of his guest cottage at Heritage Garden (photo below) and it forms an impressive display in full bloom over 100 metres of fencing at the Flemington Racecourse.BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9521 It will reach 2.5 metres tall and prefers warmer Mediterranean  type climates.BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_9244Céline Forestier Trouillard France 1842

I first saw this lovely rose growing on the rough sandstone wall of Walter Duncan’s Heritage Garden cottage during our 2014 Spring rose holiday.BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9518It grows to a height of 2.5 to 3 metres and has fully double, 6 to 8 cm large, rounded, silky, pale blooms of a pale yellow-buff  with touches of pink, opening quartered with a button eye and having a moderate Tea rose fragrance.BlogNoisettesReszd20%IMG_9520 They are borne singly or in small clusters. It has profuse light green foliage and darkish stems.

Here are some more Noisettes- would I had room to grow them all! However, you can get to appreciate them on a visit to the Victoria State Rose Garden at Werribee Park.

Bouquet d’Or Ducher France 1872

A seedling of Gloire de Dijon (itself a cross between a Tea rose and the Bourbon rose, Souvenir de la Malmaison, from which it inherited its tendency to ball in wet weather) and one of the Dijon Teas, it has large, full-petalled, double, quartered or muddled  coppery-salmon blooms, which are yellow at the centre and have a slight scent. Hardy and vigorous, it grows to a height of 3 metres.BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-19 13.43.37Cloth of Gold (Chromatella) Coquereau France 1843

A seedling of Lamarque and slightly tender in colder climates like its parent. Reaching 3.5 metres high, it has double soft sulphur-yellow fragrant blooms, which deepen towards the centre and copious light green foliage.BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-19 13.43.09Maréchal Niel  Pradel France 1864

A seedling of Cloth of Gold, it was highly prized in the late 19th century for its large pointed buds of  deep yellow, a colour rarely seen until Pernet-Ducher introduced the genes of R. foetida into the Hybrid Teas at the turn of the 20th century. It was however very cold-sensitive, so was grown predominantly in glasshouses, where it could reach 4.5 metres. It has dark coppery-green foliage and the blooms are very fragrant. The photo below taken at Werribee mainly shows older blooms, though there are a few younger golden flowers towards the right of the bush.BlogNoisettesReszd2014-10-19 13.26.31Next week, my post is devoted to Walter Duncan and his wonderful rose garden, the Heritage Garden, at Clare, which we were fortunate enough to have visited in 2014.