Rose Pruning

It’s rose pruning time in the Southern Hemisphere!

Pruning can be an art form or very brutal and basic, depending on its location; your needs and your time:

If a shrub is getting too big for its location, it will need pruning to restrict growth and keep enough air flow around the plant.

If you want a large single flower: remove more wood; or a mass of small flowers: leave more growth.

I have even seen time-poor gardeners take to the shrub with a chainsaw and the plant still survives and sends out lots of flowers in the new season, but I would probably avoid this technique, as I think you have more control and can make more considered decisions using secateurs, as well as still have continual flowering if you are doing minor pruning while there is still plant growth.

However, this post is about the major prune at the end of the growing season and before the next one!

Pruning Time

In areas with mild Winters: Winter to early Spring.

There are two schools of thought! Later pruning avoids damage to new growth by late frosts, but earlier pruning of repeat-flowering roses allows them to get a head start and have a longer flowering period.

Old once-flowering roses can be pruned immediately after flowering, unless you want the decorative hips.

In areas with cold Winters: Delay pruning till the Spring growth is starting.

We tend to prune in late July to early August, because of our frosts. Here is a photo of our wild and woolly Soho rose garden, last week in the depths of Winter, followed by a photo of the garden post-pruning!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 12.44.03BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 15.02.08 Pruning Technique

Make sure your secateurs are sharp and clean. Have a pruning saw or large pruning shears handy for tougher wood.

Disinfect secateurs if plants are a bit diseased, so you don’t spread  any disease. I soaked two pairs of secateurs (so one pair could be soaking, while I used the other,  swapping them for each new rose) in solution of diluted methylated spirits: 3 parts metho to 1 part water and soak 15 minutes.

And wear strong gloves to protect your skin from vicious thorns!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.12.07Prune to an outer bud, so the new growth shoots away from the plant, rather than towards the centre; and

Cut the stem on a diagonal, just above the node, so that any pooled water runs off and downwards away from the shoot, rather than into the corner, where the new shoot branches off the main stem. Refer to the websites at the end of the post for clear explanatory diagrams!

BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.17.44Remove any spindly, ill, dying or dead shoots. Cut right back beyond the disease source, so that the surface of the cut is clean and there is no sign of disease in the stem.BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 14.05.31Remove the following :

Any stems growing inwards and overcrowding the centre of the bush, to allow for more air flow.

Any branch crossing another and rubbing against it, resulting in damage and the creation of a possible site for infection; and

Any suckers, which come from the root stock below the bud union and will rob your rose of its nourishment.

Note: Suckers are best pulled out, rather than cut, which still allows for their regrowth. Here is a sucker on my Fair Bianca:BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.40.18And above all, don’t overstress!!! Roses are tough and even Hybrid Teas will recover well after a good prune!

Pruning Amount

The amount you prune a rose is dependent on the type of rose:

Species Roses and their hybrids, Ground Cover Roses and Miniature Roses require little or no pruning, except the removal of old spent or dead  wood.

Ramblers can also be left to their own devices, unless you are growing them over an arch or pergola, in which case, remove any shoots growing in the wrong direction and cut back side shoots to 8 or 10 cm.

Modern Shrub Roses can be treated like Species Roses, unless they repeat-flower well, when they should be pruned like English Roses, cutting the main shoot back by a third and the side shoots to 8 or 10 cm. Here is Fair Bianca, a David Austin rose, before and after its haircut!BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.40.23BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.44.08Old Roses also require minimal pruning, removing only dead and dying wood, and should not be touched for the first two years. After that, they can be pruned if needs be, their main shoots cut back by a third and side shoots to 8 cm. Very tall roses can be pruned to half their height if they are getting away! Cut back any dead branches hard.

Hybrid Teas and Floribundas should be pruned to 12 cm from the ground in their first year, and after that, prune the stronger shoots to half their length and the thinner side shoots to 5 or 8 cm. Here are before and after photos of Mr. Lincoln, a Hybrid Tea:BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 13.14.45BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 15.02.18Standards should be left with a broad head, while growth should be encouraged in Weeping Standards to ground level.

Repeat-Flowering Climbers require special pruning, depending on which wood they flower on: Noisettes (especially the larger flowering varieties), Climbing Teas, Hybrid Teas and Hybrid Perpetuals flower on wood produced in the same year, while ramblers and scramblers (R. arvensis; R. wichuraiana; R. sempervirens; R. multiflora and R. setigera) flower on wood produced in the previous year.

In the first type, the main stem should be tied or secured with wire or cleats in as many directions as possible, including a horizontal direction to encourage vertical laterals in the coming season. The side shoots, which bore last season’s flowers, should be shortened to 8 or 10 cm or to one third their length. These spurs will then produce several flowering shoots, which will then be pruned in turn the following year to produce an increasing number of flowers.

With the ramblers and scramblers, leave them be for several years, till they densely cover their supports, and only prune when necessary after flowering in early Summer. Remove dead and old non-productive wood.

Having said that, I am not allowing my Wichuraiana Rambler, Albertine, to indulge in its typically thuggish behaviour, due to lack of room, and am keeping it under tight control, treating it as a climber rather than a rambler! In the photo below, I am training its prickly stems horizontally along the wire and trellis to encourage plenty of vertical growth along the stems, so eventually I will have a wall of pink roses against the shed.BlogPruningReszd2017-07-27 17.37.39After Pruning

It can be beneficial to prick over the soil with a fork to a depth of 2 to 5 cm to aerate the soil and remove weeds. Dig in a long-term fertilizer and mulch with well-rotted compost or animal manure.

If you would like more information about pruning your roses, here are three excellent sites, as well as a rose calendar:

https://www.treloarroses.com.au/index.php?route=information/information&information_id=146

http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/rose-pruning

http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2288062.htm

http://www.nsw.rose.org.au/rose-care-calendar

Propagation by Cuttings

A terrific way to enlarge your rose collection without breaking the bank, as well as conserve old roses found in old abandoned homestead gardens, cemeteries and roadsides. It is also a great way to share your roses and swap cuttings. And finally, roses grown on their own roots avoids the problem of root competition by root stocks and they are tough! In windy situations or light soils, they anchor themselves more effectively.

Roses can also be propagated by seed, division, layering, budding and grafting and finally, tissue culture (micro-propagation), but cuttings are by far the easiest for the home gardener starting to propagate roses!

The best time to take hardwood cuttings is when the leaves begin to fall and the wood has ripened over the entire Summer. Choose mature, one-year old wood, the thickness of a pencil and 15 cm long, and cut to a growth bud at the top and bottom. For heel cuttings, keep a small slice of two-year old wood still attached at the base.

Remove leaves, dip the end of the cutting in root hormone powder or honey, push into a labelled pot of equal amounts of sand and moist peat, and place in a protected sheltered spot away from frost. A cold frame or warm glasshouse will encourage root development. By early Spring, the cuttings should start to root and the following Autumn can be planted out into their permanent position.

I took cuttings from my old Armidale garden and that of a fellow rose-a-holic during our first Winter here, and while some did not strike, many did, including my three cuttings of Albertine, which are now gracing the shed wall; three cuttings of Multiflora Rambler, Russelliana; two cuttings of New Dawn, another Wichuraiana Rambler, and Climbing Hybrid Tea Rose, Mrs Herbert Stevens; and one cutting each of a Climbing Tea Rose, Sombreuil; a Centifolia, Fantin Latour; a Noisette, Reve d’Or; Bourbons: Mme Isaac Pereire and La Reine Victoria; and Shrub Roses, Leander and Fritz Nobis. Most of them are now planted out in my garden and growing madly, with a few given away as gifts.

Good Luck with all your rose pruning! May your house be filled with masses of blooms and scent this coming season!

Next week, we return to reviewing our natural history library with a post on books about the environmental challenges facing our unique and special planet and all its inhabitants.

Alister Clark Roses

Having discussed Australian rose breeder Alister Clark and the Alister Clark Memorial garden at Bulla in my two previous post this week, here are some specific notes about some of the roses he bred, for which I have photos, mainly taken at the Alister Clark Memorial Garden at Bulla. It is by no means an exhaustive list, as our visits to Bulla tended to be in early Spring or late Autumn. I have also included a few more prominent roses, which I have not photographed, with a link to other sites.

Lady Medallist 1912, named for one of his most successful race horses and his first rose.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.06.14Jessie Clark 1915 Clear Pink Single Climbing R. gigantea hybrid. Probably R. gigantea X Madame Martignier. Very large single clear pink roses borne abundantly on a vigorous climber in early Spring. It was the 1st R. gigantea seedling and the 3rd Glenara rose to be released, as well as his first great success as a rose breeder. Named after a favourite niece, who used to visit Glenara with her friends, Nora Cuningham and Gwen Nash, daughter of his great friend, Albert Nash, all of whom were also remembered in the names of his roses.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.57.07BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.16.06Sunny South 1918 A Hybrid Tea, which was a popular tall hedging rose between the two world wars. A cross between Gustav Grunerwald and Betty Berkeley. Large, very recurrent, profusely-blooming, semi-single, fragrant pale pink, flushed carmine, blooms on a very tall bush. I do not have my own photo, but have included it because it was one of Alister’s favourite roses, so please see: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/189015/.

Australia Felix 1919 Low growing Hybrid Tea;  A cross between Jersey Beauty and La France, the first Hybrid Tea rose; Small, semi-double, fragrant, silvery-pink blooms in clusters. Very recurrent. Australia Felix was also the name given by explorer, Thomas Mitchell, to the lush parts of Western Victoria. Another early success and an ideal rose for small gardens or the front of borders, as in the photo below, where it borders the decking on the left of the photo.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.16.33BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_4786Black Boy 1919 First Climbing Hybrid Tea; A cross between Bardou Job and Etoile de France; Another great success story; Large, semi-double, fragrant, dark red blooms. Again, I have no photo, but as this particular rose has never left the nursery catalogues for its entire life, you can see the rose here: https://www.diggers.com.au/shop/ornamentals-and-flowers/rose-blackboy/rblbo/.

