Books on Specific Types of Gardens : Part Two : Vegetable Gardens; Sustainable and Organic Gardens; and Dry Climate Gardens .

Continuing on from my post last week, I am now focusing on vegetable gardens, organic and sustainable gardens and dry climate gardens, all of which are highly inter-related. In our view, vegetable gardens should only ever be organic and sustainable, as they contain the very food we eat, not to mention the importance of these concepts for our environment and the natural world around us! While most of the books are Australian, a few are written by English authors, notably Christopher Lloyd,  Joy Larkom and Jane Taylor. We might discuss the books by the first two writers first.

Gardener Cook by Christopher Lloyd 1997 was one of our early vegetable garden books and is a lovely introduction to the world of vegetable growing! His chapters on fruit trees, soft fruits, root vegetables, green vegetables, salads and herbs include delicious recipes and mouth-watering photographs by Howard Sooley. They include information on all the different types of fruit and vegetables; their varieties; cultivation and storage and lots of personal anecdotes.  An essential book for the gardener-cook and anyone who loves food!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-398

Christopher actually quotes from my next book: The Salad Garden by Joy Larkom 1984. It is a comprehensive guide to all things salad: creating salad gardens; the cultivation of salad greens; garden practices like raising from seed; sowing outdoors and indoors; germination; manures and compost; weeding; mulching and watering; greenhouses, cloches and container gardening; and pests and diseases; as well as specific techniques for salad plants like blanching; seed sprouting and cut-and-come-again; salad making – the different types of salad, preparation and presentation and delicious recipes for different salads and their dressings; and a large section on specific salad plants and their components – leaves; stems and stalks; fruits; bulbs, roots and tubers; cooked and cold legumes and potatoes; and the use of herbs, flowers and wild plants. The appendix includes salad crops for special situations; plants for saladini crops, a glossary and facts about salad crops, including their vitamin content, seed life, germination temperature and fertility index. It was written at a time, when Australia’s culinary world was suddenly and markedly expanding and has such a wealth of information, that I am not surprised that it was in Christopher Lloyd’s library!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd30image-401The Cook’s Garden : From the Garden to the Table by Caroline Gunter and Karen Green 2000 is an Australian Women’s Weekly publication and has its typically high standard! After a brief examination of planning for production and cultivation for success (including recipes for home-made sprays), it follows a seasonal pattern with a seasonal diary of picking and planting chores for each different climate zone (temperate and cool; subtropical and Mediterranean; and tropical) and detailed notes on the fruit and vegetables grown in each season, including their cultivation in the garden and their preparation and presentation for the table. It is a very practical and useful publication and has some delicious recipes. It finishes with a brief chapter on preserving the season’s abundance including freezing; bottling and drying, as well as a map of world climate zones.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-399

Diggers Club also produces wonderful books on heirloom gardens, especially vegetables! The Australian Vegetable garden: What’s Old is New by Clive Blazey 1999 is one of their excellent publications. Clive is a passionate advocate for heirloom varieties of vegetables, because of their superior flavour, longer harvest period and disease resistance, not to mention their decorative qualities! In this informative book, he discusses the value and importance of heirloom varieties; different vegetable gardening styles; space-saving; and growing basics – the soil; water; mulch; temperature and heat; as well as seed sowing and saving. He provides a calendar and plan for growing a year’s supply of food in just 42 square metres and another one for seed sowing. And he discusses each heirloom vegetable in depth, including its historical background; varieties; preparation and management. There are so many varieties which I had never even heard of!  Apparently, Diggers have over 112 commercial and heirloom varieties of tomatoes. One day, I would love to grow their Moon and Stars watermelon , an old American variety!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-400Organic Gardening by Peter Bennett , first published in 1979, is another very important and seminal book for the organic vegetable gardener. We have the 6th edition, dated 1999, but there is now a new revised 7th edition, published 2006. Peter is THE authority on organic gardening in Australia and a forerunner of the current sustainable and environmental movements. Even though he has since died, he can still be seen in this You Tube clip at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ua6Or0-W9W4. In his wonderful book, he talks about all the wonderful creatures that make up the life of the garden; the living soil; the preparation and maintenance of the organic garden; the use of natural fertilizers and acceptable alternatives to dangerous pesticides; composting; community gardens; and the organic cultivation of many different types of vegetables, fruits and flowers. His appendixes include photographs of useful tools and accessories for organic gardening, a table of the composition of compost ingredients; another table of the minimum depth of container required for growing vegetables in containers; a sowing guide for flowers and vegetables, including the best months for sowing in tropical/ subtropical, temperate and cold climates; best sowing method (seedbed or direct); the sowing depth for seeds; the number of days it takes for seedlings to emerge; the distance to thin seedlings apart; and the number of weeks till flowering for type of flower or vegetable. There is also a list of Goods and Services referred to in the book. This is an essential book for all gardeners! I cannot recommend it highly enough and the fact that it has sold more than 160,000 copies since it was first published in 1979 supports my claim!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-402

Now for another very important book, Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual by Bill Mollison 1988. Bill Mollison (1928 – 2016) was the co-founder of the permaculture concept, along with David Holmgren, from 1972 to 1974. The first classes in permaculture started in 1981 and since then, thousands of people from all over the world have studied this concept. It is now practised in over 20 countries, providing  wonderful hope for the future.

Permaculture, a term coined from two words ‘permanent agriculture’, is defined in the book as ‘the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems, which have the diversity, stability and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of landscape and people, providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way.’ Its principles include: working with nature, rather than against it; the problem is the solution; make the least change for the greatest possible effect; the yield of the system is theoretically unlimited ; and everything makes its own garden and has an effect on its own environment. It relies on cycles; pyramids and food webs; complexity and connections; diversity; stability and harmony and self-regulation.

Permaculture garden designs are based on flow patterns and zones:

Zone 1 (ideally ¼ acre for a family of four) is the most intensively used space in the immediate area of the house and can include vegetables and salad greens with a short growing season; small trees with commonly used fruits like lemons; worm farms; workshops and sheds; glasshouses, cold frames and propagation areas; rainwater tanks; fuel for heating like gas and wood; and small animal pens eg rabbits.

