Modern Shrub Roses and Climbing Roses

Having already discussed Pemberton’s Hybrid Musks and David Austin’s English Roses, my final post on rose types is featuring ten Modern Shrub Roses (Nevada 1927 Frühlingsgold 1937; Cerise Bouquet 1937; Fritz Nobis 1940; Frühlingsmorgen 1942; Frühlingsanfang 1950 ; Roundelay 1953; Sally Holmes 1976;  Bonica ’82 1981; and Jacqueline du Pré 1988, and ten Modern Climbers (Mme Grégoire Staechlin 1927; New Dawn 1930; Aloha 1949; Blossomtime 1951; Leverkusen 1954;  Alchymist 1956; Golden Showers 1956; Altissimo 1966; White Cockade 1969; and Pierre de Ronsard 1987), all of them very well-known and many the recipients of rose awards.

Most of the Modern Shrub Roses featured are tough, hardy, disease-resistant, large (taller than 1.2 metres), prolific repeat-flowerers, which provide massed colour over a long period, though some of the roses I have featured are only once-flowering. Many are equally good as climbers on walls, fences and as pillar roses. All but a few Modern Shrub Roses have Large-Flowered Roses and Cluster-Flowered Roses in their makeup, and thus can be seen as hybrids of Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. I have organised them according to their country of origin to give a brief overview of some of the prominent rose breeders of the 21st Century and within those geographical divisions, they are listed sequentially according to their date of release where possible.

While not prominent in the rose world, Spain did have one very well-known rose breeder, Pedro Dot, and I am starting this post with him, as both of his roses below are the earliest Modern Shrub Rose and Modern Climber featured in this post.

Spain

Pedro Dot (1885 to 1976) bred 178 new roses, of which Nevada (photo below) was his most successful rose, with Mme Grégoire Staechlin coming a close second.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (192) He did much of his early breeding with Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki, developing his own strain of brightly-coloured Pernetianas, or Hybrid Teas as we now know them, which he named after family members (eg Mari Dot 1927), aristocratic patrons (eg Cayetana Stuart), Catalan patriots (eg Angel Guimerà) and Republican towns and regions (eg Catalonia 1931and Girona 1936), as well as a number of Miniature Roses.

Unfortunately, his Hybrid Teas were not frost-resistant and so, only do well in warmer climates. The photo below shows Mme Grégoire Staechlin, festooning Walter Duncan’s old house at the Heritage Garden, Clare, in South Australia. BlogDuncanReszd20%IMG_9631Nevada, Pedro Dot, Spain 1927  A cross between Hybrid Tea, La Giralda, and R. moyesii, this large, dense shrub, 2.4 to 4 metres tall and 2 to 4 metres wide, with repeat-flowering, arching, almost thornless branches, covered their entire length with prolific clusters of large, creamy-white, fragrant, single to semi-double blooms, opening flat with golden stamens. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/nevada. I grew this rose against the fence of my old Armidale garden (photo below). It was awarded a Garden Merit Award. It has a pink sport, Marguerite Hilling 1959.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (193)Mme Grégoire Staechlin, Dot, Spain, 1927 Also known as Spanish Beauty, this large, sprawling, hardy, vigorous climber, 2.45 to 6 metres tall and 3 to 6 metres wide, is a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki, and early Hybrid Tea, Château de Clos Vougeot. Here is a closeup photo of Walter Duncan’s rose at the Heritage Garden:

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Mme Grégoire Staechlin has dark green foliage and is a heavy bloomer, bearing highly fragrant, large, semi-double, light pink ruffled blooms, followed by large, orange-red, pear-shaped hips. It is highly disease resistant and drought-tolerant. It has been awarded a Garden Merit Award. I grew it along the verandah of our old house at Armidale.BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (221)Germany

Kordes Roses (https://www.kordes-rosen.com/)  is one of the world’s leading rose breeders and producers for cut roses and garden roses, selling more than two million rose plants at retail and wholesale each year worldwide. They have contributed more than any other rose breeders to the development of the Modern Shrub Rose in their quest to develop hardy roses for the Northern European climate.

Each year, more than 50,000 new crosses of garden roses and cut roses are tested, leading to four to six marketable varieties, after a trial period of eight to ten years. The main goals of their rose breeding program are winter hardiness, quick repeat blooms, fungal disease resistance, unique colors and forms of bloom, abundance of blooms, fragrance, self-cleaning, good height and fullness of plant and rain resistance.

They have ensured the health and hardiness of their chosen varieties by stopping the use of fungicides on their trial fields more than 20 years ago. They have also withdrawn over 100 older varieties, which are no longer competitive, from their collection to allow room for newer, improved and healthier varieties. Here is a sample catalogue: http://southamptonrose.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/pdf/Brochure_Kordes.pdf.

Kordes Roses was started in 1887 by a German horticulturalist, Wilhelm Kordes I (1865-1935), who created a garden in Elmshorn, specializing in garden roses. In 1918, he moved the firm to Klein Offenseth-Sparrieshoop in Scleswig-Holstein.

His  sons, Wilhelm Kordes II (1891 – 1976) and Hermann Kordes (1893 – 1963), changed the name of the nursery to Wilhelm Kordes’ Söhne, building the company to the one of the largest rose breeders of the twentieth century and aiming to breed hardy and healthy varieties for the German climate. From 1920 on, Wilhelm Kordes II  focused entirely on rose breeding and cultivation, while Hermann managed the business.

Wilhelm initially focused on native European species: Rosa canina, R. rubiginosa  and R. spinosissima in his breeding program. Some of his famous roses include Crimson Glory 1935, the world’s most favourite crimson Hybrid Tea rose; Raubritter 1936; Fritz Nobis 1940 (photo below) and the early-flowering Frühlings series, including Frühlingsgold 1937; Frühlingsmorgen 1942; and Frühlingsanfang in 1950.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9786During the Second World War, he crossed R. wichuraiana with R. rugosa to eventually produce a tough new species, R. kordesii, able to withstand the freezing cold German Winters. It in turn was used to breed Parkdirektor Riggers and Leverkusen. Wilhelm II was also heavily involved in ADR testing (the general testing of new German roses) in 1950. Here is another photo of Fritz Nobis: BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9675

From 1955, his son Reimer Kordes (1922-1997) ran the company until Reimer’s son, Wilhelm Kordes III, took over in 1977. Reimer was responsible for the breeding of Modern Climber, Alchymist 1956; Westerland 1969; Friesia 1973 and Floribunda , Iceberg (syn. Schneewittchen) in 1958, the latter voted the World’s Most Favourite Rose in 1983.

Kordes Roses

Fritz Nobis  Wilhelm Kordes II, Germany 1940

Winner of a Garden Merit Award (RHS), Fritz Nobis is a cross between a Hybrid Tea, Joanna Hill, and an Eglanteria hybrid, Magnifica. This vigorous healthy shrub, 1.5 to 2.5 metres tall and 1 to 1.5 metres wide, has plentiful small grey-green foliage and is once-flowering in early Summer.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9677 It has large clusters of semi-double to double, light salmon-pink flowers, which are darker on the outside, up to 8 cm wide, and have a light clove scent.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9678 It sets plenty of small orange-red hips in Autumn. I am growing my plant, propagated from a seedling from a friend’s garden, beside the shed door. Here are two photos of the latter- a new bloom and a slightly older one:

The Frühlings Series (Frühling meaning Spring), known as Hybrid Spinosissimas, were also bred by Wilhelm Kordes II, they include the following three roses, of which the first two varieties I grew in my old Armidale garden:

Frühlingsgold  Wilhelm Kordes II, Germany, 1937 (Spring Gold)

A cross between Hybrid Tea, Joanna Hill, and R. spinosissima  ‘Hispida’, this dense, vigorous, once-flowering  shrub, 1.5 to 2.4  metres tall and 1.5 metres wide, has medium-sized, toothed, matt, light-green leaves and arching, thorny branches, bearing large clusters of very fragrant, semi-double, large (up to 12 cm), pale creamy-yellow blooms in late Spring/ early Summer.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.29.30 It is spectacular in full bloom and looks good in a mixed border, shrub border, flowering hedge or as an accent plant.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.30.29 Because of its hardiness, reliability and ease of growth, even under difficult conditions, it is one of the most widely planted of all Shrub Roses, both in gardens and public places. It was awarded a Garden Merit Award (RHS).BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (259)Frühlingsmorgen  Wilhelm Kordes II, Germany, 1942 (Spring Morning)

Also given a Garden Merit Award (RHS), this Modern Shrub is the product of seed parent, (a cross between two Hybrid Teas, EG Hill x Cathrine Kordes) and pollen parent, R. spinosissima ‘Grandiflora’.  It reaches 1.75 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide, but its disease resistance is not wonderful, though it does better in a warm climate.  Once-flowering, it flowers freely in early Summer, with a few blooms later in the season. It has large, single, slightly cupped, rose-pink flowers with a primrose centre, a moderate scent and maroon stamens. See: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/fruhlingsmorgen.

Frühlingsanfang  Wilhelm Kordes II, Germany, 1950

A cross between Joanna Hill and R. spinosissima ‘Altaica’, this large Modern Shrub, 3.7 metres tall and wide, has arching branches, bearing large, single, ivory-white, moderately scented blooms with golden anthers. Only flowering once in Spring/ Summer, it is hardy and vigorous and has large maroon hips in Autumn. See: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/l.php?l=2.2873. Here is a photo of one of its parents, R. spinosissima ‘Altaica’:BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.32.07 Leverkusen  William Kordes II, Germany 1954)

A cross between R. kordesii and another Large-Flowered Climber, Golden Glow, Leverkusen makes a strong  bushy climber, up to 4.5 metres high, or a huge shrub. It has dark green foliage and thorny stems. Highly floriferous, it flowers freely through Summer and Autumn with one excellent crop, followed by a few repeat- flowers later on. It has medium to large, double, lemon-yellow rosette blooms with a fruity fragrance and a slight frilled edge to the petals. See:  http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/leverkusen. It has a Garden Merit Award from the RHS. I grew it in my old Armidale garden.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (250)Alchymist  Reimer Kordes, Germany 1956

A cross between a Large-Flowered Climber, Golden Glow, and R. eglanteria, this vigorous Large-Flowered Climber or shrub, up to 6 metres tall and 2.5 metres wide, has thorny stems, bronze-green foliage and excellent disease resistance. Only once-flowering in late Spring and early Summer, it bears clusters of large, very double and quartered yellow-orange rosette blooms with a strong fragrance. See: http://www.paulbardenroses.com/climbers/alchymist.html.