Gwen Nash 1920 Climbing Hybrid Tea, named for a friend of his niece, Jessie Clark, and daughter of his great friend, Albert. Rosy Morn, another Alister Clark rose, is one of the parents. Large, semi-single, cupped, fragrant, soft-pink blooms with golden stamens. See: http://rosephotographer.blogspot.com.au/2015/03/gwen-nash.html. At Bulla, this rose is grown on the side pergola, near the front fence, on either side of her friend, Jessie Clark.

Golden Vision 1922 Gigantea hybrid  climbing rose with semi-double, fragrant blooms; Its parents are Noisette rose, Maréchal Niel, which gives it its soft creamy lemon-yellow colouring, and R. gigantea, which gives it its almost evergreen leaves. Only blooms once early in Spring.BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_7175BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.07.15Scorcher 1922 named for a hot day or scorcher! Climbing Hybrid Tea, Madame Abel Chatenay is one of the parents, R. moyesii could be the other unnamed parent. Non-recurrent, large, semi-double, open, slightly fragrant, brilliant scarlet-crimson flowers on a vigorous climber. See: https://www.antiqueroseemporium.com/roses/1133/scorcher.

Squatter’s Dream 1923  A 2nd generation Gigantea bush rose (a seedling of an R. gigantea seedling), named after a racehorse. The bushy, thornless shrub is 2 metres tall, with soft apricot and saffron yellow, semi-single, open flowers.. It blooms for almost 12 months of the year and still had flowers on 1st June at Forest Hall in Tasmania. It is obviously the bee’s dream too, as can be seen in the bottom photo!!!BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.13.26BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_7183Harbinger 1923  Very vigorous climber and R. gigantea hybrid with large, single, soft-pink flowers. Named for the coming of Spring.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.08.46Lorraine Lee 1924 Second- generation Gigantea hybrid bush rose, bred from a cross between Jessie Clark and Capitaine Millet, and named for a distant cousin of the Clarks after her visit. It blooms all year round with open, double, rosy-apricot flowers with a beautiful scent and evergreen foliage, inherited from R. gigantea. It is the most popular rose ever grown in Australia. Between 1924 and 1934, nurseryman EW Hackett sold 44 000 plants of Lorraine Lee. Often grown as a hedge. She is a very tough rose, which thrives on neglect! It has both bush and climbing forms. BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.52.32BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.54.06Climbing Lorraine Lee was a sport of Lorraine Lee in 1932.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9104Baxter Beauty 1924 Gigantea bush rose; Another sport of Lorraine Lee; Not strictly an Alister Clark rose, it was discovered by Russell Grimwade before 1927 at Baxter, Victoria. Varies from light yellow to sulphur and a light salmon pink on outside of petals. It flowers in Winter like Lorraine Lee.

BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.22.06BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 16.09.10Milkmaid 1925 A huge, recurrent-flowering rambler with dense, shiny green foliage and clusters of medium, open, semi-double, creamy-white flowers in Spring, the scent of milk and honey, hence the name. Very vigorous climber. Crépuscule is one of the parents.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.09.37

Tonner’s Fancy 1928 Gigantea climbing rose; Its parents were an R. gigantea seedling and an unnamed variety. Fragrant, large, globular, white tinged pink blooms, named after Ballarat gardener, George Tonner, who persuaded Alister to release it. Very short flowering period, but roses come so early in Spring, that they are often damaged by frost.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.09.03BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.12.46Countess of Stradbroke 1928 Climbing Hybrid Tea; A cross between Walter Clark and an unnamed variety; Large, dark, glowing, crimson, double, highly scented blooms, which are very recurrent. Named after the the wife of the 3rd Earl of Stradbroke, who was the Governor of Victoria from 1920 to 1926. The Countess raced horses and stayed with the Clarks; One of Alister Clark’s greatest successes, especially in the United States, so here is a link: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/l.php?l=2.17985.0.

Mrs Albert Nash 1929 Hybrid Tea Very dark red, very recurrent, fragrant blooms.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 16.02.12Peggy Bell 1929 Hybrid Tea named after a family friend for her 21st birthday. Mid-pink to salmon-pink and free flowering. Rose in the right-hand side of photograph below:BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.06.10Amy Johnson 1931 Soft pink, tall shrub rose; Large, cupped, fragrant, pink blooms; One of the parents is Souvenir de Gustav Prat. Named to commemorate the landing of Amy Johnson (1903-1941), famous English pilot and first woman to fly solo from England to Australia in 1930. She landed at the Moonee Valley Racecourse, where she was presented with a bouquet of Alister Clark roses.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.50.43Margaret Turnbull 1931 Large-flowered, climbing Hybrid Tea rose of unknown breeding; Very recurrent, large, double, slightly fragrant, mid-pink flowers. Named for a friend of the Clarks for over 50 years. Margaret Turnbull was a daughter of a Scots storekeeper, who became a Victorian Member of Parliament. At Bulla, it is growing at the front of the main pergola, facing the Council offices. The paler pink rose in the middle of the pergola behind Margaret Turnbull is Doris Downes (see next entry).BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.18.22BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 15.52.34Doris Downes 1932 Climbing Hybrid Tea rose of unknown breeding; Named after a fellow rose breeder, who was a stylish Melbourne beauty and who married an Army surgeon. Very large, semi-double, cupped, fragrant, profuse but non-recurrent blooms.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.14.35BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.57.41 Broadway 1933 was found at Mrs Oswin’s garden in Broadway, Camberwell, Victoria and is probably a Clark Hybrid Gigantea climber. Unknown breeding.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.16.46BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.16.46BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.12.11Marjorie Palmer 1936  Polyantha, with Jersey Beauty as one of the parents. Very recurrent, double, very fragrant, rich-pink flowers in clusters on a short bushy plant. A good friend of the Clarks, Marjorie and Claude Palmer, who lived at Dalvui, near Terang, played polo and restored and extended the original Guifoyle-designed garden.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 15.59.41Sheila Bellair 1937 Large, semi-double, open, salmon-pink flowers with golden stamens. Hybrid Tea shrub rose;  Miss Mocata is one of the parents. Sheila met Alister through her father, who served on the Moonee Valley Committee with his friend. Sheila was an excellent horsewoman, who was a member of the Oaklands Hunt Club with Alister and  became a breeder of thoroughbred horses.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.22.30Cicely Lascelles 1937 Climbing Hybrid Tea. A cross between Frau Oberhofgartner Singer and Scorcher, with abundant, warm-pink, semi-double, open blooms from Spring to Autumn and Autumn; Named after a friend of the Clarks, who was a champion golfer from a landed family. Note these photos below were taken at the Walter Duncan’s Heritage Garden, in Clare, South Australia.BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_9468BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_9669 Nancy Hayward 1937 Very vigorous Climbing Hybrid Tea, a cross of Jessie Clark and a 2nd generation Gigantea hybrid,  with huge, single, scentless, vibrant lipstick-pink flowers all year round. It was named for the daughter of a Sir William Irvine, a Federal Minister and later Chief Justice of Victoria, as well as Patron and Vice Patron of the Rose Society from 1928 to 1943. She was also Susan Irvine’s husband’s aunt, so was one of the first ports of call when Susan Irvine started researching Alister Clark roses, although Nancy couldn’t tell Susan much and never liked that particular rose!BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.49.08BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.05.04Sunlit 1937 Hybrid Tea bush rose of unknown breeding; Always in flower with small, double, soft apricot-pink blooms with a good scent on a compact bush. Very acclaimed in Australia at the time.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 16.09.26Lady Huntingfield 1937  Hybrid Tea; A cross between Busybody and Aspirant Marcel Rouyer.  Large, double, fragrant, rich golden-yellow flowers. Vigorous bushy plant and very recurrent. Named after Margaret Crosby, a New York judge’s daughter, who married Australian-born Baron Huntingfield, who became the Governor of Victoria from 1933 to 1939.

BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_4775Editor Stewart 1939 Cherry-red semi-double pillar rose, with wavy petals and red young foliage, named for his good friend, TA Stewart, who was editor of the Australian Rose Annual for 30 years.

BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.01.09Mrs Fred Danks 1951 Lilac-pink Hybrid Tea, released after Alister’s death. A highly scented shrub rose, named after a keen gardener, Dorothy (Fred’s wife!), who was a family friend of the Clarks. Unknown parentage. Very large, abundant, semi-double, fragrant, pink-violet flowers on a tall upright bush. She compliments Nancy Hayward (in the corner of the building in the background of the 1st photo) and both contrast well against the dark grey bluestone wall of the old council offices.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.22.57BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.23.09Many of the photos in this post were taken at The Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden at Bulla, the subject of my next post tomorrow. It is a very special place to visit, a firm favourite of mine and not to be missed in the Springtime, when Broadway (on the left) and Tonner’s Fancy (on the right) are in full bloom! BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.21.13Now that we are in the midst of our Australian Winter, it is an excellent time to sit beside a cosy fire to read and plan future forays! Over the next few weeks, I will be posting book reviews of some of our favourite natural history books in our library. As this is a major passion of ours, we have lots of books on this subject area, so I have divided them up into four specific areas: Plants; Birds and Butterflies; Animals and Marine Life; and General Reference Guides (including books on geology, astronomy and weather). I hope you enjoy them!

 

 

Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden

This garden is devoted to showcasing the beautiful roses bred by Australian rose breeder, Alister Clark, about whom I wrote in the previous post.

Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden

96 Bulla Rd. (Corner of Sunbury Rd and Somerton Rd, signposted Green St.)

Bulla, Victoria 3428  10 km NW of Melbourne (35 minutes from Melbourne CBD) and 7 minute drive from Tullamarine Airport.     Melways 177 A8/ B7

Open all year round, every day from 9 am to 5 pm, though other sources state: Daylight Hours. Free.