Zone 2 (ideally 1 acre for a family) is also used  intensively, but less than Zone 1 and  includes perennials and vegetables with a longer growing season; fruit trees and orchards; compost bins; bee hives; ponds; chook pens and enclosures for larger animals requiring regular attention.

Zone 3 (4 to 20 acres) is farmland for main farming crops; orchards of large trees like oaks and nut trees; livestock grazing by cattle and sheep; and water storage dams.

Zone 4 can be any size and contains wild and partly managed land for the collection of wild foods; timber production; a source of animal forage and more pasture for grazing animals.

And finally, Zone 5 is unmanaged wild and natural ecosystems with bushland, forest and wilderness conservation areas for observation; meditation and reconnection with nature. Hunting and gathering can occur in this zone.

Permaculture garden design also involves planning to control external incoming energies like wind, sun angles, unwanted views and danger from fires and floods, using a number of strategies to block, channel or open up an area to their impact. It is a HUGE topic and an enormous door-stopper of a book, but essential reading for gardeners interested in the philosophy behind permaculture!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-404

The Permaculture Home Garden by Linda Woodrow 1996  is a much lighter, smaller, more portable and very practical book on the subject. It covers permaculture garden design based on the principles of time-and-motion; multiple use; working with nature; and synergy and using a seven mandala system of circles to maximize use of space and energy efficiency. She discusses : choosing a site; climate: light, temperature; wind; frost and pollutants; water; soil management; mulching, composting and worm farming; propagating plants; lunar planting; guild planting; maintaining the garden and coping with pests; building a chook dome; and the cultivation of fruit trees and a large variety of vegetables. It is a very useful book, especially for gardeners in Northern New South Wales.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-403

Two  more terrific practical permaculture guides, both of which I would not be without  and both written by gardeners in Maleny, Queensland are: You Can Have Your Permaculture and Eat It Too by Robin Clayfield 1996 and Paradise in Your Garden by Jenny Allen 2002. Robin has practised permaculture since 1983 and lives at Crystal Waters Permaculture Village in the Sunshine Coast hinterland. This great publication is a fantastic book to dip into at random, with snippets of information on permaculture principles,  garden design and techniques; sustainability; natural pest control; cash crops; health and diet; food combining; natural cosmetics; food preservation; bulk cooking; bush tucker; gift giving; and even party games; all with lots of wonderful recipes from herbal teas to soups, nibbles and dips; salads and main courses; and desserts and party nights. It is a wonderfully generous book and has such a wealth of information to explore and digest! For more about Robin, see: http://dynamicgroups.com.au/ and  https://permacultureprinciples.com./post/permaculture-pioneer-robin-clayfield/.

blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-405Paradise in Your Garden is a beautiful book, both visually and creatively! Jenny uses photographs and experience gleaned from her own garden  to illustrate the  basic permaculture principles of multiple use; zoning; smart placement; elevational planning; diversity; recycling resources; homemade insurance; using nature’s gifts and seeing solutions, instead of problems. It’s an inspiring book, with lots of fun, imaginative ideas like aspirational trees; mediation areas; hammocks and swings; firepits and water features; places for wildlife; kids’ gardens; healing gardens and even an aphrodisiac garden! She has a large section on garden design and understanding site factors like sun and wind; weeds and stormwater; soil types; frost; and noise, providing an 18 point design checklist and techniques for managing these factors, like creating microclimates by managing Summer sun; building effective  windbreaks; managing soil, water, frost and weeds; and reducing annoying noises. She discusses integrated pest management and  smart use of monetary and time resources. Her descriptions of exciting and unusual edible plants and bush foods makes you want to go straight out and plant them and she also includes some great project ideas from sheet mulching and lasagne gardening (no-dig); building herb spirals, ponds, swales and paths; making worm farms, compost heaps and home brews for plants (comfrey tea); and planting green manure and cover crops. In the back of the book is a list of useful resources and recommended reading. For more current information  on Jenny Allen , read this article in the Hinterland Times on the 4th May 2016 at : https://www.hinterlandtimes.com.au/2016/05/04/is-the-love-affair-over/.

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And finally, a swag of books by the wonderful and knowledgeable Jackie French, who has a wonderful organic garden in the Araluen Valley near Braidwood in Southern New South Wales. On her website (http://www.jackiefrench.com/), she describes herself an Australian author, ecologist, historian, dyslexic and honorary wombat, which is all very accurate! She was also 2014 – 2015 Australian Childrens’ Laureate and 2015 Senior Australian of the Year and is the patron of Youth Educational Support Services (YESS),which delivers the MultiLit Literacy Program, developed by Macquarie University to improve reading skills in local primary and high school students. I volunteered with this rewarding program at Bega Valley Public School in our first year here. We have nine of her books, in order of their publication:

The Wilderness Garden: Beyond Organic Gardening 1992

Jackie has a delightful enthusiastic writing style and this book focuses on how to make gardening fun by changing our approach to gardening and using new or different methods or as she coins it: ‘the wombat way of gardening’ ! She has a very commonsense, practical approach in both her gardening and writing with chapters on different gardens for different places (wet areas; dry areas; polluted areas; seaside areas; and frost zones); feeding the garden (mulch; compost; nitrogen fixation); easy garden beds (weed-mats; hanging gardens; tyre gardens; raised beds; vertical gardens; and modified jungles (I just love that concept!); organic pest and weed control; and vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, with a very useful garden calendar at the end.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-411

Backyard Self-Sufficiency 1992

This publication has been a very well-thumbed book in our house over the years. While steering the reader away from the toil of total self-sufficiency, she has some wonderful ideas for still growing a fair proportion of your own food from staples (grains, legumes, oils and sugars and sweeteners) to vegetables and fruit all year round. We particularly liked her lists on fruit for small places; footpath trees; unusual fruits; edible fences; hardy fruiters and  fruit for cold, temperate and hot climates. She also has chapters on growing in adversity; scavenging in the suburbs; small animals for small gardens; saving the surplus; and the backyard supermarket and medicine chest with lots of great recipes for cosmetics and bath products; dyes; cleaning products; and drinks (beer, cocoa, tea and coffee and coffee substitutes). Her final chapter on self-sufficiency, including her self-sufficient owner-built house, and her general philosophy of simple living resonates so strongly with us and should be a blueprint for all human beings, living in harmony with nature and all is inhabitants on this very special planet we call home. This book also finishes with a comprehensive calendar covering planting; harvesting; other jobs; pests and fruit. This is such a useful book!