Tantau is the other big name in Germany, so I have included one of his Modern Shrub Roses, Cerise Bouquet. Mathias Tantau started a nursery specializing in forest trees in Northern Germany in 1906, but by 1918 had started breeding roses, with his first three Polyanthas introduced in 1919. He also bred the Floribunda, Floradora 1944, the parent of  Grandiflora, Queen Elizabeth, and Cerise Bouquet, which he gave to Kordes as a gift. His son, also Mathias, continued the business after his father’s death in 1953, producing Hybrid Teas,  Super Star 1960 (also called Tropicana), Blue Moon 1964, Whiskey Mac 1967 and Polar Star 1982. See: http://www.rosen-tantau.com/en/about-us.

Cerise Bouquet  Tantau, Germany 1937 and introduced by Kordes, Germany 1958

A cross between R. multibracteata and Hybrid Tea, Crimson Glory, this large Summer-flowering Shrub Rose, 2.7 to 3.5 metres high and 1.8 metres wide, has small grey-green foliage and large open sprays of cerise-pink, semi-double, rosette blooms on robust, graceful, arching growth. See: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/l.php?l=2.34784.0. It has a Garden Merit Award (RHS).

United States of America

New Dawn  Introduced by Dreer, USA, 1930  A sport of Wichuraiana Hybrid, Dr W. Van Fleet 1899, itself a cross created by rose breeder, Dr W. Van Fleet, from the seed parent: a cross between R. wichuraiana x Tea Rose, Safrano, and pollen parent, Hybrid Tea, Souvenir de Président Carnot. The next three photos show the bloom as it ages. BlogModShrubRosesReszd2016-11-22 17.03.43Dr W. Van Fleet worked in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Introduction Station at Maryland from 1905 to the 1920s, producing plants hardy enough for the American climate with its freezing Winters and hot wet Summers. He raised several other tough hybrids, including Silver Moon 1910 and Sarah Van Fleet 1926.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_0032New Dawn is one of the best and most vigorous Modern Climbers of all time, being voted one of the World’s Most Favourite Roses and inducted into the Rose Hall of Fame in 1997. It was the first rose ever to receive a patent.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2016-11-18 12.08.32 I grew it on the front of our verandah in Armidale (the two photos below) and now it is gracing the bottom side our main pergola in our current garden (the three photos above).BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (237)A healthy 4.5 to 6 metre climber or large shrub, it has glossy, dark green foliage, thorny stems and repeat-flowering clusters of medium-sized, semi-double, silvery-blush pink blooms, which fade to white and have a fresh fruity fragrance.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (247)New Dawn has been crossed with many Hybrid Teas to create a number of  repeat-flowering hardy Modern Climbers, including : Aloha, Bantry Bay, City of London, Coral Dawn, Don Juan, Lichterloh, Morning Dawn, Morning Stars, Parade, Pink Cloud, Pink Favourite, Shin-Setsu and White Cockade. It certainly is a beautiful and important rose!BlogModShrubRosesReszd2016-11-20 17.03.20Jackson and Perkins is a big name in the American rose world: See: http://www.jacksonandperkins.com/. The company started in 1872, when Charles Perkins, with the financial backing of his father-in-law, A.E. Jackson, started farming strawberries and grapes, but the nursery became famous after marketing E. Alvin Miller’s rose, Dorothy Perkins,  in 1901.

After that, Jackson and Perkins started focusing on roses as their main product and grew to become one of the world’s foremost producers and marketers of roses. They purchased Armstrong Nurseries in the late 1980s.

Some of their rose hybridizers include Eugene Boerner, famous for his contribution to the development of Floribundas, as well as Hybrid Teas like Diamond Jubilee 1947; and William Warriner, who bred 110 rose varieties and was a director of the company from 1966 to the late 1980s after the death of Eugene Boerner. Here is one of Boerner’s famous roses:

Aloha, bred by Boerner, USA 1949 and introduced by Jackson and Perkins, USA, 1949

Aloha is a vigorous Large-Flowered  Climber, 2.5 to 4 metres high and 1.5 to 2.5 metres wide, bred from a cross between another Climbing Hybrid Tea, Mercedes Gallart, and New Dawn. It has stiff thorny stems, dark leathery foliage and small clusters of large, fully double, cupped and quartered, Bourbon-like, apricot-pink flowers, with a deeper pink reverse and an apple scent over a long period in Summer and Autumn. See: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/rose-aloha.

Aloha is highly disease-resistant and tolerant of rain and shade and does well in warm climates. It can be grown as a shrub, pillar rose or on a trellis. It has a Garden Merit Award from the RHS, however its main claim to fame is its use in David Austin’s breeding programs to increase the vigour of his English Roses, especially the Leander Group (Charles Austin, Leander, Troilus, Abraham Darby, Golden Celebration, Jubilee Celebration, William Morris, The Alnwick Rose and Summer Song). Below is a photo collage of members of the Leander Group of English Roses. From the top left corner, clockwise: Troilus, William Morris, Golden Celebration, and The Alnwick Rose.

Other important names in the American rose industry are Swim and Weeks (http://www.weeksroses.com), and breeders, Conrad C O’Neal and  Dr Walter E. Lammerts.

Weeks Roses was established in 1938 by Ollie and Verona Weeks. Ollie formed a hybridizing partnership with Herb Swim in the 1950s, both having worked for Armstrong Nurseries in Ontario. During this time, they bred Hybrid Tea, Mr Lincoln 1964. Swim returned to Armstrong’s in the late 1960s, where he bred bicoloured Hybrid Tea, Double Delight 1977. The Weeks retired in 1985 and a new program was set up at Weeks Roses by Tom Carruth, who had  previously worked with Jack Christensen at Armstrong’s and with Bill Warriner at Jackson and Perkins. Here is an interesting article about some of these men: http://www.rose.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/JackChristensen.pdf.

Roundelay Swim, USA, 1953

A cross between Hybrid Tea, Charlotte Armstrong, and Floribunda, Floradora, this upright, free-flowering shrub, 1.2 metres tall and 1 metre wide, has healthy, dark green foliage and large trusses of cardinal-red, fully double, fragrant blooms, which open flat. It received a Geneva Gold Medal in 1954. Here is a link: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/roundelay-shrub-rose.html.

Blossomtime  O’Neal, USA, 1951

A cross between New Dawn and a seedling, this repeat-flowering Modern Climber, 1.2 to 4.5 metres high, has sharp, dark crimson thorns; dense, glossy, dark-green foliage with dark crimson tips; and small clusters of medium sized, very fragrant, double pink flowers, with a darker pink reverse in late Spring and early Summer. They last well as a cut flower. It is slightly susceptible to mildew. The next two photos are of Blossomtime.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9701Dr Walter Lammerts was the first leader of Armstrong Nurseries’ Rose Research and Development Unit (later to be succeeded by Herb Swim, Dr David Armstrong, Jack Christensen and Tom Carruth), and he produced 46 roses between 1940 and 1981, including many Hybrid Teas (like Charlotte Armstrong and Chrysler Imperial), Floribundas, Grandifloras, Modern Climbers and Polyanthas (like China Doll).BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9475Lammert’s roses were the ancestors of many famous roses:

First Generation offspring: eg Sutter’s Gold;

Second Generation offspring: Broadway, Circus, and  Pascali;

Third Generation offspring: Double Delight; Joseph’s Coat and the McCartney Rose; and

Later Generations, like Blueberry Hill.

Golden Showers  Lammerts USA, 1956

A cross between a Hybrid Tea, Charlotte Armstrong, and a Large-Flowered Climber, Captain Thomas, this short Modern Climber reaches 1.8 to 4 metres tall and 1.5 to 2.5 metres wide and has glossy, dark green leaves and almost thornless stems, bearing 10 cm large, semi-double, rather ragged, sweetly fragrant, golden yellow blooms, fading to light yellow as they age, with red filaments. See: http://www.rosesgalore.com/golden-showers-rose.html.

Very free flowering and continuously blooming from mid Summer to early Autumn, it is one of the best compact yellow roses, receiving many awards, including a Garden Merit Award from the RHS, the All-America Rose Selections (AARS) Award in 1956 and the Portland Gold Medal in 1957. It also makes a good free-standing shrub.

France

France has had a long history of rose breeding with many famous rose breeders like the Pernet-Ducher family, Lyons, who produced many Noisettes (Rêve d’Or 1869, Bouquet d’Or 1872), Teas (Marie Van Houtte 1871), Pernetianas (Rayon d’Or 1910) and Hybrid Teas (Mme Caroline Testout 1890), as well as that important yellow ancestor, Soleil d’Or 1900.

Georges Delbard and André Chabert started rose breeding in earnest in the early 1950s, the latter joining Delbard Roses in 1955, producing roses like Hybrid Tea, Vol de Nuit 1970, and Large-Flowered Climber, Ténor 1963, one of the parents of Altissimo.

Delbard Roses have a number of collections including: Painters, Grand Parfums, Couture, Bordure, Standards and Climbers. See: http://rankinsroses.com.au/product-category/delbard-french-roses/.

Altissimo  Delbard-Chabert, France, 1966

A cross between another Large-Flowered Climber, Ténor, and a seedling, this Modern Climber reaches 3.5 metres high and 3 metres wide and is suitable for walls, fences, pergolas and pillars. It has good disease-resistance, dark green leathery foliage and is very free-flowering. It repeat flowers well with long-lasting, large, bright red, single blooms with gold stamens and a light fragrance. I grew this climber on the tennis court fence back in my old Armidale garden.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%Image (180)

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The rose garden at the Cowra Information Centre has an excellent example of this beautiful modern climber
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‘Altissimo’ means ‘In the highest’ in Italian

Guy Savoy, Delbard, France, 2001

Named after the celebrated French chef, this Modern Shrub rose has large, loose, highly fragrant, rich cardinal-red blooms (over 20 per cluster) with white and cerise slashes. It has a long flowering period and the blooms have a fruity fragrance, blending orange, peach and vanilla. The hardy shrub has excellent disease resistance and little or no thorns. It certainly is an eye-catcher!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMeilland Richardier is another big name in the French rose world.  It was founded by Antoine Meilland, who grew up in Lyon, was apprenticed to Francis Dubreuil, a tailor-turned-rose breeder, who bred Perle d’Or 1884. Meilland married Dubreuil’s daughter in 1909 and raised son Francis, born in 1912, who became famous with his Hybrid Tea, Peace 1945. The development of this iconic rose and the families involved is recounted in Antonia Ridge’s well-known book, For Love of a Rose.BlogModRosesReszd50%Image (190)With the royalties from the dramatic sales of Peace in the United States in 1945, Francis Meilland was able to sell the main share of the growing business to Francisque Richardier and concentrate on rose breeding at the Cap d’Antibes. He died in 1954, at the age of 46, having built up a huge international business: https://meilland.com/en/. The next two photos are of Meilland rose, Pierre de Ronsard.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.51.39His work is continued by his son Alain, daughter, Michèle Meilland Richardier, and Matthias Meilland (Alain’s son and 6th generation rose breeder) and chief hybridizer, Jacques Mouchotte. Today, nursery production covering 600 hectares or 1500 acres in France, Morocco, Spain, the Netherlands and California, selling more than 12 million rose bushes annually and owning more than 1,000 patents worldwide and 600 trademarks.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.51.48Bonica ’82  Meilland, France, 1981 (also known as Bonica and MEIdomonac)

A cross between seed parent (R. sempervirens x Hybrid Wichuraiana, Madamoiselle Marthe Carron) and pollen parent, Floribunda, Picasso, this low to medium shrub rose, 1.5 metres tall and 1.85 metres wide, has a bushy growth habit; small, semi-glossy, coppery light green foliage; and strong arching stems, bearing large clusters of small to medium, slightly fragrant, bright rose-pink blooms, with lighter pink frilled edges. See: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/rose-bonica . If not deadheaded, it will produce a large crop of bright red hips, lasting well into the Winter.