BlogAlisterClarkBlogImage (572)There is a free brochure at the gate with a garden map.BlogAlisterClarkReszd30%Image (569)

https://www.hume.vic.gov.au/What39s_On_amp_Things_To_Do/Things_to_do_in_and_around_Hume/Hume_Attractions

Situated between an old bluestone church and the Old Bulla Shire Council office, this pretty garden is one of my favourite rose gardens of all!BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.24.07BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 15.56.33BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.00.15BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.04.48 This pretty garden mixes Alister Clark roses with trees and shrubs like Eucalyptus citriodora (1st photo); a Quince tree (2nd photo); Silky Oaks Grevillea robusta (3rd photo); Echiums and Lilacs (4th and 5th photos);BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 16.04.32BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.16.33BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.19.08BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.01.40BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.46.11 lavender hedges;BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-03-30 16.06.05 and bulbs and perennials including : Agapanthus, Ajuga, Anchusa, Aquilegia, Bergenia, Bluebells, Catmint, Clematis, Daffodils, Day Lilies, Erigeron, Forget-Me-Nots, Geranium, Grevilleas, Hebe, Heliotrope, Hellebores, Heuchera, Iris (Bearded, Louisiana), Japanese Anemones, Jasmine, Kniphofia (yellow), Lambs’ Ears, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Lilac, Mignonette, Nasturtium, Nigella, Persimmon, Poppies, Queen Fabiola, Salvias, Scabiosa, Scilla peruviana, Snow-in-Summer, Statice, Verbena (Candy Stripe), Vervain, and Viburnum opulus.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.01.36BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.58.05BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.05.33BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.15.46 There are 650 plants and 68 varieties of Alister Clark roses, including climbers, pillar roses, Polyanthas and Hybrid Tea bush roses,BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.14.19BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.04.52 and all these roses are identified, with interpretive boards about the dedicatees.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.57.22

It is the only publicly accessible and complete collection of all the Alister Clark roses, still available today.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.51.05

 

BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.53.42The garden is dedicated to growing, displaying and promoting Alister Clark’s life work and is maintained by the Hume City Council and volunteers from the Friends of the Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden, who hold regular monthly working bees on Fridays and Saturdays between 10.30 am and 2.30 pm throughout the year. Here are some photos of the back entrance, shed and garden:

BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_7173BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.24.49BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.05.11 Roses were sourced from all over Australia, including many of the old gardens of the original families, after whom Clark had dedicated his roses. The best time to visit is in Spring, though there are roses in bloom from October to March, and while the garden is open every day, there is an Open Day on the Saturday after the Melbourne Cup each year, when you can chat to the volunteers, who maintain the garden.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.05.33BlogAlisterClarkReszd2514-10-19 16.04.59Tomorrow is my final post about Alister Clark, with a few notes about specific Alister Clark Roses, whose photographs were mainly taken in this beautiful memorial garden!

 

 

 

Alister Clark: Australian Rose Breeder

Alister Clark was one of Australia’s most famous and prolific rose breeders, producing many very well-known and popular roses, well-suited to Australia’s hot dry climate, so I am devoting three posts to him this week: his life (today), Alister Clark Memorial Garden at Bulla (Wednesday), and a few notes about the specific roses he bred (Thursday). Below is a photograph of one of his most famous and popular roses, Lorraine Lee 1924.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 14.56.10Alister Clark was born in 1864 to Walter and Annie Clark of Glenara, Bulla. Walter Clark (1803-1873) was a Scottish immigrant from Argyllshire, who arrived in Australia in 1838, started in the Riverine area of NSW, where he made money out of stock during the gold rush, overlanded stock to Melbourne and then in 1857, he bought 485 acres at Deep Creek, Bulla, where he built a large single storey Italianate house of brick and rendered stone (granite and bluestone), with a hipped slate roof and encircling verandah with open work timber posts and lintels, on an elevated site above Deep Creek Gorge, which he called  ‘Glenara’. See the bottom of this post for more about ‘Glenara’.

The Melbourne architects, Albert Purchas and Charles Swyer, also designed the garden around the house, including a terrace with stone steps, urns and a sundial to the west and an extensive network of paths cut into the rocky outcrops to the south. In 1872, Walter built a rustic wooden bridge across the creek to a romantic stone folly, a bluestone lookout tower, on the opposite hill. He also established a vineyard, being one of the first landowners to grow grapes in the Sunbury region and gradually expanded the property to 4079 acres by his death in 1873 . He was President of the Shire of Bulla, now part of the City of Hume, from 1866 to 1871. Below is Nancy Hayward 1937, an equally famous Alister Clark rose, which is never out of flower.bloghxroses20reszd2014-10-19-13-17-23Alister’s mother, Annie, died when Alister was 1 year old and his father 8 years later, so Alister and his older siblings, brother Walter and 3 sisters, Annie, Jessie and Aggie, were raised by relatives. Alister was educated in Hobart, at Sydney Grammar School (1877-1878) and at the Loretto School in Scotland. He studied Law at Cambridge University (1883-1885), but never practiced, though he was a Justice of Peace. On the boat home to Australia after his graduation, he met Edith (Edie) Rhodes, daughter of wealthy New Zealander, Robert Heaton Rhodes, and married her in Christchurch, New Zealand, on the 7 July 1888. Alister bought the Glenara homestead block (830 acres) from his father’s estate in 1892 and by his death, the property was 1035 acres.

Alsiter and Edie never had any children and lived most of their life at Glenara, where Alister bred roses, daffodils and nerines and pursued his other passions like playing polo, billiards and golf, being a founding member of the Royal Melbourne Golf Club. He frequently visited his good friend, Albert Nash, to play golf on his private golf course in Cranbourne. He added a billiard room to the eastern end of the homestead in 1895. Alister also loved his horses, keeping steeplechasers, draughthorses and ponies at Glenara. He was Master of the local Oaklands Hunt Club and Founding Chairman of the Moonee Pond Racing Club in 1917. The Alister Clark Stakes, named in his honour, are still run at the Autumn race meet at Moonee Ponds every year. Like his father, he was President of the Shire of Bulla in 1896, 1902 and 1908. The rose below is Squatter’s Dream 1923 , named after a racehorse.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.13.21Alister was involved in the breeding of a number of new species of daffodils, his best known being Mabel Taylor, which is still grown and used in breeding today and which Alister believed was the first pink daffodil in Australia.  In 1948, he was awarded the Peter Burr Memorial Cup from the Royal Horticultural Society in England, but it was roses for which he became famous!BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.24.37blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9334Alister Clark was one of Australia’s most famous and prolific rose breeders. He bred over 122 (some sources say 138) varieties from 1912 to 1949, using a huge species rose from Burma and the Himalayas, Rosa gigantea (photos above), to create roses specifically suited to Australia’s hot dry climate, one of the first rose breeders to do so on both counts (ie the use of R. gigantea in breeding, as it does not thrive in the cooler climates of Europe, where many of the rose breeders hailed from at that time; and the breeding of roses ideally suited for Australian conditions). They were the most widely planted roses in Australia in the period between the two world wars. See : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Alister_Clark_roses for a list of Alister Clark roses. Another useful site with photographs is: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alister_Clark_Memorial_Rose_Garden.

He bred his roses with a number of specific aims in mind…

Firstly, he wanted to produce the first rose to flower all year round. His first generation crosses of R. gigantea were Spring blooming only eg Jessie Clark; Courier; Golden Vision and Tonner’s Fancy; However, he  achieved his aim with second- generation crosses, Lorraine Lee and Nancy Hayward, both bred from Jessie Clark. A bunch of Lorraine Lee (photo below) was shown at every meeting of the National Rose Society for 20 consecutive months.BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_9113

He also aimed for roses, which performed well in ordinary gardens, rather than show roses, so his roses were very popular with the general public in Australia. An Argus poll in 1937 of 230 varieties of garden roses and 99 different climbing rose types resulted in Lorraine Lee being voted the most popular garden rose, while another of his roses, Black Boy, polled as the most popular climbing rose. While Lorraine Lee, Black Boy and Nancy Hayward (photo below at Werribee Park) are considered to be some of his most successful roses, Alister believed that Sunny South and Gwen Nash were some of his best roses.

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He wanted to breed tough roses, which did not require pampering or coddling and he did not believe in using chemical sprays and fertilisers, preferring to encourage birds for aphid control. Our little Eastern Spinebill is an excellent rose guardian!BlogAprilGarden20%Reszd2016-04-06 14.13.19Alister named his roses after horses, people and places. His first rose, Hybrid Tea, Lady Medallist 1912, was named after a successful racehorse, as was Squatter’s Dream 1923, Tonner’s Fancy 1928, Flying Colours 1922 and Courier 1930, while many of his roses bred the name of family friends, especially women, like climbing rose Gwen Nash 1920 and bush roses Peggy Bell 1929; Mary Guthrie 1929; Marjorie Palmer 1929; Countess of Stradbroke 1928 (the wife of the 3rd Earl of Stradbroke, who was the Governor of Victoria from  1920 to 1926) and Cicely Lascelles 1937 (photo below). He named Amy Johnson 1931 after the famous English pilot, who was the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia, to commemorate her landing and Edith Clark 1928 after his wife, who was also the Patroness of the Victorian Rose Society.