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Switch : Home-based Power, Water and Sewerage Systems For The Twenty-First Century by Jackie French and Bryan Sullivan 1994

This little book expands on the concept of the self-sufficient integrated house and gets down to the practical nitty-gritty of ways to actually achieve this. It examines home-based power systems (solar, wind, steam, petrol or diesel, hydro and hybrid or combined systems), as well as batteries and invertors; installation and maintenance and living with your own power system. There are separate extra chapters devoted to lights and a wide variety of appliances (power tools; vacuum cleaners; stoves; kettles and toasters; refrigerators; computers; sound systems; irons; washing machines and solar dryers, to name but a few); and heating and cooling (new house design and orientation; ventilation; insulation; greenhouses; pergolas and more active heating and cooling systems, as well as specific problems and solutions). The authors then turns their attention to water supply, including measures to reduce use; grey water systems; rainwater tanks; bores; pumping water and hot water systems. Sewage treatment is next and includes information on outdoor dunnies; septic tanks; methane digesters; composting toilets and finally garbage processing: the concept of reduce/recycle; compost; worm farms and chooks. Even though this is now quite an old book, it was cutting edge when it was first published. Renewable energy and sustainable technology and alternatives have come a long way since then (though it still has a long way to go and should have been de rigueur by now for every home!), but the basic principles are still the same and this is still a very valuable little book.

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The Earth Gardener’s Companion: A Month-by-Month Guide to Organic Gardening 1996

Exactly what it pupports to be! A very comprehensive month-by-month guide to organic planting and harvesting and pest control solutions, with some wonderfully obscure recipes along the way from culinary delights like Chinese pickled vegetables, soy cheese and beetroot flour to chilli massage oil and even a chilli bosom enhancer!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-413

Making Money From Your Garden 1997

This is another Earth Garden magazine publication and its treatise on ‘Time or Money’ is sufficient reason alone to own this book. We have photocopied and shared that article so many times in our lives, as it is the basic creed by which we live! While sufficient money is important, so you are not stressing out your little brain constantly, ‘sufficient’ being the key word here, time is a far more valuable and precious commodity, which is often under-valued in today’s busy world with its hectic lifestyles! While money may have been a constant challenge for us, we have raised a family to adulthood and always met our basic needs, and our lives have been very rich and fulfilled, with time for creativity, family fun and relaxation. In this book, Jackie shares so many ideas and recipes for making a living from your home and garden from selling surplus or gourmet produce, seeds, potted trees and bush tucker; herbs; bonsai; flowers; and animal produce to making garden gnomes, topiary pots and  terrariums; natural bath products, cosmetics and cleaning products; paper and textile crafts and of course, delicious culinary delights to opening your garden or providing accommodation or a much-needed service like child-minding; home or specialist catering; garden design; or running kids’ parties. So many wonderful suggestions….!!!

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Growing Flowers Naturally  1997

The world of flowers is such an enormous and magical subject, it requires a whole book of its very own! They speak to the soul and fulfil the human desire for beauty! Like Jackie state in her introduction, one can never feel poor when surrounded by beautiful flowers, especially when they are straight from your own home garden! This sentiment applies to home-grown vegies too!!!  After citing a dozen good reasons to grow flowers, Jackie explores flower magic; popular native flowers; cut flowers; drying flowers; roses; bulbs, corms and rhizomes;  perennial and herbaceous borders; and climbers, shrubs and trees, before delving into the practical advice about starting a flower garden; different ways of growing flowers; flower problems and their solutions; and propagating flowers. She even covers medicinal flowers and includes recipes for perfumes, skin and hair products, and flower food. She finishes with an alphabetically ordered flower compendium with notes on their description; requirements; sowing times and potential problems. I’d forgotten how good this book was!

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Seasons of Content: A Year in the Southern Highlands 1998 is a lovely dreamy read, which should possibly be part of next month’s post on inspirational gardens, but I am including it here, amongst Jackie French’s other books! Written in the form of a diary, it describes a year in the Araluen Valley, following the seasons and enjoying all that nature has to offer. It’s a delightful read, as well as being packed with delicious recipes! Equally good to read all at once or dip into for a quick revitalizing pick-me-up!

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How To Guzzle Your Garden 1999 is a great book for kids and for inspiring the gardeners of the future! Linking gardens with food and eating is a brilliant and inspired decision, and such an obvious notion when you stop to think about kids! As a very popular childrens’ author, Jackie knows what turns kids on and this book is so much fun for a kid to read! I also love the pencil sketches by her illustrator Judith Rossell! The book is written in a question-answer format. It addresses making jam, cordials and sweet treats and eating edible weeds and flowers and bush foods, as well as the more practical aspects of planting from seed and pips; tree planting; and making compost.

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There are also lots of fun projects like growing plants in joggers, bottles and boxes; growing an apple tree in an orange; and making an egghead with watercress seeds or shrunken heads from apple cores. I blame Jackie for my daughter’s optimistic (and we thought doomed!) decision to grow a pineapple in a pot from the discarded top and leaves in the depths of the Armidale Winter, but would you believe, it did actually produce a small pineapple on our move to the warmer subtropical climes of Dorrigo !blogspecific-garden-bksreszd50image-423blogspecific-garden-bksreszd50image-423-copyThe Best of Jackie French  2000 Our final book and a culmination of over 30 years of gardening wisdom, this book is typical of all her other books- light-hearted and fun, enthusiastic and inspiring; practical and knowledgeable and incredibly generous with recipes, not to mention eminently readable! There is SO MUCH in this book, I will have to leave it to you to peruse at your leisure!!! Suffice to say Jackie has been a wonderful ambassador for sustainability, self-sufficiency and organic gardening!blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-412

Sustainability is a such an important issue, especially nowadays with the increased incidence of droughts and rising temperatures associated with global warming. The following books shed light on ways of dealing with our uncertain future and all the challenges it issues.