Extremely floriferous and very disease resistant, it has been given a Garden Merit Award (RHS) and the All-America Rose Award and has been voted the World’s  Most Favourite Rose in 1997. It is one of the most popular and widely planted of all modern roses.

Pierre de Ronsard   Meilland, France, 1987 (also known as Eden Rose or Eden Rose ‘88)

A cross between a Large-Flowered Climber, Music Dancer and a Climbing Floribunda, Pink Wonder, this moderate-sized vigorous climbing rose, up to 3 metres tall, has large, glossy bright green leaves; a few thorns; and heavy, globular, cabbage-rose-like creamy-white blooms, suffused with pink and carmine, and having a light Tea fragrance. See: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/rose-bonica .

It repeat-flowers from early Summer to late Autumn and is highly disease resistant. It was named after Pierre de Ronsard (1524 to 1585), the 16th century ‘Prince of Poets’, who was a favourite with Mary Queen of Scots. In 2006, this Modern Climber was voted the World’s Most Favourite Rose by the World Federation of Rose Societies. We grew it on our verandah on our Armidale home, seen in the photo below.BlogModShrubRosesReszd50%april 043United Kingdom

James Cocker and Sons (http://www.roses.uk.com/) is a specialist rose nursery, owned by the Cocker family, in Aberdeen, Scotland. It began in 1840 and has been responsible for the breeding of many famous Hybrid Teas like Silver Jubilee 1978, the world’s number one selling rose for many years,  and Alec’s Red 1970, as well as the following shrub rose:

White Cockade  Cocker, UK, 1969

This small repeat-flowering Modern Climber, 2.5 metres tall and 1.8 metres wide, is a cross between New Dawn and Floribunda, Circus. Upright, well-foliated, thorny stems bear clusters of beautiful, medium sized, fully double, pure white fragrant flowers, which open into rather triangular shapes (hence the name!) and last well as a cut flower. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/white-cockade-climbing-rose.html. An excellent pillar rose or shrub rose, it has moderate disease resistance and does better  in warm climates.

Robert Holmes was a successful amateur rose breeder, who shot to fame with a rose named after his wife:

Sally Holmes  Holmes, UK, 1976

A cross between Floribunda, Ivory Fashion, and Hybrid Musk, Ballerina, this strong, highly disease-resistant Modern Shrub Rose, 1.5 metres tall and 1.25 metres wide, has glossy, dark green leaves and large clusters of apricot-pointed buds, opening to 9 cm wide, single to semi-double, lightly fragrant, creamy-white flowers with gold stamens. It is very floriferous, each branch bearing up to 50 flowers, and is nearly always in bloom, repeat-flowering from early Summer to Autumn.BlogModShrubRosesReszd20%IMG_9319It has had a number of awards, including a Garden Merit Award from the RHS,  a Gold Award from Baden Baden in 1980, a Gold Medal from Portland in 1993 and an Award for Best Fragrance at Glasgow, also in 1993.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-25 14.03.10It was inducted into the World Rose Hall of Fame in 2012, being the first rose bred by an amateur breeder to do so. I love this photo of Sally Holmes next to this sweet statue, which we saw at Alan and Fleur Carthew’s garden at Renmark.BlogModShrubRosesReszd2014-10-25 15.07.18Harkness Roses  (http://www.roses.co.uk/) , founded in 1879, is a rose nursery based in Hitchins, Hertfordshire, which bred over 70 well-known roses from 1961 on, under the directorship of Jack Harkness, like Hybrid Tea, Alexander 1972; Large-Flowered Climber, Compassion 1972; Floribundas: Margaret Merril 1977; Mountbatten 1982; Amber Queen 1983 and Princess of Wales 1997; and Modern Shrub Roses, Marjorie Fair 1978 and :

Jacqueline du Pré  Harkness, Britain, 1988

A cross between Floribunda, Radox Bouquet and Hybrid Spinosissima, Maigold, this large strong, disease-resistant Modern Shrub Rose, 1.8 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide, has abundant, dark green foliage and large, single to semi-double, ivory-white flowers, with prominent golden-red stamens and a lemony musk scent. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/jacqueline-du-pre-shrub-rose.html.

It repeat-flowers freely from early Spring. It was named for the highly talented cellist, Jacqueline du Pré (1945 to 1987), who died at the age of 43 from Multiple Sclerosis, and has a Garden Merit Award from the RHS.

Next week, I am exploring some of my favourite poets and poetry books in our library before my final post for the year on Boxing Day!

The Old Roses of Red Cow Farm

After visiting this beautiful garden at Sutton’s Forest, just south of Mossvale, in the Southern Highlands in Summer and Autumn, we were determined to time our next visit during the peak blooming season of all its Old Roses (early November) and it certainly was a wonderful display and well worth making the effort!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI have already written a general post about this amazing garden at: https://candeloblooms.com/2016/12/20/a-garden-weekend-in-the-southern-highlands-part-1/  and it is also worth referring to its own website at: http://www.redcowfarm.com.au/home.html.

At risk of repeating myself, here are the contact details!

Red Cow Farm (Owners: Ali Mentesh and Wayne Morrisey)

7480 Illawarra Highway Sutton Forest, 5 km south of Mossvale    2.5 hectares (6 acres)

1.5 hours drive from Canberra and Sydney

Phone: (02) 4868 1842; 0448 677647

Open 8 months of the year from late September to the end of May, 10am – 4 pm. Closed Christmas Day.

$10 Adults; $8 Seniors and $4 children (4 to 14 years old)

Red Cow Farm is such an artistic garden. I love the colour combinations used; the diversity of both colour, texture and form; and the play of light and shade. However, for this post, I am focusing on the old roses in all their full glory! Where I can identify them, I mention their names, having quizzed Ali in great depth after exploring the garden, but for many of the roses, it was merely enough to enjoy the total picture and breathe in their beautiful scents.

I am also including the garden map again, so it is easier to discuss the location of the roses! As in my previous post on Red Cow Farm, I am following a similar path from the entrance to the cottage garden, curved pergola and Apollo Walk to the Abbess’s Garden and beyond, following the numbers on the map.blogsth-highlds50reszdimage-193Front of the Cottage

The highly fragrant Kordes rose, Cinderella, greets you on the left as you enter the front gate.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn front of the cottage on the left is a huge bush of Mutabilis (photo of shrub in the background below) and behind it, adorning the house, is Awakening, a sport of Hybrid Wichurana, New Dawn, itself a sport of another Hybrid Wichurana, Dr W Van Fleet. Awakening is the rose, being held in the hand, on the far right of the photo below.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACottage Garden and Camellia Walk  (Areas 3 and 4):

I loved the contrast between these tidy clipped balls and the blowsy, overgrown shrub roses.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The next photo is taken under the start of the curved pergola with the start of the Apollo Walk to the Abbess’s Garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACurved Pergola and Courtyard (Areas 5 and 1):

The curved pergola is stunning from either direction, looking down to the courtyard and circular driveway:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and back to the Apollo Walk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The golden roses look so good against the old weathered timber beams, stone walls and brick pillars.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the attention to detail and the mixed plantings- soft blue campanulas and lemon Sisyringium strictum in a carpet of pinks.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The courtyard behind the cottage is a delightful spot to sit.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARoses were often planted in monastery gardens during the Middle Ages, so it was very appropriate to find many of the old roses in the Abbesses Garden and the Monastery Garden.

Abbess’s Garden (Area 7), leading into the Beech Walk (Area 8):

The first bed on the right as you enter the Abbess’s Garden from the Apollo Walk is full of yellows and golds with English Rose, Comte de Champagne (2nd photo below), in a sea of lemon-yellow aquilegia.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI love all the colour combinations, both complimentary:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and contrasting:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The wide variety of plantings ensures constant colour and interest throughout the seasons.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I particularly loved the Alliums.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOn her pillar in the third bed on the right, Hybrid Multiflora, Laure Davoust, rises from a sea of pink.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAs you approach the chapel, Hybrid Spinosissima, Golden Wings, is on the right:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while golden David Austins, Wildflower (single, gold to white with gold stamens) and heavy, globular Charles Darwin grace the left bed.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe riotous colour of the Abbess’s Garden is in dramatic contrast with the calming green living walls of the next garden room, the Beech Walk (Area 8),OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA which leads to the Hazelnut Walk (Area 9) and the Lake (Area 11), complete with island and bridge (Area 20).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the twisted red stems of the hazelnut trees and the intensity of the colours, backlit by sun, as you emerge from the shade they cast.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlowsy Hybrid Wichurana, Albertine, falls into the water from the banks,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while Noisette climber, Lamarque, graces the island end of the bridge.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love this view of the wooden bridge from the Bog Garden (Area 10).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWoodland (Area 19)

The woodland area is a study in contrast in colour, tone, form and texture.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere are a few roses in the herbaceous borders of the Obelisk Walk (Area 23),OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA including Hybrid Rugosa rose, Jens Munk, which was also in bloom last January (first photo) and this unidentified pink rose.