I will be writing about specific Alister Clark Roses on Thursday, but for more on the naming of his roses, read: ‘The Women Behind the Roses: An Introduction to Alister Clark’s Rose-Namesakes 1915 – 1952’ , written in 2010  by Andrew and Tilly Govanstone. It is also well worth reading ‘Man of Roses: Alister Clark of Glenara and His Family’ 1990  by Tommy R. Garnett and Susan Irvine’s Rose Gardens: Garden of a Thousand Roses with A Hillside of Roses by Susan Irvine 1992  for more information on this amazing rosarian, as well as an illustrated list of his roses.BlogAlisterClarkReszd20%IMG_9470Being a gentleman of private means with a philanthropic nature, Alister never bred or grew roses commercially, preferring to donate them to rose societies and charities for their fundraising efforts, as well as giving them as gifts to the people, after whom he had named his varieties. For example, Jessie Clark (photo below) was donated to the National Rose Society of Victoria to contribute to prize money at rose shows.BlogAlisterClarkReszd2014-10-19 15.15.58Alister Clark was the founding President of the National Rose Society of Victoria in 1889. He was highly regarded in the USA and was awarded a Honorary Life Membership of the American Rose Society in 1931 and elected as Vice-President of the Royal Horticultural Society of London from 1944 – 1948. In 1936, he was awarded the Dean Hole Medal from the National Rose Society in London, the highest honour in the rose world. Here is a photo of gold rose: Baxter Beauty 1924, not strictly bred by Alister Clark, but a sport of Lorraine Lee :bloghxroses20reszdimg_4796Alister died in 1949 and after his death, interest in his roses waned with the renewed availability and popularity of roses from Europe and America after the end of the Second World War. Also, they are large roses for large gardens and most bloom only in the Spring, so are unsuitable for gardens with limited space. While Black Boy, Nancy Hayward and Lorraine Lee remained constantly in nurserymans’ catalogues, many Alister Clark roses were lost during this period.

Interest in Alister Clark roses was revived in the 1980s, especially through the efforts of nurseryman, John Nieuwesteeg, and roselover, Susan Irvine, who grew many of them at her various gardens at Bleak House and Erinvale, Victoria and Forest Hall, Tasmania, about which she has written, the former two gardens faeatured in her book photographed below. It is also worth reading the interview with John Nieuwesteeg: http://gpcaa.typepad.com/settings/2011/02/alister-clark-roses.html  for more information about the search for Alister Clark roses and the establishment of the GPCAA’s Alister Clark Collection.blogrosebooks30reszdimage-233

Alister Clark roses are now grown in the Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden at the Old Government House in Canberra (26 Alister Clark roses); at the Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden in the St. Kilda Botanic Gardens on Blessington St, St. Kilda (5 unlabelled Clark roses including Black Boy and Lorraine Lee. See: http://www.melbourneplaces.com/melbourne/alister-clark-rose-garden-%E2%80%93-botanical-gardens-st-kilda/) ; the Alister Clark Memorial Garden at Moonee Valley Racecourse; the John Nieuwesteeg Heritage Rose Garden at Maddingley Park, Bacchus Marsh; and the Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden at Bulla.  Ruston’s National Rose Collection contains nearly all Alister Clark’s climbers, while State Rose Garden of Victoria at Werribee Park has a large collection of Alister Clark roses, especially the Gigantea climbers. The Geelong Botanic Garden grows Borderer; Lady Huntingfield; Mrs Fred Danks; Squatter’s Dream and Mrs Maud Alston, and the rose maze at Kodja Place, Kojonup, Western Australia has a hedge of Australian bred roses, including 32 Alister Clark roses.

Private gardens featuring Alister Clark roses include Richmond Hill and Forest Hall, Tasmania; and Carrick Hill, South Australia. They are also grown in some of the world’s greatest rose gardens like Bagatelle in Paris and Sangerhausen in Germany. Here is another photo of Nancy Hayward 1937 at Werribee Park.

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And finally, a few notes about Alister’s family home, ‘Glenara’.

Glenara

10 Glenara Drive, Bulla, Hume City

Once the mecca of rose lovers all over Australia and home to famous rose breeder, Alister Clark, the 25 acre garden was started by his father Walter and ran right down to Deep Creek. The garden was designed by Charles Swyer and included fruit trees and a specialised collection of conifers and unusual Australian natives. The property was painted by Eugene von Guerhard in 1867, the painting now held in the National Gallery of Victoria.

When Alister owned Glenara, the garden was an informal garden, with drifts of daffodils carpeting the hillside opposite the house and roses planted informally through the garden. He employed up to 8 gardeners. After Alister’s death, it fell into disrepair with blackberry, smilax, kangaroos, possums and rabbits overtaking the garden.

The old house is now classified by the National Trust and listed on the Historic Buildings Register. See : http://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/177.

The verandah is festooned with blue wisteria and the yellow Banksia rose R. banksiae lutea, with China rose, Cramoisi Superieur, in the front bed. At the start of her quest, Susan Irvine visited owner Ruth Rendle at Glenara, where she was entranced with the wild and woolly garden, overgrown with periwinkle, smilax, agapanthus, long grass, wild daffodils and sweet peas and huge mounds of surviving roses including Jessie Clark; Milkmaid; Traverser; and Tonner’s Fancy. She took cuttings from 64 different bushes, but unfortunately, there were no labels, garden plans or records. A good proportion of them struck, though many of the climbers did not, those bred from R. gigantea stock being notoriously difficult propagate. Tonner’s Fancy 1928, photographed below, still flourishes at Glenara.

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Tomorrow, I will be writing about the Alister Clark Memorial Rose Garden at Bulla, one of my favourite rose gardens in Victoria!

Ruston’s Roses and Renmark Rose Festival

Now, it is time for the promised post on Ruston’s Roses and the Renmark Rose Festival! David Ruston is a big name in the rose world! He has been President of the World Federation of Rose Societies and has been awarded a Medal of the Order of Australia for services to floriculture (1984) and England’s highest rose award, the Dean Hole Medal, given to him by the Royal National Rose Society in 1994. He is held in such high regard that there is even a statue of him in Renmark! Having heard about him for years, it was wonderful to finally visit his garden in Renmark, South Australia, in the 3rd week of October, 2014, during the Renmark Rose Festival, as part of our Old Rose holiday.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.35.35Ruston’s Roses

70 Moorna St. Renmark, South Australia

Open 7 days a week from 9 am to 5 pm, except for Good Friday and Christmas Day

http://www.rustonsroses.com/

Just 5 km from the centre of town and covering 27 acres (11 ha), Ruston’s Roses is Australia’s largest rose garden with 50, 000 bushes of 4000 different rose varieties, including Species Roses; Rugosas; Old European Roses – the Gallicas, Damasks, Centifolias and Mosses; Bourbons; Teas; Noisettes; Hybrid Musks; Hybrid Perpetuals; Hybrid Teas; Floribundas; Miniatures and Ground Covers; and David Austin and Delbard Roses.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.36.41BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.35.55 Since October 2005, it has been home to the National Rose Collection and also has a large collection of Tea Roses, perfectly suited to the warm dry climate of the Riverland region. The first two photos below show the native vegetation along the Murray River in this area and the 3rd photo was taken adjacent to Ruston’s Roses.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 11.12.44BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.25.15BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.20.14 Renmark is situated on the Murray River and while much of the Mallee vegetation is scrubby and dry (see above photos), the abundance of irrigation from the Murray allows lush productive gardens, not just for roses, but also citrus, grapes and almonds.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 10.22.16BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 10.09.32BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.19.25BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.00.22 Here is a map of the location of Ruston’s Roses taken from their official brochure:Image (563)David’s father, Cuthbert Sowersby Ruston, was a soldier-settler from England, who bought 30 acres of land in the Riverland with a friend in 1919 and proceeded to develop a commercial fruit orchard, which supported the two families.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.12.18 In 1924, he planted roses around the family home, as well as Lombardy Poplars, Melias, a Norfolk Island Pine and a Lemon-Scented Gum, all of which still shade the house.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.57.06BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.49.14BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.35.16 In the late 1920s, he planted more roses: Mme Jules Bouché, Lady Hillingdon (photo below), Rosa laevigata and Hybrid Tea, Constance, for David’s grandmother, Constance.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.58.50 In all, his father grew 300 rose bushes, including many Teas: Devoniensis; General Gallieni; Hugo Roller; Lorraine Lee; Mrs B Cant; Mrs Herbert Stevens (photo below) and White Maman Cochet.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.46.51 David was born in 1930. He worked on the family property and started to plant roses along the open irrigation channels, in fact anywhere he could find a spare bit of land!BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.15.13 Gradually, he removed vines, established trees as backdrops and windbreaks for the roses and planted more roses for the cut flower trade.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.25.59BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.28.23 He started Ruston’s Roses in 1968. By the mid 1970s, the entire 11 ha had been converted to roses within a garden setting with large trees and shrubs and hundreds of iris (700 varieties from Bearded Iris to Louisiana Iris and the largest collection of Spuria irises in Australia), as well as daylilies, watsonias, criniums, agapanthus and clivias. BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.39.16The 1990s were a particularly busy time with the cut flower trade, but the drought and increased competition from West Africa and South America greatly affected the business at the time. Looking to retire, David sold the business to his niece and daughter of his twin brother, Anne Ruston, and her husband, Richard Fewster in 2003. They instigated a modernization program of the horticultural practices and in 2004, introduced a ‘No-Till’ regime, along with state-of-the-art computerised irrigation and fertigation systems to replace the prior flood irrigation. All pruning is now done by machine.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.37.16BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.24.15 In 2005, the Ruston’s Roses Visitor Centre was opened and now caters for over 10 000 visitors from around the world each year!BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.25.52 It includes:  A fully licensed café for morning and afternoon teas, lunches and dinners, and functions for up to 200 people, including weddings and conferences;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.00.06BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.01.39 An information desk; a wonderful gift shop with lots of rose-related merchandise from books, beauty products and gifts (photo of the beautiful rose cake plate and cake fork set we bought from there) to local gourmet produce and arts and crafts like Dudley Siviour’s corrugated iron sculptures (last photo below of a kangaroo and sheep); BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.07.04BlogRustonRenmkReszd2017-04-12 10.58.47BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.18.32Floristry and cut flowers for sale; and for the men:

A Classic Car display of vintage and historic racing cars, including MGs (4th photo, yellow), a Citroen (3rd photo, yellow), an Amilcar (a rare grand Sport Surbaisse, seen in 2nd photo below, red), a Ford, a Zeta (one of only 28 ever made), a Bradfield, a Scootamota (the first motor scooter), a Lotus Mk VI 1955, a Lotus Eleven 1958 and a Lotus Elite 1961. See: http://www.the-lowdown.com/ruston-roses-private-collection/ and http://www.rustonsroses.com/images/BarossaVisitsRustons.pdf.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.10.30BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.07.35BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.07.28BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.07.08Outside is a brightly painted Massey tractor (the first vehicle my husband ever drove at 8 years old, though his tractor certainly wasn’t as pretty!!!);BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.58.19BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.59.32