Earth Garden, the publisher of two of Jackie French’s books, has also produced a publication called The Earth Garden Water Book 2004, with lots of interesting articles by Earth Garden magazine contributors and readers on  water collection, purifying, conservation, reuse and recycling and water-saving tips.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-422

Readers’ Digest elaborates on these principles in their book Waterwise Gardening 2010 with chapters on climate; soil; waterwise garden design; waterwise plants; wise use of water; plant care and maintenance and a waterwise plant guide.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-419

And finally, two increasingly important books when it comes to choosing plants, which can cope with hotter and drier climates:

Even though Jane Taylor is English, her book: The Dry Garden: Gardening With Drought-Tolerant Plants 1993 focuses on Australian gardens and includes many Australian natives. It was published just before the start of the Millenium Drought (late 1996 to mid 2010) in South-Eastern Australia, so was a very useful book during that period. She briefly discusses dry climates and drought; plant mechanisms for coping with lack of water and the maintenance of dry climate gardens (including notes on soil; planting; windbreaks; lawn and lawn substitutes; and irrigation techniques), but the majority of her book is devoted to an in-depth discussion of over 1000 drought-tolerant plants of all types: trees and shrubs; conifers; palms and cycads; climbers; perennials and ephemerals; grasses and bamboos; bulbs; and succulents and xerophytes, the latter being plants especially adapted to dry conditions. In the back are lists of plants with special characteristics: bold and lush foliage; sword-shaped leaves; fragrance; wind-tolerance; and horizontal growth, making them ideal for ground-covers. It certainly is an inspiring book and offers hope and optimism for future gardens which, although different, can still be beautiful havens.blogspecific-garden-bksreszd25image-421

Plants For a Changing Climate by Trevor Nottle 2004/ 2011, an Australian garden writer and historian, who has also written books on cottage gardening, perennials and old roses, which I have already discussed in Part 1 Specific Gardens last week and favourite Rose Books. See: https://candeloblooms.com/2017/03/21/books-on-specific-types-of-gardens-part-one-cutting-gardens-cottage-gardens-and-herb-gardens/ and https://candeloblooms.com/2017/01/10/fabulous-rose-books/ . Being a South Australian gardener, Trevor has had to cope with a hot, dry climate for over 30 years and is well-versed in Mediterranean-style gardening. Unfortunately, with climate change and global warming, the rest of us will have to adjust to a different style of gardening, less dependent on unfettered water use and more appropriate to future climatic conditions. In the introduction to his second edition and concluding chapter, Trevor examines the future implications, especially for gardeners, in great depth and offers possible solutions for the challenges ahead. He has divided his plants into a number of chapters with interesting titles : Shademakers; Statement Makers; Structure makers; Scent Makers; Silver Superstars; Useful Food Plants and Vegetables; Super-Special Plants; Geraniums; Succulents; Perfect Perennials; Roses and Other Pricklies; Little Potted Histories; Surprises From Last Summer and a Motley Crew of 10 of his favourite plants. Trevor is so knowledgeable about Mediterranean plants and so generous with that knowledge. It is a great addition to any horticultural library and is particularly pertinent in contemporary gardens.blogrosebooks25reszdimage-234

Next month, I will share some beautiful dreamy and inspirational garden books from our library, as well as some fascinating books about gardening and plants!

Spring Bulbs in My Cutting Garden : Feature Plant for September

Since it is the very start of Spring, I thought I would celebrate with a post on my favourite Spring bulbs in the cutting garden. I have also included bulbs from other parts of the garden, where they fit into the same bulb type. These were our first jonquils for the season.BlogJune Garden 20%Reszd2016-06-09 15.05.18Most of the bulbs were sourced from Tesselaars (https://www.tesselaar.net.au).BlogFavNurseries20%Reszd2016-02-25 11.24.43BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 280BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 248 However, I bought the Narcissus panizzianus and Lady Tulips from Lambley Nursery (http://lambley.com.au/) and the rest of the latter from the Drewitt Bulbs stall (2nd photo below) at the Lanyon Plant Fair (http://www.drewittsbulbs.com.au/).BlogFavNurseries20%Reszd2016-02-25 11.24.04BlogSpecialistnurseries20%ReszdIMG_0650 (2)The erlicheer jonquils were given to us by a friend. We have been enjoying the jonquils for the last few weeks of Winter, so I will start with Narcissi, then progress to tulips, freesias, anemones and ranunculus.

Narcissi           Also known as  Daffodil, Daffadowndilly, Jonquil and Narcissus

Belonging to the Family Amaryllidaceae, the genus name comes from the Greek word for ‘intoxicated‘: ‘narcotic’ and is associated with the ancient Greek myth of Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection in a pond and drowned.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdseptember 178The genus arose in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene epochs and is native to the meadows and woods of Southern Europe and North Africa, with the centre of diversity in the Western Mediterranean, especially the Iberian Peninsula. Both wild and cultivated plants have naturalized widely and are hardy to Zone 5. They have been cultivated since early times and were introduced into the Far East before the 10th century. They became increasingly popular in Europe before the 16th century and were an important commercial crop in the Netherlands in the late 19th century. Some species are now extinct, while others are threatened by increased urbanization and tourism. They are the national flower of Wales and a symbol of Spring, as well as cancer charities.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdseptember 188Description:  Perennial herbaceous, bulbiferous geophytes, which die back after flowering to an underground storage bulb. The bulbs are long-lived and naturalize easily.