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The richness and lushness of the garden is always such a contrast to the surrounding grazed paddocks:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and I love the woodland paths.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERANovember is also Rhododendron and Azalea season. I would dearly love to find the golden Rhodendron luteum, whose scent is superb, but I also loved this deep-pink rhodo, Homebush, under the shade of the dogwood tree.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and this unidentified rhododendron with masses of light pink blooms.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The new shoots of this Gold Tipped Oriental Spruce, Picea orientalis aurea, were quite stunning as well.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGarden Shed and Circular Driveway (Area 17)

Tea Rose, Countess Bertha, also known as Comtesse de Labarthe, Comtesse Ouwaroff, Mlle de Labarthe and Duchesse de Brabant, climbs up the back wall over the door,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while the front garden facing the driveway contains Hybrid Tea, Mme Abel Chatenay, on the left, facing the shed,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and English Rose, The Alnwick Rose, on the right.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA On the left of the junction of the path back into the Flower Walk (Area 16) is a shrub of Fantin Latour.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the bright poppies of the central flowerbed in the driveway, which was filled with bright pink and orange zinnias in full bloom on our last visit in January. There was a stunning Oriental Poppy further down the driveway on our current visit in November.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMonastery Garden (Area 13)

Like the Abbess’s Garden, the Monastery Garden is full of roses. This photo shows a view of the Monastery Garden, looking back to the entrance.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAA creamy cloud of Mrs Herbert Stevens (Hybrid Tea), Devoniensis (Tea) and Souvenir de la Malmaison (Bourbon) covers the entrance wall to the garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The fallen purple petals of Portland Damask, Rose de Rescht, carpet the path on the right.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA St Fiacre, the patron saint of gardens, hides under Hybrid Perpetual, Reine des Violettes.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I loved this little Nicotiana mutabilis, complementing the pink rose behind,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and the contrast of the monastery bell with the infilled arches of variegated ivy.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAVegetable Garden (Area 12) and Nursery (Area21)

I loved the hedge of Hybrid Rugosa, Roseraie de l’Hay, behind the globe artichokes:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA and the Icebergs (Hybrid Tea) dotting the vegetable garden.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA On the nursery side of the Wisteria Walk (Area 22) is the dramatic striped Delbard rose, Guy Savoy.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA And finally, ….

The Walled Garden (Area 2)

A riot of colour and scents!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Hybrid Macrantha, Raubritter, covers the right of the seat,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA while Species Rose, Dupontii, stands tall against the end wall of the cottage.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA There is just so much colour and interest in just this section of the garden alone!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI loved the sea of poppies in the front garden around the birdbath.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARed Cow Farm would have to be one of my favourite gardens in all seasons and I would highly recommend a visit in November for maximum enjoyment! It is a photographer’s delight, so make sure that you take your camera or beg, borrow or steal one, as I had to do for this most important visit. I shall tell you more about my camera woes on Thursday!

The Spring Garden

Spring is such an exciting period with everything waking up after the long cold Winter! The garden is literally transformed from September to November, as can be seen in the photos below, one for each month:BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-10 18.57.32OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIt just gets better and better as the days progress, especially with the recent life-giving rain!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA In fact, this seasonal post is probably the most challenging to write, as so much is now flowering that it demands complete ruthlessness when it comes to photo selection and I really don’t know that I am up to the task! Here are a few more general garden photos from mid-Spring:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 07.07.13BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.31.34and late Spring:

BlogSpringGardenReszd3017-11-26 11.16.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 11.17.49But back to the start of Spring and proceeding from the top down! First up, the trees…! It is just so lovely to have our tapestry of green back, especially on those sunny golden evenings when a thunderstorm is brewing.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASeptember was blossom-time, starting with the wild plums and crabapples: the Floribunda and Golden Hornet:

They were followed by the apples, quinces and pears, the maples (October) and finally, the dogwood (November).

By October, most of the trees were sporting their new foliage wardrobes and by November were in full fruit and seed production mode: plums, crabs and apples.

Next, the shrubs! September marked the end of camellia and japonica season;

and the return of old favourites like lilac and Michelia, White Caviar.

The bright sunny yellow of the broom and the Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum) always gladdens my heart!

The May Bush (Spiraea), the Viburnum x burkwoodii Anne Russell and the Beauty Bush (Kolwitzia amabilis) were spectacular this September:

and continued on into October, to be joined by the white lilac, Mme Lemoine; the choisya (Choisya ternata), Viburnum plicatum Mariesii and the Snowball Tree (Viburnum opulus).

Further colour and scent was added by the woodbine on the fence;

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Woodbine (Lonicera periclymenum)

As well as the weigela, the Carolina allspice and the red azalea, which enjoyed its move to the rainforest section of the garden.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-10-19 10.51.59BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0571BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0602By November, the yellow honeysuckle on the fence had joined its cousin and was heading for the skies, while the blooming of the snowball tree finished with a snowfall of petals.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.26.55OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABoth philadelphus were in full glorious bloom and scent, as was the Italian Lavender. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 06.58.18BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0618And the roses…! My beloved roses…! But first, the bulbs! The bulbs are always the first flowers of Spring! Lots of whites, golds and blues with the odd red and orange accent. My wild white bank of Actaea daffodils above the birdbath was a great success and we had a good show of the glamorous Acropolis daffodils at the entrance to the pergola below the Michelia.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-20 09.46.45BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 14.34.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 13.47.18The bright yellow nodding heads of Winter’s miniature Tête à Tête daffodils (1st photo) were joined by these bright golden Golden Dawn tazettas (2nd photo).BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-03 11.04.32BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-14 18.37.24 The pink and blue bluebells under the crab apple and next to the mosaic birds provided a soft blue, while the masses of grape hyacinths and divinely-scented Delft Blue hyacinth turned the treasure bed into a sea of blue.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.46.40BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-13 19.37.44BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-08 13.14.56  The tulips in the cutting garden also provided a wonderful show from the soft pale yellow and candy-pink-striped species tulips (Tulipa clusiana Cynthia): BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_1293BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-25 11.31.52BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-25 11.33.05to the Pink Monet and Gold Bokassa tulips;BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-28 11.51.23BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.18.27 and the brightly coloured Synaeda Orange Lily Tulips and Red Bokassa tulips, all children of the original bulbs planted in 2015.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-28 11.51.59BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0071BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-21 10.41.28BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 11.59.53A snake’s head fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris) and Jacobean lilies (Sprekelia) arrived in October, but the iris quickly stole the show.BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0059OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA I love the stunning bright colours of the Dutch Iris in the cutting garden,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 16.18.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.49.38 but I think my heart belongs to Bearded Iris, whose soft romantic colors and forms complement the November roses so well: gold in the Soho Bed and soft mauve in the Moon Bed.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-10-23 08.06.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-17 16.11.58BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-16 09.07.14 A friend has just given me a large variety of differently-coloured Bearded Iris, which we have planted above the agapanthus bank.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-16 09.14.53After the bulbs, the Spring flowers started to take over. Because there are so many, I have organised them into colour palettes.

White: Acanthus mollis; Rock Orchid and Dianthus Coconut Sundae,

Dandelion seedheads; Feverfew and Nicotiana,

and a white Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea Mirabelle, though some of them were pink:

I love the white cornflower in amongst the white foxglove and feverfew in the shady end of the cutting garden.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.35.19

Yellow: Nigella orientalis Transformer, English Primrose, Geum Lady Stratheden and Wild Strawberry;

Gold: A very special gift: an Intersectional Peony and my self-sown gigantic Russian Sunflowers;

and the stunning Meadow Lea dahlia;BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.42.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.34.45Red: Ladybird Poppies in the Cutting Garden and Dahlias, providing jewel-like colour on the skirt of the Albertine roses, as they finish their blooming season;

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Deep Red: The last of the Double Hellebores from Winter;

Pink: Rhodohypoxis baurii and Dianthus Valda Wyatt of the treasure garden and the last of the pink violets from under the camellia; deep pink divinely-scented sweet peas; a mutated Ladybird Poppy and glamorous self-sown Peony Poppies in the sunflower bed.

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Rhodohypoxis baurii in the centre of a sea of grape hyacinths
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Dianthus Valda Wyatt

I just adore the self-sown peony poppies in the Soho Bed!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 09.34.26

Purple: I am hoping one of my readers can identify this cute little flower adorning the steps, but the others are Perennial Wallflower and Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla);BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 19.06.34BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 13.18.12BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-18 13.56.21 Blue: Forget-me-nots, Borage, Blue Primrose and Cornflower;

And this last week, the Geranium Rozanne in the treasure bed!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.56.43And Green: Hacquetia epipactis, a new purchase and woodland plant from Moidart Nursery (https://www.moidart.com.au/).BlogSpringGardenReszd3017-11-22 15.25.02The roses started with the white and yellow banksias on the bottom fence and the pergola over the outside dining area in late September, with the house and main pergola roses opening in early to mid-October and then, the main flush of roses in November.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.12.18BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-19 07.27.59 I have presented the roses according to their location.

House: First up, Noisette climber, Lamarque, whose clean fragrance reminds me of Granny Smith apples:

then, Hybrid Teas, Mrs Herbert Stevens (white)and Château de Clos Vougeot (red):

Main Pergola: The climbing roses are now starting to clothe the pergola, especially on the top side, with Adam and Mme Alfred Carrière already reaching the top!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-18 14.32.19 In order, top to bottom and left to right : the top side with Mme Alfred Carrière; the bottom side; Adam (2 photos); Mme Alfred Carrière (2 photos); Souvenir de St Anne and Souvenir de la Malmaison, in the middle of the top and bottom sides respectively; New Dawn and Devoniensis.

I just had to include two more photos of the beautiful Devoniensis in the late afternoon light!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 17.15.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 17.09.39Arches: Cécile Brünner on the entrance arch;OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Cornelia (pink) and Sombreuil (white) on the arch at the bottom of the garden, leading into the future chookyard;

and Noisettes, Alister Stella Grey (small rose on bottom left) and Rêve d’Or (the larger rose in the other three photos) on the small arch near the shed corner.

Shed:

The Albertine frame on the back wall of the shed has been a great success, with the Albertine roses in full bloom from late October till late November and now, the jewel-like dahlias adding colour to its skirts as the roses gradually finish.

Here are the dahlias:BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.26.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.36.10BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.35.16BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 10.59.43BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-27 10.35.22BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 11.00.12In the front beds of the shed include: Reine Victoria; Fritz Nobis and Leander.

The roses in the long bed against my neighbour’s fence have been wonderful this year! They include, in order, top to bottom and left to right: Archiduc Joseph (first two photos); Viridiflora (green); Small Maiden’s Blush (white; photos 4 and 5); Mme Hardy (white with a green eye); Fantin Latour (pink); and the divinely-scented Mme Isaac Pereire!

I have still to identify these two once-flowering roses. Any suggestions?BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 06.50.27BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 09.29.50Maigold brightens up the lawn beside the shed. I planted it for my Dad, who died last January, and it borders the Tea Garden, planted with peppermint, Moroccan spearmint, chamomile and Camellia sinensis, as well as a golden Kerria. Unfortunately, the Native Frangipani, which was planted above Scamp’s grave and which got hit by last Winter’s frost, has not recovered, so we are replacing it with a golden peach tree or a lemon-cented tea-tree, which ever one come first!

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Maigold

Hedges:

The fragrant Rugosa hedge is growing, though the Roseraie de l’Hay still struggles with root competition from the Cottonwood Poplar. In order, Mme Georges Bruant (a white double); Frau Dagmar Hastrup (a pink single) and Roseraie de l’Hay (a rich purple, double, highly fragrant rugosa).