A rusty old horse-drawn lucerne mower for making hay;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.29.12BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.29.19 And some delightful rose-coloured glasses, through which to view the garden! This delightful artwork was made by Helen Burgemeister and is titled ‘Looking at the World Through Rose Coloured Glasses’. BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.56.00BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.53.32BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.56.14 I loved the Climbing Graham Thomas (1st photo below on the left of the walk) and Troilus (2nd photo below) in the David Austin Walk, a tribute to the many David Austin Roses planted for their cut flower trade.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.53.19BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.52.23 In fact, Ruston’s was the largest cut flower grower of David Austin Roses in Australia! Each year, the property supplies 50 000 dozen roses (600 000 stems) to florists in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Brisbane, as well as 400 000 buds of grafting wood to Australia’s nursery industry.BlogRustonRenmkReszd30%Image (562)We had a wonderful day exploring all seven rose patches of the garden, as seen in the map above from the official brochure. We started at the old homestead, where David still lived when we visited in October 2014. I loved the entrance path!BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.47.21BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.00.09 Here, the garden is delightfully informal, blowsy and overgrown, with lots of colour and areas of sunshine and dappled shade.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.41.19BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.41.34 I love the way he grew annuals in pots to provide instant mobile colour in bare patches.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.40.50BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 08.40.59 The old packing shed beside the house was covered with a native frangipani in full bloom on the left and rampant honeysuckle on the right of the photo below.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.02.26 We were able to get an excellent overview of the property by climbing the lookout tower.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.25.17BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.25.45BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.25.24 There are six flushes of blooms each year, with a nine-month flowering season from early September to the following Winter. This lovely golden rose is the Polyantha Rose, Lavinia Evans.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.42.44BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.42.49 It would be a beautiful venue for a wedding (1st photo below)! The beautiful metal sculpture near the wedding lawn in the 2nd photo below is titled ‘Lifeless Planets Surround Us. Let’s Not Make Earth Another One’ and was made by Tony Hanes.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.21.24BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.23.47 I particularly loved the National Tea-Noisette-China Collection with lots of old favourites (like Noisette rose, Alister Stella Grey in the photo below) as well as many different types of Tea Roses, which were new to me.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 09.34.18 Here is a list of the roses held in this section: http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/hriai-tea-noisette-china-collection and http://heritage.rose.org.au/sites/default/files/Renmark%20Tea%20bed.pdf  and   http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/sites/default/files/Renmark_Plant_List_by_Class_.pdf. You can read more about this wonderful rosarian and his garden in his book: ‘A Life with Roses’ by David Ruston 2011. See: http://www.heritage.rose.org.au/publication/life-roses.BlogTeaRosesReszd25%Image (615)

Renmark Rose Festival

http://www.renmarkroses.com

Renmark is known as Australia’s rose capital! There is even a Renmark Rose, which can be found in front of the fountain and is featured on the Rose Drive pamphlett.BlogRustonRenmkReszd60%Image (564) The Renmark-Paringa Council has compiled a list of its 53 public rose gardens, which form the Renmark Rose Drive and Walk. Each bed is mainly planted with a single variety of rose, the name of which is noted, along with its family, in the brochure. The council maintains over 3500 rose bushes at a watering cost of $100 000, though recycled water is used for the majority of beds. The Renmark Rose Festival was the brainchild of Eithne Sidhu, who collaborated with David Ruston, to run the first Rose Week in 1994 to attract tourists to the region. They were certainly successful! Now in its 23rd year, it has become a major regional event in South Australia and the largest festival of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, attracting thousands of visitors and contributing significantly to the region’s economy. Held over 10 days in the 3rd week of October each year, it includes numerous activities in both Renmark and surrounding areas like Loxton. It is a very interesting area. Founded in 1887, Renmark is Australia’s first and oldest irrigation settlement, had the first houseboats on the Murray and the first community hotel in the British Commonwealth (The Renmark Hotel 1897), still operating as a community hotel today.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.48.06BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 16.36.20BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.47.13 Festival activities include: tours of the historic Olivewood Homestead; river cruises on the Murray on the steamer PS Industry 1911 (photos below); a fair, market stalls and a ball; champagne breakfasts, suppers and high teas; visits to wineries and breweries; a scarecrow competition; a mystery bus tour; art trails, displays and workshops by local quilters, woodworkers and egg shell carvers; floral displays and flower arranging workshops and a lantern festival on Nardoo Lagoon at the end.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.44.33BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.47.47 There are also a large number of private gardens, open to the public over the festival. We visited three wonderful gardens, all totally different! The first was owned by Donna and Danny Hoffman, who had a vast horticultural knowledge and a superb one acre formal garden over 20 years old.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 14.03.24BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 13.54.36 He grew Hybrid Teas, Floribundas, Miniatures, David Austins and other old-fashioned roses, along with a wide variety of salvias, succulents, established trees and conifers.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 13.53.44BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 14.04.11 I loved the driveway edged with mature climbing roses.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 13.50.14BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 13.52.56 The next garden belonged to Alan and Fleur Carthew, who developed a one acre informal garden on a sand ridge bound by citrus and avocado trees (background of 1st photo).BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.02.01BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.01.17 The garden is 55 years old and has only had 2 gardeners. The Sprekelia (Jacobean Lilies) and Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lilies) at the front entrance were a picture (photo 1). I also loved the exuberant display of modern Shrub Rose, Sally Holmes, beside the white statue of the reflective girl.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.04.17BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 14.56.51BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 14.57.34BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.07.18 It contains large established trees, an orchard, chooks, exotics and natives, including Kangaroo Paw (photo 1), Leucospermum (photo 2), Grevilleas (photo 4), Callistemon (also known as bottlebrush, surrounding the metal goat sculptures in the 3rd photo), Banksias, and many  roses.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.09.01BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.20.39BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 15.04.40BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 14.56.27 I have already discussed our final garden, Bed Rock, developed by Chris and Raelene Schultz on the site of the old drive-in in Loxton. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/11/08/favourite-private-specialty-gardens-part-2-dry-climate-sustainable-and-small-gardens/.

Loxton and Surrounds

We thoroughly enjoyed exploring this area!  Here are some of the places we visited en route to Bed Rock.

Bella Lavender Estate

19 Dalziel Rd Glossop

Open Monday 10 am to 4 pm; Wednesday to Sunday 10 am to 8 pm; Cloed Good Friday; Christmas Day and Riverland Fire Ban days

https://www.bellalavender.com.au/

A wonderful spot for lavender-lovers!BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 11.57.40BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 11.58.02 2500 plants of twenty different varieties are grown on the property,  their essential oil distilled and incorporated in a range of their own beauty products: soap, hand and body lotion, shower gel, shampoo and conditioner, floral water, massage oil, arthritis cream, insect repellent and lip balm, which are sold in the shop along with wheat-bags, sachets and other gifts like lavender mugs and china.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 12.07.11 They have a fully licensed café, where we ate wood-fired pizza for lunch overlooking the farm. There is also mini-golf and a playground.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 12.16.24BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 12.14.53We drove down to the river, where Daisy Bates camped for four years from 1936 to 1940;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 10.09.27BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 10.12.05BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 10.16.40 And we visited Wilabalangaloo, a lovely old property donated to National Trust as a Flora and Fauna Reserve by Janet A Reiners (1895 – 1990). Here is a map of its location from the official brochure and photos of the entrance and the old sandstone house with Aleppo Pines (Pinus halepensis) and Lemon-Scented Gums (Corymbia citriodora).Image (565)BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 12.55.56BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.00.13BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.49.20Wilabalangaloo Nature Reserve

Old Sturt Highway, 4 km NE Berri

Open Dawn to Dusk. Closed on Riverland Fire Ban Days. Free.

https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/places/wilabalangaloo-reserve/

Situated on the western bank of the Murray River and covering 92 ha of mallee country, it’s a fascinating landscape with a 1 km stretch of 30 metre high sandstone cliffs 3 to 6 Million year old, known as the Loxton-Parilla Sands.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.32.06BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.34.52Oxidation of iron over the centuries has produced the red, yellow and brown ochres, which give the property its aboriginal name Wilabalangaloo, meaning ‘Place of Red, Yellow and Brown Stones’. Its a perfect home for Welcome Swallows.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.35.13BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.36.11There is a self-guided interpretive nature trail and a clifftop viewing platform. See: https://www.nationaltrust.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Wilabalangaloo-Nature-Trail.pdf.BlogRustonRenmkReszd50%Image (566)BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.26.00 There are over 80 indigenous plant species and a huge variety of wildlife, especially birds. We took lots of photos, including:

Sacred Kingfishers surveying their kingdom;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.15.20 Zebra Finches, who were diving in and out of their huge nest;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.16.50BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.18.29 Whistling Kites, soaring overhead, the air filled with their plaintive cry;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.48.05 Rainbow Bee-Eaters, looking for insects;BlogRustonRenmkReszd3014-10-26 13.31.16 Shelducks dabbling;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 09.46.27Pelicans cruising;BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 11.16.39And Stumpy-Tails (also known as Shinglebacks or Two-Headed Lizards) sunbaking!BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-25 10.29.25 I just loved the colours of the vegetation and landscape: the reds and ochres; the blue-leafed mallee and old River Red Gums; the silvers of the saltbush and bluebush; and all the coloured lichens.BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.10.59BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.46.31BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.46.12BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.47.29BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.51.38BlogRustonRenmkReszd2014-10-26 13.53.38 It is well worth a visit if you are in the area. Next week, we return to the last of the posts about garden books: Garden Books: Inspirational Gardens and Stories Part Three, after which the book posts will start exploring our natural history library.