Mainly green or blue-green narrow, strap-like leaves arise from the bulb.BlogJune Garden 20%Reszd2016-06-06 17.51.22Flowers normally solitary (ie one flower per stem), though there are cluster varieties, which bear their flowers in an umbel. They are generally white, yellow or both, though salmon varieties have been bred. The perianth consists of 3 parts:

Floral tube above the ovary

Outer ring of 6 tepals = undifferentiated sepals and petals

Central cup or trumpet-shaped corona

The flowers have 6 pollen-bearing stamens around a central style and an inferior trilocular ovary and are hermaphroditic, being insect-pollinated by bees, flies, butterflies and hawkmoths. They flower for 4 months from late Winter (June in Australia) to Late Spring (October in Australia) and are divided into early/ mid and late blooms. The fruit is a dry capsule, which splits to release lots of fine black seeds.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdseptember 190There are thousands of hybrids, but they are generally divided into 13 sections with up to 50 species : Trumpet; Large-cupped cultivars; Small-cupped cultivars; Double Daffodil cultivars; Triandrus cultivars; Cyclamineus cultivars; Jonquilla cultivars; Tazetta Daffodil cultivars; Poeticus daffodils; Bulbocodium cultivars (Hoop Petticoats); Split Corona cultivars and 2 Miscellaneous groups.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdsept 2012 016Growing Conditions:

Cold is required to initiate flowering, though some varieties tolerate more heat.

Full Winter sun is best or at least half a day.

A well-drained soil is also best.

Plant bulbs in Autumn with pointy end up 1.5 – 5 times the height of the bulb deep and 10 – 12 cm apart or more if naturalizing. Well-rotted manure can be dug into the bed a few weeks before planting the bulbs. The application of potash or a slow release fertilizer with low nitrogen content will encourage more flowers. After flowering, the leaves should be left to dry out over 6 months to allow photosynthesis to replenish the nutrients and energy of the bulb for the next season’s flowering. Bulbs should not be watered when dormant. Daffodils are propagated by bulb division. Diseases include: viruses (eg yellow stripe virus); fungal infections; and basal rot. Pests include: narcissus bulb  fly larvae; narcissus eelworm; nematodes, bulb scale mites; and slugs.Blog PHGPT2 25%Reszd2014-09-20 10.23.35Use:  Ornamental plants for Spring displays;BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdsept 2012 074 Mixed herbaceous and shrub borders;BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdseptember 189 Deciduous woodland plantings; Blog PHGPT2 25%Reszd2014-09-20 10.20.33Rock gardens; Naturalized meadows and lawns and even in containers.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdsept 2012 019They are excellent cut flowers, lasting for up to 1 week, but should not be mixed with other flowers in the same vase, unless preconditioned. Their stems emit a toxic slime, which clogs up the stems of the other flowers, causing their stems to wilt prematurely. Flowers should be picked while still in bud and no floral preservative should be used in the cold water – only a few drops of bleach. To precondition narcissi, cut the stems on the diagonal and stand alone in cold water for at least 24 hours, then discard the water, wash the container thoroughly and arrange with other flowers without recutting the stems of the Narcissi.BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1470 Care should be taken when handling, as the sap can cause dermatitis, commonly known in the trade as ‘Daffodil Itch’. All daffodils are poisonous if ingested, though they have been used in traditional medicine. Narcissus produce galantamine, which is used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s Dementia.BlogJune Garden 20%Reszd2016-06-06 17.51.36The range of daffodils and jonquils is so extensive (there are over 25 000 cultivars!) that I am only describing the types I have in my garden. For more information on daffodils, there is a beautiful book called:  ‘Daffodil: Biography of a Flower’ by Helen O’Neill. Other titles can be found on :  http://thedaffodilsociety.com/wordpress/miscellany/books-on-daffodils-some-titles-for-the-interested-amateur-grower/. In fact this site, http://thedaffodilsociety.com/wordpress/, the blog of the Daffodil Society of Great Britain, is a mine of information with links to other societies worldwide;  other sources of information; articles on daffodil history; places to see daffodils; suppliers; growth notes and interesting obscure facts about them like the use of their juice by Arabs to cure baldness and their yellow flower dye by high-born medieval women to tint their hair and eyebrows!BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdsept 2012 012Species Daffodils:

See : http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/NarcissusSpeciesFive

Narcissus poeticus: Pheasant Eye Daffodils: ‘Actaea’

I have always loved these elegant heirloom daffodils, which are one of the earliest daffodils and probably those associated with the ancient Greek myth, which gives them their name. The species was first described by Linnaeus in 1753 in his work: ‘Species Plantarum’. Their natural habitat is from Greece to France, with the northernmost wild population in a valley in West Ukraine near the Russian border.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdgrampians 3 182They have long stems, each bearing a single flower, 7 cm wide,  with a small shallow yellow corona with a neat red rim and wide vivid, white, pointed, reflexed petals. They have an earthy clove-like fragrance. They flower late in the season and cope better with wet, poorly drained areas than most other daffodils. Best in full sun and well-drained soil, they should be planted at a depth 3 times the height of the bulb and 10 – 20 cm apart. They naturalize well.Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0442Narcissus panizzianus

Another heirloom variety, which were grown by Lambleys Nursery from wild seed collected in Italy over 20 years ago. This paperwhite tazetta daffodil grows wild from Portugal to Italy and Greece in Southern Europe and Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. The 35 cm tall stems bear up to 12 pure white flowers with a spicy fragrance in Winter. They have grey green leaves and grow well in dry parts of the garden. I have planted  4 bulbs under my deciduous maple in front of my white statue, Chloe; 5 bulbs around the rusty iron ring statue; and 5 bulbs under the Bull Bay Magnolia; but while they have all produced leaves, they are yet to flower!