The Russelliana are tough though and are thriving, despite a similar problem and full shade from the Mulberry Tree in Summer! BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-13 07.22.06OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI love the Hybrid Musk hedge to the left of the arch next to Sombreuil: Autumn Delight (first two photos) and Penelope (the rest of the photos! It’s a favourite!):OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-22 11.10.53OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.59.12And it looks like my ill Kathleen is on the mend at long last!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.18.23The hedge on the right, next to Cornelia, contains some of my favourite roses: Felicia (first photo); Stanwell Perpetual (photos 2-5) and Mutabilis (photos 6-7).OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-18 07.47.50BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.57.35OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOn the boundary fence is a very prickly rose, which I propagated from cuttings, having a 100 percent strike rate! I think it is Wichurana Rambler, Albéric Barbier.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-16 16.59.29 Soho Bed: A mass of colour with gold bearded iris, Italian lavender, pink and white valerian, catmint, borage, thrift, geum, perennial wallflowers, salvia, stachys, rose campion and November roses!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 09.11.02OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 09.04.24Here are single photos of some of the roses in the Soho Bed, in order: Top to bottom, left to right: Fair Bianca (white); Mr Lincoln (deep red); Heaven Scent (pink; frilled petals) and Lolita to the right of her; The Alnwick Rose; Eglantyne (pink; two photos); The Children’s Rose (pink); Icegirl (white); Just Joey (salmon); and Our Copper Queen (gold).

Moon Bed: Full of beautifully blowsy and romantic David Austin roses, mauve bearded iris, blue borage and forget-me-knots, purple catmint and salvias (light and dark blue, deep pink and red-and-white Lipstick). Here is the Moon Bed in early Spring:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn order, from top to bottom and left to right: Windermere (cream; two photos); William Morris (pink; two photos); Heritage (pink globular); Golden Celebration (gold); Lucetta (pink; two photos); the divinely-scented Jude the Obscure (peachy-cream and heavily cupped); and Troilus (lemony-cream). Unfortunately, my Evelyn died!

As you can imagine, we have been kept very busy raising seeds (with not much success!), mulching garden beds, training raspberry canes and vegetable gardening. BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-10-15 09.17.16BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-26 19.05.32OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-20 09.50.42 The first photo below was taken in early Spring, when the kale was in full flower, and the second photo taken in late Spring.BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0567OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERARoss commandeered my old dahlia and zinnia patches opposite the cutting garden for more vegetables, but I can still include the odd flower for pollination purposes, as well as just sheer scent and beauty! Because Iceland Poppies are one of Ross’s favourite flowers, we sowed its seed on one quarter of the old dahlia bed, but unfortunately only two white poppies emerged! They look stunning against the deep purple cabbage leaves!

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 11.18.11BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.58.27Ross has reorganized the vegetable beds, as seen in the photo below. In the top left, perennial crops like raspberries, rhubarb, asparagus, comfrey, angelica, Russian Tarragon, and the odd potato from last year’s plantings, with sweet peas, nasturtiums and calendula flowers and even the odd wild strawberry, though we have lots of real strawberries in the old zinnia patch!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.39.26BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.40.48 BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 09.01.32On the right of the path are four vegetable beds, so he can rotate plantings. Just look at the size of those purple cabbages!!! It’s wonderful growing and eating our own food and the vegetable garden is now at a stage, where it self-seeds with tomato plants appearing all over the place! OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALikewise, our giant bed of sunflowers and peony poppies, both of which have had excellent yields this year, compared to previous years.BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-18 14.38.58BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-19 14.37.15BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.59.36BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-17 07.35.12BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-21 08.59.51 As well as a few surprises like this miniature rose, which must have grown from a seed in a bird dropping. I was momentarily stumped by the identity of this stranger, growing at the edge of the hard-packed dirt path under the shade of the potato plants, until I remembered that I had sown a whole packet of Scarlet Flax, Linum grandiflorum rubrum, last year in the cutting garden, none of which had come up, so I don’t know how it reached its current postion, but hopefully it self-seeds and is here to stay!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI’ve also been kept busy with birthday cakes and gifts: A crochet roll for my daughter, who has started learning to crochet and amazingly and unbeknownst to me, received two balls of soft, multi-coloured mohair wool and this set of brightly coloured crochet hooks of different gauges, from a workmate. They look so wonderful in the crochet roll! I also printed out some crochet patterns for the matching folder.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-07 13.28.14BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 10.53.11And gifts for Zoe, my dear friend’s beautiful little daughter, who has such a generous and giving soul: a hedgehog to thank her for the cute little felt mouse, which she gave me, and a birthday ladybird coin purse. Note: all three patterns (crochet roll, hedgehog and coin purse) came from the wonderful book: Everyday Handmade: 22 Practical Projects for the Modern Sewist by Cassie Barden and Adrienne Smitke 2011.BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-28 18.15.53OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAA French cockerel coffee cosy and coaster for my friend’s 60th birthday, involving a huge saga and much blood, sweat and tears! All I can say, is NEVER EVER try to make such a complicated fiddly pattern when you have a bad migraine!!! Nor cook a cake, but that’s another story!!! This pattern came from Mollie Makes Feathered Friends, edited by Jane Toft 2013.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd75%GetFileAttachmentAnd birthday cakes for my neighbour and daughter!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-24 18.20.30BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-06 22.50.21 It’s so wonderful being able to play with all the Spring blooms and create beautiful bouquets and vases for the house!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 17.50.11BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-06 10.01.18BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-31 12.42.22BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0468BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-08-31 12.47.44BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0471OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 10.30.36BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-25 10.34.36While we have also had some terrific days out over the Spring, including a wonderful whale-watching trip, I am reserving these photos for future posts and instead, I am finishing this post with some of our avian residents and visitors! We are currently deluged with the noisy chatter of Rainbow Lorikeets, drunk on the nectar of Bottlebrush. Unfortunately, I am without a camera at the moment and the birds are a bit quick for my mobile phone, but the photos below show the source of their delight!

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOliver, our super-quiet King Parrot, returns to our verandah from time to time to check if Ross has relented and softened his stance towards feeding wild birds!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-15 10.47.51BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0549The Crimson Rosellas love feasting on the Spring blossom of the wild plum,BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 20.01.45BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-19 20.02.33while the Yellow-Tailed Black Cockatoos prefer sheoak nuts!BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0739BlogSpringGardenReszd25%IMG_0714The male Satin Bowerbird and his wife love our garden, snipping off blue cornflowers, Erlicheer blossoms and even the odd snowball (Viburnum opulus),BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-01 15.27.41as do the magpies, which still chase off any larger birds- at the moment, the targets are storm birds, but given the latter are cuckoos, that’s very understandable! This quiet baby magpie loves weeding with Ross in the garden!BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-17 19.38.55The galahs, who adored the pink blossom in early Spring, both an edible treat and a visual complement to their rose-pink plumage, and the Duranta berries;BlogSpringGardenReszd2017-09-02 19.29.00BlogSpringGardenReszd20%IMG_0681And the return of the huge and noisy Little Corella flocks amassing in Candelo for Christmas, before their big journey in early January!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 06.41.33BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-26 06.40.31Now that the year is drawing to a close, this is the last of my seasonal posts for the year. In fact, for quite a while, although I shall probably still add the odd post updating you on any major changes in the garden next year, the reasons becoming clear in next week’s post, Camera Woes (Thursday). I am also returning to my monthly feature plant posts, so you may also catch a brief glimpse of the garden in them!

But first, next Tuesday, I will tell you all about the wonderful Old Roses of Red Cow Farm, which we recently visited in early November. Such a treat! I was in heaven, as you can well imagine!!! If you can only ever visit this magnificent garden once, then this is the time to do it!!! Happy Gardening!

P.S. Here is a photo of our delightful street library just outside the general store, a new addition to Candelo! It even has a library stamp and ink pad!BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-29 14.47.59BlogSpringGardenReszd2517-11-29 14.48.57

David Austin’s English Roses

Up until the late 19th Century, nursery catalogues listed a huge variety of different rose types from the Species Roses and Old European varieties (Gallicas, Damasks, Albas, Centifolias and Mosses)  to China Roses and all the progeny of rose hybridization since the latter’s introduction to the West: the Boursaults, Bourbons, Portlands, Hybrid Perpetuals, Noisettes, Teas and early Hybrid Teas and Floribundas.

However, with the development and increased popularity of the Hybrid Tea over the early 20th Century, many of the earlier varieties of rose began to disappear and today, many of them have vanished without  a trace.

Fortunately, there were still some famous gardeners, who kept the Old Roses going:

Gertrude Jekyll and Edward Mawley wrote a book titled: Roses For English Gardens in 1901, which can be downloaded from the Biodiversity Library website: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/29702#/summary.

Constance Spry (1886-1960) was one of the first collectors of Old Roses in the 20th Century and Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962) grew many heritage varieties in her garden at Sissinghurst Castle.

Graham Stuart Thomas (1909-2003), who met the 88 year-old Gertrude Jekyll in his early days at Hillings, Woking, started collecting Old Roses in the 1950s, expanding the collection at his own Sunningdale Nursery, before finding it a permanent home at Mottisfont. See my post on the Rose Gardens of England at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/10/24/bucket-list-of-rose-gardens-in-england/.

Other collectors retrieved Old Roses from neglected gardens , historic homesteads, cemeteries and roadsides all over the world. See my post on the Barossa Old Rose Repository at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/14/barossa-old-rose-repository-and-the-twentieth-century-and-heritage-rose-gardens-of-the-waite-institute/.

By the time I started my own garden in the early 1980s, Old Roses were making a come-back with Peter Beales, UK, at the helm of their revival. See the second entry in my post at: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/10/24/bucket-list-of-rose-gardens-in-england/.

However, the other big name in the rose world at the time was David Austin (1926-), now 91 years old. Here is the story of his journey in the rose world!

History

David grew up on a farm in Albrighton, Shropshire, where he still lives today. Initially starting farming like his father, he became increasingly interested in gardening, especially in amateur rose breeding.

He loved the shrubby form of Old Rose bushes and the beautiful scent of their blooms, with their wide variety of flower forms, which provided so much more interest than the uniformly pointed buds of the Hybrid Teas. There were single, semi-single and double forms, of which there were flat, recurving or cupped rosettes; deep and shallow cups; and even pompom-shaped flowers, depicted in this photograph from Page 33 of David Austin’s English Roses, Australian Edition, 1996:BlogEngRosesReszd2017-09-29 09.24.10However, to some people’s eyes, Old Roses had two major drawbacks, compared to the Hybrid Teas:

Their muted colour range: Only whites, pinks, crimsons and purples, compared to the bright colours and yellows, oranges, peaches and apricots of the Hybrid Teas (though the climbing Noisettes do have yellows in their colour range, but here we are talking about the bush forms only); and

The fact that they only flower once in the Summer. Personally, I have never really accepted these criticisms, especially the latter, as most of our garden shrubs are only once-flowering eg Spiraea, Weigelas and Viburnums, but with the decreasing size of the modern garden, recurrency plays an increasingly important role, providing more colour and scent for money, and I must admit that I too am guilty of this in our Moon Bed, here in our small garden at Candelo- more later!!!