Tantalizing Tea Roses

Last month, we discussed China Roses and their enormous impact on rose breeding in the West. The other oriental rose of note was Rosa gigantea, which when crossed with Rosa chinensis, produced two of the Stud Chinas:

Humes’ Blush Tea-Scented China R. odorata odorata    and

Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented China R. odorata ochroleuca (photo below), both introduced to the West in 1810 and 1824 respectively. While possessing the positive attributes of prolonged flowering and yellow blooms, they were not robust in the cooler English climate and very susceptible to weather damage.BlogChinasReszd2014-10-19 13.25.27Hybridization of these two roses with Dwarf Chinas, Bourbons and Noisettes produced a new race of Teas, with a wide colour range (red, pink, blush, white, yellow and pale orange) and a bud with a high pointed centre, different to other roses of the day. Crossing Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented China with Fortune’s Double Yellow (R. odorata pseudoindica),  another old Chinese garden rose with few thorns, dark green glossy foliage and loosely-formed double, buff-yellow fragrant blooms with tints of orange (photos below), produced the early yellow Teas of the 20th Century.blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-01-46blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-01-54Originally called Tea-Scented Chinas, the name of these new roses was abbreviated to Tea Roses. There is much conjecture over the fragrance and origin of the name – some say these roses have the faint fragrance of fresh China tea, while others attribute the name to the fact that the roses were stored with the wooden tea containers during their voyage from China to Europe in the tea clippers of the East India Company. Despite their slender weak stalks and tenderness in the cooler climate, they quickly became popular with Victorians, who wore the blooms in their buttonholes. In cooler climates, most Teas were grown in greenhouses or against a warm, sheltered wall, but they thrived in the warmer climates of the Mediterranean areas; South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and warmer parts of America like California. Their heyday was from 1882 to 1910, with over 250 Tea Roses introduced between 1830 and 1840. Many were produced by French breeders like Gilbert Nabonnand (1829-1903), based at Golfe Juan on the Cote d’Azur, who specialized in breeding Chinas and Teas, producing 78 Teas between 1872 and 1903. Tea Roses remained popular through the Edwardian Era, but the outbreak of the First World War meant that there was no longer the time, money or staff to maintain these tender roses in heated glass-houses. The new Hybrid Teas, as well as climbers, ramblers and Polyanthas were gaining in popularity and competed for space in gardens. Sadly, most of the Tea varieties, known to the Victorians, are now extinct, many killed off by severe frosts in Britain.

The Climbing Teas were much hardier with large, vigorous, thick stems and healthy glossy foliage.  We are very lucky in Australia to have a large collection of Tea Roses at Rustons’ Nursery, Renmark, South Australia. The warm climate is very suitable for Tea Roses. In fact, there is a whole book written about them by 5 Western Australian authors:

‘Tea Roses: Old Roses for Warm Gardens’  by Lynne Chapman, Jenny M Jones, Billy West, Noelene Drage, Di Durston and Hillary Merrifield  2008 (http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3225298-tea-roses).BlogTeaRosesReszd25%Image (616)

The famous Australian rose breeder, Alister Clark, crossed Tea Roses back with R. gigantea to produce some very vigorous famous old Climbing Teas like Lorraine Lee 1924 (photo below) and Nancy Hayward 1937, perfect for the hot dry Australian climate, but I am devoting a separate post to him at the end of this month!blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9113While we are lucky to still be able to appreciate their nodding slightly fragrant blooms here in Australia, their big claim to fame in Europe is their major role in the development of the modern rose, being one of the parents (the other being Hybrid Perpetuals) of Hybrid Teas.

Description

In warm climates, Teas form large, vigorous, densely-foliated bushes with a branching habit and often a twiggy growth pattern. The new leaves are greeny-bronze to copper-brown, dark red or purple, while the elongated shiny mature leaves are often evergreen.

Recurrent-flowering with subtle colours and a unique Tea fragrance, the blooms are generally cup-shaped, opening out flat, with a wide range of petal arrangements from cupped, globular, imbricated, quartered or muddled. The petals are silky and translucent.

Tea Roses display cymose inflorescences : each shoot ends in a bud, which is the largest and opens first. Many Tea Roses have nodding heads.

The hips are medium to large in size, yellow or orange, deepening to red with cold weather, and usually globular in shape with a flattened top.

Cultivation

Needs a warm frost-free climate or environment (glasshouse or warm sheltered wall) and well-drained fertile soil. Like China roses, they also resent hard pruning, so only prune lightly to maintain the shape of the bush, thin out old growth  or remove dead wood.

NOTE: The height and size of Tea Roses is very dependent on the climate. Most Tea roses in the United Kingdom are less than 3 feet tall, while their counterparts in warmer climates are much taller.

Varieties of Tea Roses

Tea-Scented Rose: Rosa gigantea :

Tall climber, over 2 metres high, with evergreen foliage and the largest flowers and hips of any rose.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.24.37Large single primrose blooms 7 – 14 cm across, fading to white, in Summer.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-27 12.59.58

Originally found in the Shan Hills, North Burma in 1882, but later also in North-Western China. Performs poorly in cooler Northern climates, but very well in California, Australia and Mediterranean regions.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9334Adam

Also known as The President and bred by Adam, United Kingdom, 1833    Unknown parentage.

Credited as being the first Tea Rose and named after its breeder, its pioneer status is erroneous, according to the ‘Tea Roses’ book mentioned above, as it was actually bred in 1838, and in fact, there were many other extinct Teas bred before 1833. It is best used as a climber, which reaches up to 2 metres in height.blogsummer-gardenreszd20img_1065Plentiful large dark green leaves and large, fully double, often quartered when fully open, blooms of buff, amber and apricot with pink tints deep in the centre.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1115 I love the warm colours of this beautiful rose and am growing it on the northern end of the main pergola, where it flowers well throughout the season.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1162Safrano (Aimé Plantier)

Bred by Beauregard in France 1839 of unknown parentage (according to Peter Beales, though Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix suggest it is possibly a cross between Parks’ Yellow Tea-Scented Rose and Mme Deprez, the Bourbon  of 1831), Safrano is one of the oldest Teas still in existence and was considered as one of the best cut roses in France until 1900, being sent in vast quantities from the Mediterranean area to Paris. It was very popular as a buttonhole rose.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.24.18Its high-centred buds open out flat to  large, semi-double, fragrant,  apricot-yellow to saffron blooms. Very floriferous, it has plentiful mid-green foliage and will grow to 2 metres tall in a warm climate.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.39.01Triomphe de Luxembourg

Bred by Hardy, France, 1839, it also is of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9307Less than 1 metre tall, with dark green foliage and clusters of fully double salmon-pink blooms, fading to pinkish-buff with age.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9306BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9308Devoniensis  (the Magnolia Rose)

Bred by Foster, United Kingdom 1841 of unknown parentage, it also has a climbing sport from 1858. A very hardy Tea, it will climb to 3 metres in height, especially if grown in warm climates, though it does better in British conservatories. The stems have few thorns and ample light green foliage and it repeat-flowers well with large, fragrant, creamy, occasionally blush-pink, flowers.bloghxroses20reszdimg_0731 One of my favourite Teas, I am growing it opposite Adam on the northern end of our main pergola. I first saw it over an arched pergola at Walter Duncan’s Heritage Garden, where its beautiful nodding heads were shown off to perfection.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9628BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9415Souvenir d’Un Ami

Bred by Bélot-Defougère, France, 1846,  of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.47.02BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.46.57A vigorous bush with a branching habit, rich green foliage and fully double, cupped, very fragrant rose-pink and salmon blooms.

Sombreuil

A very hardy Climbing Tea, bred by Robert in France in 1850, it grows to 4 metres tall, has ample lush green foliage and repeat-flowers well with fully double, sweetly scented, flattish pure white flowers with a hint of cream in the base. In my garden, it forms one side of the arch opposite Cornelia, at the gate into the chook yard.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_0877blognovgarden20reszdimg_0189BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1039Duchesse de Brabant (also known as Comtesse de Labarthe; Comtesse Ouwaroff; and in Australia, Countess Bertha)

Bred by Bernède, France, 1857 of unknown parentage.

A vigorous, spreading, well-foliated, free-flowering bush, up to 1.5 metres tall, with large, shapely cupped and very double, clear-pink  to rose-pink blooms with a strong Tea fragrance. There is also a climbing form, up to 4 metres tall. BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.22.57Very hardy and disease-resistant, it is one of the Earth-Kind Roses (see: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/earthkindroses/cultivars/duchesse-de-brabant/).BlogTeasReszd50%Image (220)Said to be a favourite of Teddy Roosevelt’s, it is certainly one of mine. I first grew it as a cutting, taken from an old garden belonging to Ross’s uncle, which has since formed part of the Gold Coast Botanical Gardens. I grew the climbing form in my old Armidale garden and now have the bush form here in Candelo, though it is still a bit of a weedy specimen and needs to pull it socks up!BlogTeasReszd2017-04-06 12.13.51Catherine Mermet

Bred by Guillot Fils, France, 1869, of unknown parentage.

Once widely grown for the cut flower trade, this rose is best grown in glasshouses in the United Kingdom. It has plentiful healthy mid-green foliage with copper tinges and longish stems, bearing shapely, high-centred buds, which open out to semi-double lilac-pink flowers with blush-pink centres.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9299Marie Van Houtte

Bred by Ducher, France, 1871, a cross between Mme Falcot, a medium yellow Tea, similar to Safrano, and Mme de Tartas, a light pink Tea used extensively in Victorian times for breeding.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.49.50A vigorous plant with a sprawling habit, this rose has rich green foliage and is very free-flowering. Large pointed buds open out to very fragrant, cream nodding flowers, tinged with carmine pink, with a buff colour at the base of the petals. Will reach 2 metres on a warm wall.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.49.45Anna Oliver

Also bred by Ducher, France, in 1872, of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.31.12A vigorous branching bush with good, mid-green foliage and shapely, high-centred, fragrant, flesh- pink blooms.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.47.31BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9305Mme Lombard

Introduced by Lacharme, France, 1878, this rose is a seedling of Mme de Tartas and looks very similar, apart from the colour.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.48.45A vigorous bush with dark green foliage and very double, full, fragrant, salmon blooms.