Narcissus x tazetta :  Fragrant Daffodils and Jonquils:

Paperwhite Ziva N. tazetta subsp papyraceus ‘Ziva’

The most commonly grown paperwhite, this long-lived frost hardy bulb hails from the West Mediterranean region : Greece, Portugal, Morocco and Algeria and can be grown from Zones 8 – 11. They have blue-grey strap-like foliage and  45 cm tall slender stems bearing clusters of highly fragrant, musk-scented, pure white star-shaped flowers from late Winter to early Spring. The bulbs are frost hardy and should be planted at a depth  of 10 – 15 cm and 10 cm apart. They flower 2 – 3 weeks after planting.BlogJune Garden 20%Reszd2016-06-02 14.20.13Erlicheer

These tazetta type jonquils have highly fragrant clusters of  6 – 20 cream to ivory flowers on each stem and are 30 – 75 cm high.BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-15 11.43.45 Bulbs should be planted at a depth 3 times the height of the bulbs and 10 – 12 cm apart. They naturalize easily, are good in warmer climates and are one of the first narcissi to flower. And they are really tough. Our bulbs were given to us by friends while we were still renting and they sat in a box in the dark under the house for one whole season before we finally remembered them and planted them out and even the drying shrinking bulbs survived and regained their vigour after a year in the ground!BlogTinyTreasures20%ReszdIMG_0271Golden Dawn

Another fragrant cluster daffodil with broad leaves and 40 cm tall stems, each bearing 5 pale yellow flowers (each 4.5 cm wide with an orange corona). See yellow flowers next to the Actaea in the photo below. They have a strong sweet fragrance.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2015-09-15 09.47.35 Very similar to Soleil d’Or, they flower much  later in mid to late Spring. BlogSpring bulbs 20%ReszdIMG_1072 The bulbs should be planted at a depth 1.5 – 2 times their own height and naturalize well. BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-17 15.14.52Double Daffodils: Narcissus x pseudonarcissus:

Acropolis

A late season bulb, they are 30 – 70 cm tall and have very  double, creamy white petals and petaloids with a small deep orange cup. The planting depth is 3 times the height of the bulb and they should be positioned 10 – 20 cm apart.Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0522Wintersun: Wintersun is a mid-season bulb, 30 – 70 cm tall,  with a bright yellow flower.BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-17 15.15.31Miniature Daffodils: Tête à Tête

These tiny daffodils have golden yellow flowers, 3 – 4cm wide, on 15 cm stems early to mid-season. Each bulb produces more than one flower- usually up to 3 – 4 and often in pairs, with the flower heads facing each other, so they look like they are engaged in a private conversation, ‘tête à tête’, thus their name! They are placed in the Miscellaneous category, as they do not fit easily into the other types. Their seed parent was a primary hybrid of N.cyclamineus and N. tazetta ‘Grand Soleil d’Or’, while the pollen parent was N. cyclamineus.BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-25 11.10.08 Bulbs should be planted 5 – 15 cm apart at a depth of 3 times their height. Tough and hardy, they are tolerant to both heat and severe cold and are perfect for small gardens, rockeries, the front of beds and pots. Mine are in my treasure garden and have just flowered for the first time! The plants are sterile, but are propagated by bulb division.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-08-22 15.01.04Tulips:

Tulips are also very popular, highly hybridized bulbs, which have been cultivated since the 10th century. They belong to the Liliaceae or Lily Family and their genus name is the Latinized version of the Turkish name ‘tulbend’, meaning ‘turban’ and referring to the inverted flowers of some of the species.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 249Habitat:  Mountainous areas of temperate climates in Turkey and the Mediterranean areas. 14 wild species are still found in Turkey, but they are very different to the huge showy blooms of the modern hybridized tulips.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 274 History:  Wild collected plants were first hybridized in Persian gardens. They were very popular with the Seljuks and during the Tulip Era of the later Ottoman Empire, when they were a symbol of abundance and indulgence.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 260Introduced to Europe in 1594 by Carolus Clusius (1526 – 1609), a Flemish medical doctor and botanist, they became a subject of speculative frenzy in the Netherlands and a form of currency during a period called Tulipomania from 1634 – 1637, when a single bulb fetched an exhorbitantly high price!BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 314 They were also painted in many Dutch still-life paintings of the period. The Keukenhof in the Netherlands is the largest permanent display garden of tulips in the world. See: http://www.keukenhof.nl/en/footer/about-keukenhof/.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 334For more information about the fascinating history of tulips in both Turkey and the Netherlands, try to read a copy of ‘Tulipomania’ by Mike Dash.Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0557Description:  Bulbous perennials with Spring flowers of a wide range of forms (single/ double), stem lengths, colours (single and bicolours) and flowering times (early/ mid/ late Spring). They have an upright clump habit with medium green to grey green glaucous foliage.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-08-15 17.57.48 The oblong to elliptical leaves, up to 38 cm long and 10 cm wide, twist as they rise directly from the underground bulb and have acute apices.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-08-18 14.45.57 The fruit is an elongated to elliptical ribbed capsule on the spent flower stem and contains many fine black seed.Blog Printemps20%ReszdIMG_1246Growing Conditions: Tulips like climates with a long cool Spring, a dry Summer and a cold Winter (Zones 5 – 7). They need a period of cool dormancy (vernalization). In areas with a warm Winter, they should be grown as an annual. They love full sun (but will tolerate partial shade) and moist, rich, well-drained soils. The bulbs should be planted in late Autumn (after 6 weeks in a brown paper bag in the fridge) at a depth of 3 times the height of the bulb- usually 10 – 20 cm deep and 10 – 15 cm apart. I usually plant them on Mothers’ Day. After flowering, leave the leaves to fully senesce before removing in Summer, so the bulbs can replenish their nutrients via photosynthesis for optimal growth the following season.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-08-16 17.14.40 Propagation is by bulb division or bulblet separation, the seeds taking at least 2 years to propagate! Hybrid tulip bulbs decrease in floral performance and vigour within 1 – 2 years of planting, unlike the species tulips, which get better and better! Their primary disease is bulb rot due to poor drainage, but there are also other fungal and viral diseases. The 2nd photo below shows last year’s tulips in their 2nd season.