As early as the late 1940s, David Austin conceived the notion of breeding Old Roses with the modern Hybrid Teas and Floribundas to maximize the advantages of each and produce healthy, vigorous shrubs with flowers with the form and scent of Old Roses, but the colour range and remontancy of the modern rose.

He started experimenting in the 1950s and by 1961, had produced his first rose Constance Spry, named after the famous flower arranger. I grew this rose against the tennis court fence in my Armidale garden, seen in the photo below.BlogEngRosesReszd50%Image (168)A progeny of a short Gallica, Belle Isis, and a strong, though not tall, Floribunda, Dainty Maid, Constance Spry bears deeply-cupped, soft-pink flowers with a myrrh scent, but unfortunately, like all first crosses, only flowers once in the Summer.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_9461 The repeat-flowering gene is recessive, so Constance Spry had to be back-crossed at least once more with other repeat-flowering roses to ensure the recurrent-flowering ability.

Some of these roses included:

Ma Perkins, a Floribunda, which produced copious seed, which germinated well and was one of the few modern roses to have the cupped shape of Old Roses (like that of a Bourbon); Mme Caroline Testout, an early Hybrid Tea with globular flowers with numerous petals, seen in the photo below; and another Hybrid Tea, Monique.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9267Other crosses involved other Gallicas like Duchesse de Montebello, Duchesse d’Angoulême and R. gallica officinalis; Damasks like La Ville de Bruxelles, Marie Louise and Celsiana; and Albas, Königan von Dänemark and Mme Legras St. Germaine.

For example:

Shropshire Lass 1968, a cross between Mme Butterfly, an early Hybrid Tea and an Alba, Mme Legras St Germaine, which is Summer flowering only.

Scintillation, 1968, a cross between R. macrantha, and Hybrid Musk, Vanity,  and

The Prioress, 1969, a cross between Bourbon, Reine Victoria, and a seedling;

Some of the early roses from crosses between Ma Perkins, Monique, Mme Caroline Testout and Constance Spry,  all pink and all recurrent-flowering, unless otherwise specified, include:

Wife of Bath 1969 , bred from a cross between Mme Caroline Testout x (Ma Perkins x Constance Spry). For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=2557;

Canterbury 1969, bred from a cross between (Monique x Constance Spry) x seedling;

Dame Prudence 1969, a cross between Floribunda, Ivory Fashion, and another cross (Constance Spry x Ma Perkins);

The Yeomen 1969, a cross between Ivory Fashion x (Constance Spry x Monique);

The Friar 1969, a cross between a seedling and Ivory Fashion;

Chaucer 1970, a cross between a Hybrid Gallica, Duchesse de Montebello and Constance Spry. For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/l.php?l=2.1112.1 ; and

The Miller, 1970, a cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Baroness Rothschild, and Chaucer.

Other early breeding programs focused on achieving a red colour range. To develop his red roses, David Austin crossed a single red Floribunda, Dusky Maiden, with a very old deep red Gallica, Tuscany, to produce Chianti, 1967, with its large, highly scented, deep crimson rosette blooms, again flowering only once, in early Summer.blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0247 Further breeding , including the introduction of red Hybrid Tea, Château de Clos Vougeot, seen in the photo above, which is a rather weak shrub in the UK, into the breeding program has resulted in red family of English Roses, which is slightly on the smaller size. These include:

The Knight 1969 A cross between a Bourbon, Gipsy Boy and Chianti, but it has been discontinued as the plant is rather weak and later:

Glastonbury 1974 The Knight x seedling;

The Squire 1977 The Knight x Château de Clos Vougeot, a much stronger rose than its David Austin bred-parent; and further crosses between English Roses,

Prospero 1982 A similar cross to The Squire;

Wise Portia 1982 and Wenlock 1984 , both crosses of The Knight x Glastonbury; and

Othello 1986 A cross between two English Roses, Lilian Austin x The Squire.

By 1970, David Austin had a small range of roses ready to be launched, many of them named after characters in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales  (including Wife of Bath 1969, Canterbury 1969, both still available, and The Prioress 1969, The Yeomen 1969, Dame Prudence 1969, The Friar 1969, The Knight 1969, The Miller 1970 and Chaucer 1970, all since deleted from sale), so he formed his nursery, David Austin Roses Ltd., to introduce the public to his English Roses, as they became known.

While the early English Roses had a good fragrance and the Old Rose beauty, they were still not as robust as David Austin wanted, so he continued to cross them with other repeat-flowering shrubby Old Roses like Portlands (especially Comte de Chambord), Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals. Also, he still did not have any yellow shades, a problem which was rectified by the use of some influential roses:

Iceberg, the highly popular white Floribunda, bred by Kordes in 1958, which is exceptionally repeat-flowering, continuing right through into the Winter, and has strong, broad and busy dense growth.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Iceberg

The first crosses produced a perfect soft pink rosette, but the plant suffered badly from blackspot like its Iceberg parent. Backcrossing with some of the better English Roses, did produce some very good varieties like Perdita 1983 and Heritage 1984 ; and his famous yellow English Rose, Graham Thomas 1983, a cross between Charles Austin x (Iceberg x Seedling);

Aloha, a climbing Hybrid Tea with highly fragrant flowers with an Old Rose form, bred from New Dawn, a highly disease-resistant repeat-flowering Wichuraiana Rambler, producing some very strong larger varieties with larger flowers like Charles Austin 1983 (Chaucer x Aloha); and Golden Celebration 1992.

Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, a Rugosa Hybrid, which is a cross between Noisette, Gloire de Dijon, and another unknown Rugosa Hybrid. Rugosas are highly disease-resistant and vigorous. Crosses with Chaucer produced yellow and apricot English Roses with large highly fragrant rosette blooms like Tamora 1983 and Jayne Austin 1990 and Evelyn 1991, the latter two both crosses between Graham Thomas and Tamora. Here is a photo of Evelyn from my garden:BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0342To date, David Austin has bred more than 200 English Roses. Today, the nursery is managed by David JC Austin, the eldest son of David CH Austin, and is one of Britain’s leading rose nurseries. Every year, there are 50,000 crosses between April and July to germinate more than 250,000 seedlings the following year, the most outstanding of which are subject to  eight years of field trials. Eventually, only three to six new varieties will be released each year at the Chelsea Flower Show in London. The latest releases for 2017 are cerise pink James L Austin, rich apricot Dame Judi Dench and soft yellow Vanessa Bell.

Description

Growth

Shrub roses with full bushy or arching growth, usually 1.2 metres high or less. Here is a photo of Troilus from my Moon Bed:BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 15.41.44Flower Form:

Single: Ann; The Alexandra Rose;

Semi-Double : Windflower; Scarborough Fair; and Cordelia;

Rosette: Eglantyne (flat); Mary Rose; and The Countryman;

Deep Cupped: Brother Cadfael; Golden Celebration; Heritage; and Jude the Obscure;

Shallow Cupped: Crown Princess Margareta; Sweet Juliet; and Teasing Georgia;

Recurved: Grace and Jubilee Celebration.

Flower Scent:

Old Rose Fragrance: Gertrude Jekyll; Eglantyne; and Brother Cadfael;

Tea Fragrance: William Morris, Graham Thomas; Pat Austin; and Sweet Juliet;

Myrrh Fragrance: Constance Spry; Chaucer; and Cressida;

Musk Fragrance: Francine Austin; The Generous Gardener; Molineux; and Windrush;

Fruit Fragrance: Jude the Obscure; Leander; and Yellow Button.

Varieties of English Rose

There are six groups of English Roses and I will be discussing some of their famous examples, especially those which I am now growing:

1.Old Rose Hybrids:

The original English Roses, including once-flowering Constance Spry, which lean very much toward the Old Roses in character.

Small bushy shrubs with rosette-shaped flowers.

White, blush, pink, deep pink, crimson and purple flowers, though two varieties, Jude the Obscure and Windrush, are yellow.

Old Rose fragrance, though often mixed with the scents of tea, myrrh, lily of the valley, lilac and almond blossom.

Repeat-flower regularly, unless otherwise specified.

Here are some examples:

Fair Bianca 1982 Of unknown parentage (though in their book, The Quest for the Rose,  Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix state that Belle Isis is part of its parentage), this small shrub has white, medium, very double blooms, opening to flat and quartered rosettes.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0467 With its contrasting pink tipped buds, it is very popular for bridal bouquets, an ideal use as its strong myrrh fragrance tends to go off after a day or two, to my nose anyway!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-11 16.10.15 We grew masses of them at Soho Rose Farm, where Ross, who had to prune these low bushes, christened them Fair Little Buggers! Nevertheless, we inherited one from Soho, which is now thriving in our Soho Bed.BlogFeb Garden20%ReszdIMG_0094Pretty Jessica 1983 A cross between Wife of Bath and a seedling, this short, compact shrub, with fragrant warm rich pink rosette flowers, repeats well, but needs regular spraying due to its poor resistance to disease and it is no longer available.BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 14.01.00Mary Rose 1983 A cross between the Wife of Bath and The Miller, this medium-sized, twiggy shrub has small clusters of large, cupped rose-pink blooms with a light Old Rose fragrance with a hint of honey and almond, in flushes throughout the season. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/mary-rose. It was named after Henry VIII’s flagship, which was recovered from the Solent 400 years later, and was one of the first English Roses, along with Graham Thomas, to become widely popular after the introduction of Constance Spry.

Mary Rose has played such an important role in the total development of English Roses. For example, in order of their introduction,  it is one of the parents of :

William Shakespeare 1987 (along with The Squire);

LD Braithwaite 1988 (also with The Squire);

Sharifa Asma 1989  (with Admired Miranda);

Kathryn Morley 1990 ( a cross with Chaucer) ;

Peach Blossom 1990 (with The Prioress);

Sir Edward Elgar 1992 ( another Mary Rose-The Squire cross again);  and

Glamis Castle  1992 (from a cross with Graham Thomas).