Général Schablikine

Bred by Nabonnand, France, 1878, of unknown parentage and one of his most famous roses.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.15.16A very useful rose, with compact well-foliated growth and very double copper-red and cherry-red blooms, which open out flat.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.16.42Mlle Franziska Krüger

Another Nabonnand rose, launched in 1879, and thought to be a cross between Tea Roses, Catherine Mermet and Général Schablikine.

A repeat-flowering heat-tolerant Tea with a susceptibility to mildew, it reaches 1 metre in height and has large, fragrant, very double, cupped, orange-pink blooms with pink undertones and yellow centres.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.33.13Monsieur Tillier

Bred by Bernaix, France, 1891 of unknown parentage.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.35.39Tall, lax, vigorous growth with large, loosely-double, blood-red flowers with violet smudges and very little scent. Repeat-flowers well.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd20img_9168

This rose is often confused with the next rose:

Archiduc Joseph   also goes under the spelling: Archduke Joseph)

Bred by Nabonnand, France, 1892, and a seedling of Tea Rose, Mme Lombard, this outstanding rose is a hardy shrub or small climber, few thorns and plentiful dark-green glossy foliage.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9273 It repeat-flowers well, the colour of the blooms varying with temperature, the petals a mixture of pink, purple, orange and russet, with tints of yellow and gold in the centre.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_1116My rose (above and below) was sold to me as Archiduc Joseph, but could well be Monsieur Tillier!blogvsrg20reszd2014-10-19-13-18-21  Here is a site exploring the differences: http://www.annchapman.net.nz/content/archduc-joseph-and-mons-tillier-rose-any-name-looks-just-good-and-smells-sweet. There is also a discussion of the difference in the ‘Tea Rose’ book mentioned: See https://books.google.com.au/books?id=a2_g1faKWdYC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=Archiduc+Joseph+and+Monsieur+Tillier&source=bl&ots=AlFw23cloU&sig=o-1HAKDpgVIY6nTOhXiaarhYQzM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiuhPafl57TAhVLkpQKHdjEBKYQ6AEIUzAM#v=onepage&q=Archiduc%20Joseph%20and%20Monsieur%20Tillier&f=false.

Either way, it has been a wonderful rose- very tough and hardy, it still thrives near the Pepperina tree and is very generous with her beautiful orange-pink blooms!blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-10-18-30-56

Maman Cochet

Bred by Scipion Cochet, France, 1893, this rose is a cross between Tea Roses, Marie Van Houtte and Mme Lombard, and was once a famous exhibition rose.

It has vigorous growth, few thorns, leathery dark green foliage and is very free-flowering with large, globular pale-pink blooms, which open out blowsy and are deeper in colour towards the centre, with  lemon-yellow at the base of the petals.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.40.23White Maman Cochet is a sport, bred by Cook, USA, 1896 (photo above). It has both bush and climbing forms and repeat-flowers well with creamy-white, fragrant, shapely, high-centred blooms, with a lemon centre and cherry-pink outer petals.

Francis Dubreuil

Bred by Dubreuil, France, 1894, of unknown parentage

With moderately thorny stems and sparse glossy dark-green foliage, this rose repeat-flowers well. Its large pointed buds open to high-centred fragrant, dark-red velvety blooms, which open out blowsy and pale slightly with age.BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9662Mrs Dudley Cross

Bred by William Paul, UK, 1907

Thornless upright shrub to 3 metres, which repeat-flowers with medium, double, moderately fragrant, muddled yellow blooms, which blush to pink and then crimson as they age.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.19.30 Very resistant to blackspot, it is also an Earth-Kind rose. See: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/newsletters/hortupdate/2011/apr/ek-roses-2011.html.

Lady Hillingdon

Bred by Lowe and Shawyer, UK, 1910 from a cross between two Tea Roses, Papa Gontier and Mme Hoste. It has a climbing form, bred by Hicks, USA 1917.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.25.04

A very famous and hardy old rose, with thornless plum-coloured stems, plentiful dark-green foliage, with copper mahogany tinges and long slender buds, which open to highly fragrant, large, blowsy, semi-double rich yolky-yellow blooms. I grew the climbing form on our tennis court fence in our old garden in Armidale (photo below).BlogTeasReszd50%Image (218)Rosette Delizy

Bred by Gilbert’s son, Paul Nabonnand, France, 1922 from a cross between Général Galliéni, one of his father’s Tea Roses, as well as being  one of the most popular roses of its day, and another Tea Rose, Comtesse Bardi (a cross between Noisette Rose, Rêve d’Or, and Tea Rose, Mme Lombard).BlogTeasReszd20%IMG_9679A branching bush, which has good foliage and repeat-flowers well with large full blooms of a lovely combination of rose-pink, buff and apricot and a fruity scent.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.26.07 Will reach 1.8 metres on a wall.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-19 13.26.03

Susan Louise

Bred by Charles E Adams, US, 1929, this vigorous disease-resistant climber is a seedling of the Gigantea Hybrid, Belle Portugaise.

Almost 5 metres tall, with spreading thornless stems and large semi-glossy medium-green foliage, it blooms prolifically with flushes throughout the season. Large long pointed buds, borne in  small clusters, open to slightly fragrant, medium to large (up to 9 cm across), semi-double, light pink blooms.BlogTeasReszd2014-10-25 09.45.39Please note: While all the photographs of the Tea Roses mentioned above are mine, not all the roses are! I have specified the Tea Roses growing in my garden in the text. Next week, we will be discussing Rustons Roses and the Renmark Rose Festival, but first, I have an extra post on Thursday, my response to a surprise Blue Sky Tag!

Victorian Roses : Boursaults, Portlands, Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals

With the introduction of China roses to the West, gardeners of the Victorian era (1837 to 1901) were spoilt for choice when it came to new rose varieties: Boursaults; Portlands;  Bourbons; Hybrid Perpetuals; Teas; Noisettes and finally the early Hybrid Teas, the latter three discussed in their own separate posts later on.

Boursaults

I will start with the Boursaults of the Napoleonic era (1799-1815), erroneously thought to be a cross between  the China Rose, R. chinensis, and the Alpine Rose, R. pendulina, this error confirmed by later chromosomal counts. It is now thought to be a cross between R. chinensis and R. blanda. There are only a few types still cultivated today. They were named after an amateur French horticulturalist, Monsieur Jean-Francoise Boursault, who bred the first double Boursault rose. They were popular in Paris from the 1820s on.These thornless ramblers and hardy climbers have a graceful arching habit,  dark red wood, smooth stems, a pointed leaf shape, Autumn foliage and large pink or red old-rose type flowers in small clusters, which bloom profusely and early, and then sometimes again later in the Summer. Unfortunately, they also have a tendency to suckering.

I have always loved the appearance and name of Mme Sancy de Parabère, bred by Bonnet, France, 1874, of unknown parentage. The large, double pink blooms are 12 cm across and open out flat. Because the smaller inner petals are surrounded by much larger outer petals, the effect is of a rosette within the flower. They are borne early in the season and only have a slight fragrance. The thornless stems are green, aging to a soft green-brown, and the foliage is dark green.  The plant will reach 4.5 metres in height. Unfortunately, I don’t have my own photo, but you can see it on https://www.classicroses.co.uk/roses/boursault-ramblers/mme-sancy-de-parabere-rambling-rose.html.

I do however have a photo of Morletti, another well-known Boursault, also known as R. pendulina plena and R. inermis morletti, bred by Morlet, France, 1883 (photo below). Less vigorous than other Boursaults, reaching 2.5 metres tall, its foliage and stems are similar to other members of its group, its foliage having lovely Autumn colour. The deep-pink magenta almost double flowers have a ragged appearance. Amadis and Blush Boursault are the only other two Boursault roses commercially available.BlogVicRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.12.50Portlands

Portland Roses are a small group of hybrids derived from a rose, which was named after the second Duchess of Portland (1715-1785). The original Portland Rose, now called Duchess of Portland, has medium to large, semi-double, medium red blooms with a strong Damask fragrance and it flowers every six weeks through Summer and Autumn. Originally thought to contain Chinese ancestry, DNA analysis has now revealed that it is a cross between R. gallica officinalis and the Autumn Damask, R. damascena bifera, whose genes are responsible for the repeat flowering. It was known in Italy as the Scarlet Four Seasons Rose, R. paestana, and was supposedly brought to England by the Duchess of Portland from Italy in 1775. It was then sent to Andre Dupont in France, who used it to breed further Portlands. By 1848, there were 84 varieties growing at Kew. Being the first Old roses with repeat-flowering ability, they had a brief period of popularity, before being superseded by the Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals. Today, only a handful of varieties remain eg Rose du Roi; Comte de Chambord; Arthur de Sansal and Jacques Cartier. Because I have no photos of Portland Roses, I am including this link: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/type/old-roses/portland-roses.

Portland Roses are shorter than Damasks, but are otherwise very similar. They are small, compact, upright shrubs, 1.2 metres high, so are very suitable for small gardens. The flowers have very small stems, so that the dark green leaves form a rosette around the flowers. Even though they are repeat-flowering, they are still very much Old Roses, with respect to their flower, foliage and strong Damask fragrance. They are also sometimes known as Damask Perpetuals. While their beauty alone is enough reason to plant these roses, it is their direct line to the development of Hybrid Perpetuals, and thus Hybrid Teas, which is their main claim to fame.

Bourbons

This rose family takes its name from the old L’Île de Bourbon, now called Réunion, a small island near Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, where the farmers delineated their fields with hedges of the sweetly-scented Autumn Damask (Quatre Saisons) and the long flowering Old Blush China, growing side-by-side. A chance hybrid resulted and was given the name Rose Edouard. Seeds and cuttings were sent in 1819 and 1821 respectively to Paris, where it was used to breed a rose called Rosier de l’Île de Bourbon, which was distributed in France in 1823 and England two years later. Crossing and recrossing led to the development of a large range of Bourbon Roses.