Blog Printemps20%ReszdIMG_1256BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-09-04 13.02.23BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-09-02 13.43.08Use:  Tulips are planted as a Spring accent in beds and borders, naturalized drifts and even in pots.BlogPrivCountry25%Reszdgrampians 3 146 They  are lovely in vases, but any wiring to support their heads must make allowance for the fact that their stems will continue to grow towards the light. Preservative should be avoided, as the sugar results in stem stretching, causing the flowers to flop over. Use cold water with 30 ppm chlorine and never mix with freshly cut Narcissi, until after the latter have been conditioned. Care should be taken when handling tulips, as their anthocyanin causes allergies and dermatitis. They are toxic to horses, cats and dogs.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 300Species Tulips (also known as Botanical Tulips)

There are 150 different wild species from Central Asia to Spain and Portugal. They differ to the hybrids in that they are usually much smaller in both plant height and flower size; have pointed petals;  flower from late Winter to  early Spring and like hot dry Summers; and they increase in bulb number and floral performance over the years. In the photo below, the hybrid tulip on the left dwarfs the Clusiana species tulips on the right.BlogSpring bulbs 20%ReszdIMG_1157 A good site to consult about species tulips is : http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/TulipaSpeciesOne.

Some of them include:

Tulipa batalinii ( yellow dwarf species) and T. linifolia (red Flax-leaved or Bokharan Tulip) from the Bukhara region of Uzbekistan and Turkey.

Tulipa kaufmanniana (Water Lily Tulip): Turkestan; Low growing; Cup shaped blooms with pointed petals of variegated base colour; One of the earliest tulips to flower.

Tulipa gregii: Turkestan; Short stems and large orange-scarlet to creamy-yellow blooms.

Tulipa altaica: Central Asia; Yellow pointed petals.

Tulipa agenensis (Eyed Tulip): Middle East; Crimson red with yellow patch around black centre inside.

Tulipa hageri: Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey and Greece. Red flowers. See photo below.

Tulipa saxatilis (Satin or Rock Tulip) : Bright pink flowers with yellow centres. Hails from the Southern Aegean islands, Crete, Rhodes and Western Turkey.

Tulipa tarda (Late Tulip): Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia; Yellow petals with white pointed tips.

Tulipa acuminata (Fire Flame or Turkish Tulip): Turkey; Rare heirloom tulip, described 1813; Flowers mid Spring; Long narrow scarlet and yellow petaloids with pointy ends.

BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdgrampians 1 262

Tulipa clusiana ‘Cynthia’  Also known as Lady Tulip, Candlestick Tulip or Persian Tulip

An heirloom species, it was originally thought to be native to the Middle East, specifically Iran (Persia), Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tibet, Kashmir and the Western Himalayas, but now believed to be indigenous to Spain. It has been cultivated through much of Europe since the early 1600s. Tulipa clusiana was named after the Flemish botanist, Carolus Clusius, whose work ‘Curae Posteriores’ (1606) documents the obtaining of bulbs via a Florentine grower from Constantinople. The species is normally striped red and white like a peppermint stick, but ‘Cynthia’ is striped red and yellow. It was introduced to gardeners in 1959 by CG Van Tubergen.BlogSpring bulbs 20%ReszdIMG_1158Description:  Narrow grey-green leaves; Solitary flowers in early Spring, borne on 25 cm stems. The pointed , rose-red tepals are edged with pale yellow on the outside and are pale yellow within. I cannot wait for this bud to open and to see the flower for the first time!BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-09-04 13.01.56Growing Conditions:  They require a chilly dormancy, so cold Winters are a requirement (Zones 3 – 8). They love full sun and perfect drainage in an organically enriched sandy soil. Plant in the Autumn, 5 – 10 cm deep and 5 – 10 cm apart. Don’t water much, as too much water during Winter dormancy results in bulb rot. These bulbs do not set seed, but are propagated by bulb offsets and stolons. The bulbs naturalize easily to form large colonies.  Diseases include gray mould and mosaic virus, while pests include aphids; slugs and snails; and mice and voles.BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-09-04 14.21.32Use: Best planted in groups of more than 15 bulbs in beds, borders, rockeries and naturalized in grass. Ingestion causes severe discomfort and the sap can cause skin irritations.

Tulipa x hybrid: 

Bokassa Tulips : Bokassa White/ Bokassa Red/  Bokassa Verandi/ Bokassa Gold

Strong growth, compact foliage and medium stems. Good for pots and small gardens.Blog Printemps20%ReszdIMG_1153Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0543BlogSpring bulbs 20%Reszd2016-08-18 14.46.26Parrot Tulips: Destiny Parrot:

A flamboyant mid season tulip with pink-red feathered petals.Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0303Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0296Blog Printemps20%Reszd2015-09-22 10.59.57Lily TulipsSynaeda Orange/ Claudia (pink)/ Tres Chic (white)

Late season, urn-shaped flowers with a distinct narrow waist with pointed reflexed petals.

Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0431Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0521Blog SpringsprungFav20%ReszdIMG_0617Monet Pink:

Late blooming, huge goblet-shaped flowers on tall stems.BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-09 14.15.19Freesias:

A member of the Family Iridaceae, Freesias were first described as a genus in 1866 by Chr. Fr. Echlon (1795 – 1868) and named after German botanist and doctor Friedrich Freese (1794 – 1878).

Habitat:  Eastern side of South Africa from Kenya to South Africa, most species being found in the Cape Provinces.

Description:    Herbaceous perennial flowering plants, 10 – 20 cm tall and wide, with fragrant funnel-shaped flowers, borne zygomorphically along one side of the stem, in a single plane, with all flowers facing upwards.BlogAugustGarden20%Reszd2016-08-24 11.25.20Growing Conditions:  They like wet Winters and dry Summers; Full sun or light shade; Must have good drainage and be left to dry out when dormant. Plant bulbs 5 cm deep and 5 – 8 cm apart with pointed ends up.BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-09 14.16.14Use:  Massed in garden beds and borders and in pots; In floristry, they are an excellent cut flower: the yellows, blues and whites have a longer vase-life than the reds and pinks, with some lasting 3 weeks when cut in bud. Use floral preservative.

Grandma’s Freesias ‘Alba’: Freesia refracta alba

The original and most fragrant of all the freesias, its cream flowers have hints of violet-blue and gold. Naturalizes in well-drained soils.

Freesia hybrids: Freesia x hybrida: Derived from crosses made in the 19th century between F. refracta and F. leichtlinii, as well as the resultant cultivars and the pink- and yellow-flowered forms of F. corymbosa..