Mary Rose has also produced two sports: the  softer pink Redouté 1992 and the white Winchester Cathedral 1998.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWindrush 1984  A cross between a seedling and (Canterbury x Golden Wings, a Hybrid Spinosissima– see photo above) and named after a river in Southern England, this medium shrub bears large, semi-double, soft yellow, wide open flowers with a boss of stamens and a light spicy Musk fragrance. It occasionally repeats later in the season. Here is a photo from Ruston’s Roses in Renmark:

BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.55.10

Wildflower 1986 A cross between Lilian Austin and (Cantebury x Golden Wings), this light yellow single rose has 5 petals and a mild fragrance and occasionally repeats later in the season.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGertrude Jekyll 1986 A cross between Wife of Bath and Portland, Comte de Chambord, this large, upright shrub bears warm, deep pink Hybrid Tea-like buds, which open into large heavy rosettes, with petals spiralling from the centre and a powerful Old Rose fragrance, only equalled by Evelyn. Named after the English garden designer and author, Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932), its foliage and growth are close to that of  Portlands and it forms quite a good climber.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_9450LD Braithwaite 1988 A cross between  Mary Rose x The Squire, which was a cross between The Knight x Château de Clos Vougeot, this low spreading shrub has dark red, slightly cupped, loosely formed flowers, which are slow to fade and which develop a Old Rose fragrance as they open out wide and flat.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_2280 It was named for David Austin’s father-in-law, Leonard Braithwaite, and is growing opposite Fair Bianca in our Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-12 13.49.19Eglantyne 1994 A cross between Mary Rose and a seedling, this medium, upright shrub bears perfect, soft pink rosette blooms with a button eye and a lovely sweet Old Rose fragrance. It was named after Eglantyne Jebb, a lady from Ellesmere, Shropshire, who founded the Save the Children Fund after the First World War.  It grows on the other side of LD Braithwaite, diagonal to Fair Bianca, in the Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0428Jude the Obscure 1995 One of only two yellows in the group, it is a cross between Abraham Darby and Windrush. Named after the character in Thomas Hardy’s novel, it is one of my favourite English Roses for its tall, vigorous and healthy growth and its deeply cupped, incurved golden cups with their wonderful fruity scent, which David Austin describes as ‘reminiscent of guava and sweet wine’ and which  I could soak up forever!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-18 12.03.10 Fortunately, I planted it on the bottom corner of the Moon Bed, where I will still be able to bury my nose in her blooms, even when the citrus behind are fully grown.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-22 17.03.14Windermere Before 2005 A cross between two unspecified seedlings, this lovely rose has clusters of white medium blooms with an Old Rose form and a fruity citrus fragrance. It grows in the front of the Moon Bed next to Jude the Obscure.

2.Leander Group:

A cross between Old Rose hybrids and modern roses, with R. wichuraiana in their makeup, they lean more toward the modern rose, but still have the typical Old Rose form.

Large healthy robust shrubs with elegant arching growth.

Large yellow, apricot and flame-coloured flowers, varying from a rosette to deeply cupped shape.

Fragrance of Old Rose, Tea Rose, myrrh and fruity undertones of raspberry, lemon and apple.

Charles Austin 1973 named for David Austin’s father, this strong upright shrub with shiny modern foliage is a  cross between Chaucer and Aloha. It has very large, apricot-yellow rosette blooms with a fruity fragrance, which fade with age. While not continuously repeating, it has a second flush in Autumn. For a photo, see: https://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=1071 .

Leander 1982 A tough reliable rose, named after the legendary Greek lover, it was produced by a cross between Charles Austin and a seedling and has small sprays of deep apricot small to medium rosettes with a raspberry scent in the Tea Rose tradition.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 08.44.01 My rose, planted in front of the shed, grew from a cutting I took from a shrub in a friend’s garden. Here is a photo of older blooms.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 16.57.05Troilus 1983 I first saw this rose in 2014 in Renmark, the perfect climate for it as it thrives in the warmth, though it is still doing very well in the front of the Moon Bed between Windermere and Heritage.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-04 12.26.25 I love its large clusters of creamy apricot fully cupped blooms. Its seed parent is a cross between Gallica Hybrid, Duchesse de Montebello, and Chaucer, while its pollen parent is Charles Austin.BlogEngRosesReszd20%IMG_0378Abraham Darby 1985 A cross between Floribunda, Yellow Cushion, and Aloha, a modern climber. A large bush with long arching growth and large glossy leaves. Large deeply cupped Old Rose blooms, with soft peachy pink petals on the inside and pale yellow on the outside, fading in colour towards the edge of the flower as it ages, and a rich fruity fragrance with a raspberry  sharpness. This rose has played an important part in the development of the Leander Group and is named after Abraham Darby (1678-1717), one of the founders of the Industrial Revolution, which began in Shropshire. For a photo, see: https://hedgerowrose.com/rose-gardening/2011/06/11/growing-david-austins-abraham-darby-rose/.

Charles Darwin 1991 A cross between two unnamed seedlings and named after the legendary British naturalist and father of the Theory of Evolution, Charles Darwin, this rose has some of the largest blooms of the English Roses. Full and deeply cupped at first, the mustard yellow blooms open to shallower flowers with a button eye. They have a strong fragrance, which is a blend of the scents of a soft floral tea rose and pure lemon. The shrub has broad, vigorous, spreading growth and is highly disease-resistant.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAGolden Celebration 1992 One of the largest flowers of the English Roses, this large shrub with long arching branches is a cross between Charles Austin and Abraham Darby.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-01 13.27.29 I am growing it at the back of the Moon Bed next to Lucetta, and love its large deeply cupped golden blooms, which  have a strong Tea scent at first, developing fruity undertones of Sauternes wine and strawberry as it ages.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 17.09.28William Morris 1998  Named after the father of the Arts and Crafts movement, William Morris (1834-1896), to commemorate the centenary of the founding of the University of East London, this tall shrub with long arching canes and glossy foliage is a cross between Abraham Darby and a seedling.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-06 13.06.43 My rose is very healthy and vigorous and constantly in flower with clusters of apricot pink rosettes with a strong fragrance.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 09.52.05 Growing in the front of the Moon Bed, I am in two minds about whether I should have grown it at the back of the bed due to its height, but its long graceful canes, covered in pink blooms look equally beautiful falling romantically over the front edge of the bed, even though my lawnmower curses me every time!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 09.52.09The Alnwick Rose 2001 Named  for the Duke and Duchess of Northumberland, who created a very large rose garden with many English Roses  at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, it is a cross between a seedling and Golden Celebration.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 09.26.51 I love the blooms of this rose: medium-sized, deeply cupped and incurved, pink flowers, with an Old Rose fragrance with a hint of raspberry. This is my final English Rose in the Soho Bed.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-10-29 17.08.08Jubilee Celebration 2002 Named in honour of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee in 2002, this large vigorous shrub, a cross between  AUSgold  (the registration name of Golden Celebration) and a seedling, bears sprays of large domed rich salmon pink blooms, tinted with gold under the petals, with a lovely fruity rose scent with undertones of lemon and raspberry. For a phot, see: https://www.gardenia.net/plant/rose-jubilee-celebration-aushunter.

Summer Song 2005 A bushy upright shrub, bred from a cross between two unspecified seedlings, it has sprays of small burnt orange cupped blooms with a fragrance of ‘chrysanthemum leaves, ripe banana and tea’, according to David Austin. I used to love using these bright blooms in the exotic Moroccan Mix, which we used to assemble at Soho. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/summer-song.

3.English Musk Group:

A cross between Old Rose hybrids and Noisettes and the newer Hybrid Musks, to which the Floribunda, Iceberg, is related, being a cross between Hybrid Musk, Robin Hood, and Hybrid Tea, Virgo.

Lighter growth and flowering than the Old Rose Hybrid or Leander groups.

Dainty soft flowers in fresh and blush pink, soft yellow, apricot and peach.

Variety of fragrances.

Lucetta 1983  This strong healthy shrub, with long arching canes, has large, open and flat, semi-double, saucer-like, blush-pink fragrant blooms with a boss of gold stamens. Its parentage is unknown.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-17 17.06.10 Growing next to Golden Celebration at the back of the Moon Bed, its blooms contrast beautifully with the Flowering Salvias, the  deep blue ‘Indigo Spires’ and a lighter blue salvia, grown from a cutting from my sister’s garden.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-18 12.02.35Graham Thomas 1983 Given the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (AGM) in 1993 , the James Mason Award (Royal National Rose Society, UK) and the Henry Edland Medal for Fragrance (Royal National Rose Society Trials), both in 2000, and voted the world’s most favourite rose by 41 rose societies in 2009, this tall upright shrub was named for rosarian, Graham Stuart Thomas, and is a cross between Charles Austin x (Iceberg x seedling). For a close-up photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/graham-thomas. It has medium deeply cupped golden yellow blooms, opening to cupped rosettes with a strong Tea Rose fragrance. I used to grow this rose in Armidale and would love to find a place for it here! Here is the climbing form at Ruston’s Roses.BlogEngRosesReszd2014-10-25 09.52.59

Heritage 1984 Another popular and beautiful deeply cupped, blush-pink rose with a fragrance, which has been described as having ‘overtones of fruit, honey and carnation on a myrrh background’. Like Graham Thomas, it is the progeny of a Seedling x Iceberg. Other sites state the parentage as: Seedling x (Iceberg x Wife of Bath). I have always grown this rose in all my gardens from my first married home to Armidale and now here in Candelo.BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 15.24.51Belle Story 1984 Named after one of the first nursing sisters to serve as a British Royal Navy officer in 1884, its seed parent is a cross between Chaucer and a Modern Climber, Parade, while its pollen parent is a cross between The Prioress and Iceberg.BlogEngRosesReszd50%Image (194)Sweet Juliet 1989  A cross between Graham Thomas and Admired Miranda, an English Rose, which itself has The Friar as both its seed and pollen parents and has been discontinued, this lovely rose has medium, shallow-cupped, apricot-yellow flowers with a strong Tea scent, which becomes lemony as the blooms mature. It was named for the heroine in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/sweet-juliet.

Evelyn 1991 A cross between Graham Thomas and Tamora, this lovely rose has large apricot and pink flowers with a shallow saucer-like form, whose petals gradually recurve to form a rosette shape. They have a beautiful Old Rose fragrance, one of the strongest of the English Roses, with the fruity notes of apricots and peaches. It was named on behalf of my favourite perfumers, Crabtree and Evelyn, and is a sister rose to Jayne Austin (Graham Thomas x Tamora) and Sweet Juliet, sharing some of the characteristics of both. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to disease, a reputation borne out by my own recent experience in the back of the Moon Bed! It was making a feeble attempt to recover, but unfortunately died, so I may try to replace it with Sweet Juliet, if I can find it or maybe, I should just move Leander to the Moon Bed, in case it was a case of Unlucky Number 13, there being 4 English Roses in the Soho Bed, 8 in the Moon Bed and one in the Shed Bed!BlogEngRosesReszd2016-11-08 10.34.12Comte(s) de Champagne 2001 A cross between a seedling and Tamora, this rose is one of the first English Roses to have open-centred cup-shaped blooms. Soft yellow buds open to perfect, open, medium to large, globular cups, with a honey and musk fragrance and a mop of deep yellow stamens. The lax spreading bushy shrub is healthy and free-flowering. It was named after Taittinger’s finest champagne. According to David Austin, the President of Taittinger, M. Claude Taittinger, lives in a chateau built by Thibault IV, Count of Chapagne and Brie, who is also credited with bringing the Apothecary’s Rose, R. gallica officinalis, from Damascus to France on his return from the 7th Crusade in 1250.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA4. English Alba Rose Hybrids

The most recent varieties, a cross between Albas and other English Roses.