Bourbons were the first real step towards modern roses, their features representing  the best of both worlds. While retaining the vigorous shrubby growth and character and strong fragrance of Old Roses, the foliage and stems began to look more like those of Hybrid Teas and nearly all are repeat-flowering, blooming in flushes. In fact, they were the most continuously flowering shrub rose up till the start of the 19th century. Their heyday was from 1830 to 1850, with very few bred after 1900. The photo below is Mme Isaac Pereire, a very famous old Bourbon rose.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd50image-206Their growth, stems and flowers tend to follow one or other of the parents:

China type: Twiggy pliable growth, few thorns, reblooming subtle flower forms eg La Reine Victoria (see photo below);

Damask type: Stiffer vigorous growth with arching thorny stems, large, globular flowers with lush fragrance eg Bourbon Queen and Souvenir de la Malmaison.

The colours of their blooms vary from white to bush, pinks and deep reds.BlogVicRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.21.30

Care and Maintenance

With their long arching stems, Bourbons need support over a fence, trellis, arbours and arches or pillars. They can also be pegged down to the ground for maximum flower production. The photo below shows the long canes of Mme Isaac Pereire, which could well benefit from pegging down one day!BlogVicRosesReszd2017-04-17 11.30.34Because of their ability to flower a second time, pruning became increasingly important. Side shoots should be pruned to three eyes and the strong main shoots reduced by a third. Aged and dead wood should be removed. Roses should be liberally mulched with manure and compost and rose fertiliser applied in Spring and after the first crop of flowers. Immediate deadheading is also important. Unfortunately, while their growth is robust, they have poor resistance to black spot.

Bourbon Varieties

I love Bourbon roses and have grown six different types in my gardens. In my old garden in Armidale, I grew all of them, except for Souvenir de St Anne, while my Candelo garden includes the first four.

Souvenir de la Malmaison    J Belize, France, 1843

Named after Empress Josephine’s garden and one of the most popular Bourbons, this rose was bred from a cross between another Bourbon, Mme Desprez, and a Tea rose. It comes in two forms – a bush and a climber, though many feel the climbing form is superior.BlogVicRosesReszd20%IMG_9465 At his Heritage Garden in Clare, rosarian Walter Duncan grows the climbing form over 20 decorative arches, 4 metres apart, forming a magnificent bridal tunnel in the Spring.BlogVicRosesReszd20%IMG_9731BlogVicRosesReszd20%IMG_9467 The foliage is modern in appearance, but the flowers are the Old rose type : large, 12 cm wide, cupped and quartered, blush-pink flowers, which open flat and pale slightly with age. They have a fragrance like a Tea rose.BlogVicRosesReszd50%Image (160) They are reliable repeat-flowerers, but are susceptible to fungal attack and their blooms tend to ball and not open in the rain, so good air circulation is essential, as well as adequate water and fertilising to maintain optimal health.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-07-10-50-42 For this reason, I have planted my climber in the middle of our main pergola, so a few balled flowers won’t ruin the overall display.BlogVicRosesReszd2017-04-17 11.28.38 It is such a beautiful rose that this minor deficiency can be overlooked and I could not be without it!BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-06 13.05.23Souvenir de St. Anne 1950

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/souvenir-de-st-anne-s

Found in a garden at St. Anne’s in Dublin and introduced to England in 1950, this rose is a sport of Souvenir de la Malmaison. Its large, blush-pink, semi-double flowers fade to white with age and are almost single at times. They are strongly fragrant and the rose repeat-flowers well, its flowers lasting into Winter here in Australia. The bush is very vigorous, reaching up to 2 metres in height. It is also shade tolerant and highly resistant to black spot and mildew, which is why it has been designated an Earth-Kind rose. See: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/earthkindroses/cultivars/souvenir-de-st-annes/. I have ordered it this year and will plant it opposite Souvenir de la Malmaison in the middle of the main pergola.

Mme Isaac Pereire    Garçon France 1881

This dramatic Bourbon is one of the most fragrant roses of all!BlogVicRosesReszd50%Image (229) Its large 12 cm wide cupped deep fuchsia-pink and magenta blooms open out flat and quartered with a button eye, its petals fading and rolling back at the edges with age.BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-14 11.49.54 It flowers well into Autumn, which is when it often produces its best blooms.blognovgarden20reszd2016-11-16-09-46-17 It is a vigorous shrub, up to 2.5 metres high with long arching canes and large thick green foliage. I grew it along our front picket fence in Armidale.bloghxroses50reszdimage-236 Another rose I could not do without, I took a cutting from the old rose and now grow it on the shed fence here in Candelo!BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-10 09.25.18La Reine Victoria   J Schwartz   France 1872

A very popular rose in the late 19th century, this slender shrub is 1.2 to 1.5 metres high with blooms just above the foliage, a sign of its close relationship with the Chinas.BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-10 15.04.26 The medium chalice-shaped blooms are lilac-pink on the outside and paler within and have a good scent.BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-18 19.29.31 The petals incurve towards the centre, giving an enclosed effect.BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-13 20.04.43 The rose flowers repeatedly throughout Summer. Unfortunately, it does have a tendency to black spot.BlogVicRosesReszd2016-11-11 16.05.49Bourbon Queen (Queen of Bourbons and Reine des Iles Bourbon)   Mauget France 1834

Comes in two forms – a tall, open shrub, 1.8 metres high, or a climber 3 to 3.5 metres high. Its loosely formed, cupped, medium-pink blooms are deep pink towards the edges and have crinkled petals, exposed stamens and a strong fragrance.BlogVicRosesReszd50%Image (184)Variegata di Bologna  A. Bonfiglioi  Italy 1909

A famous old striped Bourbon, which I grew in my old garden. Its fully double, cupped, globular flowers are white, striped with a dark crimson purple, have a strong perfume and open out flat and quartered. It blooms all Summer with a few late flowers. A dense shrub, 1.5 to 1.8 metres high, or a climber to 3 metres, its ample foliage is susceptible to black spot and mildew.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd50image-170Hybrid Perpetuals

Introduced in France in 1837 as Hybrid Remontants, these roses had their heyday between 1858 to 1899, when they were replaced in popularity by the new Hybrid Teas, bred from a cross between Hybrid Perpetuals and Tea roses.

They were bred from crosses between Bourbons, Portlands and Chinas for the exhibitions in the latter half of the 19th century with specific objectives, like perfect bud formation and repeat-flowering ability. Even though they still only flowered twice in the season, their flowering was more prolific than Damasks, Chinas and Bourbons. There was, however, no regard to the fully open bloom or the growth habits of the shrub, resulting in tall, ungainly, narrow plants with poor disease resistance, although they are still hardier than the modern Hybrid Teas.

Despite this failing, they are still beautiful as cut flowers, with an Old Rose form, many petals and strong fragrance. They vary from white to pink, red, deep maroon and even some pure crimsons, a colour rare before the latter half of the 19th century. In some varieties, the blooms are edged or splashed with white or deep maroon. There were no yellows.

Like their Portland parents with their short flower stems, the huge flowers look like they are sitting on a rosette of leaves, the latter varying from a dull, wrinkled blue green to smooth shiny leaves. In some of the varieties, the stems are thornless and in many varieties, the extra long canes need pegging down.

Hybrid Perpetuals are gross feeders and respond well to generous treatment. They should be pruned to half their height to maintain their proportions, and flower quality and continuity of blooms

There were over 3000 varieties, but only the best survive today. There are only 100 varieties left, with only 50 commercially available. Some of them include:

Général Jacqueminot (General Jack or Jack Rose)  Roussel France 1853

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/general-jacqueminot

A seedling from a cross between a Bourbon, Gloire des Rosomanes, and possibly an early Hybrid Perpetual, Géant des Batailles, this rose is a prolific pollinator and seed parent, which has produced 520 Hybrid Tea descendants. It is the ancestor of most red roses. Its shapely, pointed clear red buds open to well-formed perfumed flowers on long stems. The vigorous shrub, up to 1.5 metres, has rich-green foliage, but is prone to rust from mid-Summer on.

Gloire de Ducher  Ducher  France 1865 Unknown parentage

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/gloire-de-ducher

Has huge, fully double, blowsy, well scented deep pink-red blooms, produced freely along long arching branches with dark grey-green leaves. Up to 1.8 metres high.BlogVicRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.46.09

Gloire Lyonnaise  Guillot Fils  France 1885

A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Baroness Rothschild, and Tea rose, Mme Falcot, this rose has creamy-white, semi-double, fragrant blooms, which open flat. The upright 1.2 metre tall shrub has strong stems, which support the flowers without arching and have  few thorns. The foliage is dark green and healthy.BlogVicRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.45.09Paul Neyron   Levet France 1869

http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/paul-neyron

A hybrid of two Hybrid Perpetuals, Victor Verdier and Anna de Diesbach, this sturdy and healthy upright bush is only 1.8 metres tall and has large, matt, dark-green foliage and huge, unfading, rich warm-pink scented blooms of a muddled appearance when fully open.BlogVicRosesReszd20%IMG_9529

Reine des Violettes (Queen of Violets) Milet-Malet France 1860

The only Hybrid Perpetual I have grown and that was an error in my order form, when I was mistakenly sent this rose, though I was very happy to accept it! A seedling of another Hybrid Perpetual, Pius IX, this rose is closer to Gallicas than the typical Hybrid Perpetual, with a fully petalled rosette formation, in which the petals curve in, then open out flat and quartered with a button eye. The colour changes from a deep velvety purple to a soft parma violet with age. The 10 to 12 cm blooms have up to 75 petals. The blooms shatter very quickly after reaching perfection, but their fragrance and reliable repeat flowering more than compensate for this small defect. For its best performance, it does need good cultivation. Its upright growth reaches 1.2 to 1.5 metres, but if the long shoots are pegged down, it will flower all along the length of the canes. They have few thorns and grey green soft-textured foliage, which complement the flowers.blogcottagegardenrosesreszd50image-176Next week, I will be discussing Tea roses, another rose variety hailing from the Orient, which grows so well in our warmer Australian climate.