Almost wild light and airy growth and healthy foliage.

Light and dainty flowers in mainly shades of pink, though some are almost white and Benjamin Britten is scarlet.

They are the least fragrant of the English Roses, being a delicate mix of Old Rose, myrrh, musk and tea, without any particular scent predominating.

Shropshire Lass 1968 The foundation rose of this group, it is a cross between an early Hybrid Tea, Mme Butterfly, and an Alba, Mme Legras St Germaine. It is a large strong free-flowering shrub, though non-repeating, and has blush white almost single flowers with a large boss of stamens and a strong scent with hints of myrrh. I grew this rose in my larger Armidale garden. For a photo, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/shropshire-lass-climbing-rose.

5. English Climbers:

Some of the larger English Roses perform well as small climbers, where they can reach 3 to 3.5 metres here in Australia. For example, Constance Spry; Shropshire Lass; Gertrude Jekyll; Graham Thomas; Leander and William Morris.

6. English Cut Flower Roses:

In 2004, David Austin unveiled hid plans for his current 15 year breeding program, which is directed towards producing English Roses for the cut flower industry. They are similar in their flower form (rosettes) to English Roses grown in the garden, but are bred to be grown under glass and are the result of crossing English Roses with cut flower varieties of Hybrid Teas.

They combine the blowsy  Old Rose forms, fragrance and romantic soft colors with the year-round availability, strong stems and the long vase life of modern cut roses and are ideal for gift bouquets, floral arrangements for the home and for all kinds of special occasions like weddings, birthdays and parties.

Unlike many of the Cut Flower Hybrid Teas, which have no fragrance, the English Cut Roses have a strong fragrance, but because of this, will last 2 or 3 days less in water than a typical Cut Hybrid Tea, the chemicals producing the scent also having the effect of hastening rose petal decay.

The initial seven varieties included four heavily perfumed roses: glowing clear pink Phoebe (originally called Olivia Austin), creamy-white Patience, deep pink Emily (synonym Cymbeline), and blush-pink Rosalind; and three lightly fragrant, exquisitely formed roses: peach-hued Juliet, rosy Miranda and raspberry-red Darcey.

His current Cut Rose Collection includes 14 exclusive varieties:  Patience, Juliet, Miranda, Darcey, Charity, Keira, Constance, Edith, Beatrice, Carey, Kate , Tess and new Cut English Roses, Purity and Capability. For photos of these roses, see: https://uk.davidaustin.com/the-collection/ , https://www.parfumflowercompany.com/david-austin-wedding-roses/   and http://www.alexandrafarms.com/David-Austin.html.

David Austin’s  Wedding and Gift  Rose Brochure is at : https://www.parfumflowercompany.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/David-Austin-Roses-Brochure.pdf.

For more information about David Austin and his beautiful English Roses, it is worth reading David Austin’s books:

David Austin’s English Roses Australian Edition 1993/ 1996;

The English Roses: Classic Favourites and New Selections 2007; and

The Rose 2009/ 2012.

Next week, I am focusing on our own Spring garden, but the following fortnight, will be looking at the work of other contemporary breeders of modern shrub roses and modern climbers, including Guillot, Delbard and Meilland in France; Kordes and Tantau in Germany;  Harkness and Joe Cocker in the UK and Swim and Weeks in the USA.

Modern Roses: Polyanthas and Floribundas (Cluster-Flowered Roses)

On Tuesday, I wrote about Hybrid Teas, one of the most popular rose types today, the other type being the Floribundas, or as they are now known, the Cluster-Flowered Roses, which developed from the Polyanthas, so I will discuss the latter first.

Polyanthas

The first Polyantha rose, Paquerette, was a cross between a low growing, perpetually flowering R. multiflora and an unknown Dwarf China hybrid (possibly Old Blush China) by Sisley, France, and was introduced by Guillot, France, in 1875.

Another early Polyantha was Mignonette, Guillot, France 1880, a cross between R. chinensis and R. multiflora, and the earliest Polyantha rose still available. Both bore large sprays of very small, pompom-like, soft rosy-pink flowers, like those of R. multiflora, fading to white with age. Here is a photo of a Multiflora rose, Phyllis Bide.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9508

They were originally classified as R. rehderiana and were called Polypompoms. While they all possessed cluster blooms in the one florescence, they exhibited great variability in their growth habits and the size and shape of their blooms. It was not until the early 1900s that there were enough uniformly distinct characteristics to form a splinter group, known as the Dwarf Polyanthas.

Adaptable, floriferous, hardy and low maintenance small roses (with only an occasional tendency to mildew) with large, tightly-packed clusters of small, slightly cupped, semi-double flowers (unfortunately, with little or no fragrance) throughout Summer, they were useful shrubs in colder climates, where the less hardy Hybrid Teas required mollycoddling in the cold Winters.

They were hugely popular in the period between the two World Wars, with a large number of varieties introduced, most of which have since disappeared with their declining popularity after the Second World War, though there was a brief revival of interest in the 1980s, when they were used as a ground cover, in group plantings and shrubberies or as specimen roses at the front of borders, especially where the soil was poor.

Some well-known Polyanthas are:

The Fairy, Bentall, United Kingdom, 1932: A cross between Polyantha, Paul Crampel, and Hybrid Wichuraiana, Lady Gay, it was one of the first hybrids to have a trailing habit. It has sprays of tiny ‘China’ pink, continuous blooms, with little scent and good disease-resistance. It makes a handy ground cover on embankments. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/fairy/.

China Doll, Lammerts, United States, before 1936: A cross between Polyantha, Mrs Dudley Fulton and Miniature rose, Tom Thumb, it is one of the lowest borderers and bears huge heads of rich ‘China’ pink blooms almost to the ground. See: http://www.1001-landscaping-ideas.com/china-doll-roses.html.

BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.29Climbing Pinkie, discovered by EP Dering, United States, 1952: A sport of Pinkie, bred by Swim, United States, in 1947 and whose parents were China Doll and an unknown rose, this climbing version is very vigorous and will grow without support to form a graceful cascading plant. It is constantly in flower with large trusses of cupped, semi-double, rosy-pink fragrant blooms on thornless stems. The photos above and below are Climbing Pinkie.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-25 13.50.35Green Ice, Moore, United States, 1971:  A cross between (R. wichuraiana x Floribunda, Floradora) and Miniature rose, Jet Trail, this free-flowering miniature has small, double, white, slightly scented  blooms, tinged with green, especially in cooler weather. It has thick glossy foliage and reaches up to 0.5 metres high. It makes a useful ground cover and also looks good in a hanging basket. See: http://sarose.org.au/rose-month/green-ice/.

Polyanthas were important in rose history, as they led directly to the development of the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses or Floribundas.

Floribundas

Hugely popular in Europe, especially Germany, Floribundas have a mixed pedigree, with its ancestors being R. multiflora (large trusses of flowers) and Hybrid Chinas (long flowering season).

In 1910, the Danish breeder, Poulsen, crossed Dwarf Polyanthas with Hybrid Teas in an attempt to increase the hardiness and cold tolerance of the latter. He crossed Polyantha, Mme Norbert Levavasseur, with Hybrid Tea, Richmond, to produce Rödhätte (Red Riding Hood) with semi-double, cherry-red flowers in large clusters. It was distributed in 1912, but was lost in the turmoil of the First World War.

Crosses of Dwarf Polyantha, Orléans Rose, with Hybrid Tea, Red Star, by Poulsen’s son, Svend, produced two new roses in 1924: the pink semi-double Else Poulsen and the red single Kirsten Poulsen. These were the start of the Poulsen Roses and were soon followed by Karen Poulsen 1932 and the first yellow Cluster-Flowered Rose, Poulsen Yellow, in 1939.

Poulsen Roses were taller in growth and had larger flowers than most Polyanthas and, as more breeders experimented with them, they were renamed Hybrid Polyanthas for two decades, and then, Floribundas, in the 1950s. Most of them have been superseded by the modern Cluster-Flowered Roses and only a few survive today.

Quickly gaining in popularity, Floribundas were used as bedding plants, providing massed colour over a long period throughout the Summer. They have been interbred with other rose types as well, including R. wichuraiana; R. rubiginosa; R. rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia. Over the last twenty years, they have been interbred so much with Hybrid Teas, that it is difficult to separate them genetically.

The earlier Floribundas often had single or semi-double blooms, opening flat, but now, many Cluster-Flowered Roses have blooms as large and shapely as those of Hybrid Teas. The big advantage of Floribundas was not only their hardiness in cold climates, but also the fact that they are much more free-flowering than Hybrid Teas. Here is a photo of an early Floribunda, Gruss an Aachen.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9730Another breeding aim has been to introduce flowers with veined or hand-painted petals eg McGredy, using Kordes’ rose, Frühlingsmorgen.

Here are some well-known Cluster-Flowered Roses, in order of their introduction:

Gruss an Aachen, Hinner, Germany, 1909: A cross between Hybrid Perpetual, Frau Karl Druschki and Hybrid Tea, Franz Deegen, this Floribunda bears large, full, mildly fragrant, light-pink rosette blooms with a salmon-pink centre, ageing to cream.BlogModRosesReszd2014-10-19 13.43.44Dainty Maid, LeGrice, UK, 1938: A cross between DT Poulsen and an unknown rose, it has single large flowers, which are clear pink on the inside and carmine on the exterior, and have a slight scent. See: https://www.classicroses.co.uk/dainty-maid-bush-rose.html. It is a parent of Constance Spry, one of the first English Roses bred by David Austin;

August Seebauer, Kordes, Germany, 1944: A cross between Hybrid Tea, Break O’Day, and Else Poulsen, it bears small clusters of large, double, deep pink, mildly fragrant blooms with a high centred form.BlogModRosesReszd20%IMG_9719Iceberg, Kordes, German, 1958: A cross between Hybrid Musk rose, Robin Hood, and Hybrid Tea, Virgo, this rose holds the distinction of being  the most popular rose today and is one of the best Floribundas ever bred. It was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1983. Nearly every non-rose person knows this one!!! It has large clusters of small, lightly double white flowers, opening wide; smooth slender stems and glossy, light green foliage.

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I never really appreciated Icebergs until I saw them at my sister’s garden at ‘Glenrock’.
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Here is a closer photo from another Iceberg rose.

For an even closer view, see: http://www.davidaustinroses.com/eu/iceberg;

BlogModRosesReszd20c 2013 017Just Joey, Cants, UK, 1972: A cross between Fragrant Cloud (a Hybrid Tea, with a strong fragrance, which was voted the Best Rose by the World Rose Convention in 1980) and Dr AJ Verhage, another Hybrid Tea. Photos above and below;