Bergenden Freesias: Large bright single scented florets

Fantasia Freesias: Double flowers with sweet fragrance

Bedding Freesias: Shorter stems, so ideal for massed plantings and containers.

The last two bulbs in this post are members of the Ranunculaceae family, which contains 2346 species of flowering plants from 43 genera worldwide, the largest being: Delphiniums (365 sp); Clematis (325 sp); Thalictrum (330 sp); Aconitum (300 sp); and Ranunculus (600 sp).

 Anemones are a large genus with up to 150 species, including:

A.hupehensis (Chinese Anemone) and A. hupehensis var. japonica and A. hybrida (both called Japanese Anemone ): Fibrous roots; 90 cm tall; White and pink flowers late Summer and Autumn  on branching heads; Likes rich friable soil in semi-shade.

A.nemerosa (European Wood Anemone): Rhizomous roots, which spread quickly through the surface leaf litter under trees; White flowers in Spring; 40 varieties; Likes humus-rich soil and shade.

A.blanda (Winter Wind Flower): Rhizomes; Violet blue, pink or white; From SE Europe and Turkey.

A.sylvestris (Snowdrop Anemone): Nodding fragrant white flowers with golden stamens  late Spring/ early Summer; Ferny foliage; Fluffy seed heads; Spreads by underground runners and stolons.

Anemone coronaria  (Garden anemone/ Poppy anemone/ Wind flower)

Genus :  Anemone:  from the Greek word for ‘wind’ : ‘anemos’.

Species: coronaria:  meaning ‘crown’ and pertaining to head garlands.

Habitat:  Native to the Mediterranean region : Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Western Crete. In Israel, the Shokeda Forest, Northern Negev region, is a vast red carpet of wild anemones in Spring, while the Omalos Plain in the White Mountains, West Crete, is mainly a huge sea of red, but with pools of crimson, blue, magenta, mauve and white near the field edges.BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1421History: The anemone is the national flower of Israel, but is also very popular elsewhere. The Italian nobleman, Francesco Caetani, the 8th Duke of Sermoneta (1613 – 1683), is said to have planted 28 000 in his parterres at Cisterna, south of Rome. They were also commonly painted in 17th Century Dutch paintings.Blog LateWinter20%Reszd2015-08-31 11.13.19Description:

Herbaceous, tuberous perennial plants, 20 – 40 cm tall.

Basal rosette of a few palmate leaves, each with 3 deeply lobed leaflets.

Flowers are borne singly on long stems in early Spring. There is a whorl of small leaves just below each flower. Flowers are 3 – 8 cm in diameter and have 5 – 8 red, white or blue petal-like tepals, often with a black centre.Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0306

There are numerous cultivars, developed over the years by gardeners interested in breeding and showing flowers. The majority of hybrids being in the De Caen (single) and St Brigid (double) groups.Blog LateWinter20%Reszd2015-09-01 15.09.17BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-15 16.30.20Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0257Blog Gardenwakesup20%ReszdIMG_0258I planted the De Caen anemones last year and loved their single simple flowers in a multitude of colours over a long period, so I will focus on them. The De Caen group was supposedly bred by Mme Quetel de Caen, but certainly they were hybridized and cultivated in the Caen and Bayeux regions of France. Crosses between the single Anemone coronaria and other singles like : the starry A. pavonina, which grows wild in Greece; A. hortensis; and  the scarlet A. fulgens, resulted in hybrids like the deep purple-blue Mr Fokker; the bright red Hollandia; the deep pink Sylphide and the white blooms of The Bride.BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-08 13.36.51BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-15 16.30.36BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-09 14.18.08Growing Conditions:  I am definitely still learning when it comes to growing anemones, as all of my corms disappeared last year, so I have since done a bit of research! Anemones grow from knobbly corms, which can be soaked overnight before planting for faster germination and growth. They do best in Zones 7 – 10, disliking heavy Winter frost or hot humid Summers. While they like moist soil when germinating, they hate too much moisture, which results in root rot. They also don’t like other plants or weeds and should be grown alone in their own bed. Perhaps, this is why I lost my anemone corms, as I had zinnias in the same bed. Information on soil type varied from a rich loam-based soil to a light sandy soil with light compost and a deep root run- I think the moisture content and drainage is the most important factor. A well-drained raised bed in full sun seems to be the best situation. Corms should be planted with their claws facing upwards 5 cm deep and 10 cm apart. They will flower 10 – 12 weeks after planting out. While traditionally planted in Autumn for Spring, they can in fact be planted all year round for constant colour- in Spring for early Summer, and again in early Summer for an Autumn display. They should be kept dry during dormancy and can be lifted and stored till the following Autumn or treated as annuals. At least, that is what I will do next time!

Pests and diseases are minimal- they can get powdery mildew or be attacked by slugs or leaf and bud eel worms.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 250Use: These beautiful bright anemones are grown for their decorative flowers in borders and rock gardens, and also for floristry. They last well as a cut flower, up to 2 weeks, if kept cool with a drop of bleach or floral preservative in the water. Do not put in a vase with Narcissi, otherwise the anemone stems will become limp. Care should be taken when handling the flowers, as the white sap can cause skin irritation and dermatitis. Ingestion can cause mild stomach upset.Blog Printemps20%ReszdIMG_1188BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1465Ranunculus

A large genus of 600 species including buttercups, spearworts and water crowfoots.

The genus name, Ranunculus, comes from the Latin words: ‘rana’ (‘frog’) and ‘unculus’ (‘little’), ‘little frog’, being the name given to them by Roman Pliny, as many of these plants are found in wet conditions.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdmelbourne spring 281The common buttercup found along creek beds is often meadow Buttercup, R. acris, or Creeping Buttercup, R. repens, and has single gold flowers, but the Ranunculus I grow in the cutting garden is the:

Turban Buttercup or Persian Buttercup     R. asiaticus

Also known as the Persian Crowsfoot, due to the shape of the corms). The Tecolote strain is the most common type with fully double flowers, 7 – 15 cm wide, on 30 – 45 cm stems, with a wide colour variation from bicoloured picotee and pastel mixes to single colours of white, pink, red, rose, salmon, yellow, gold and sunset orange. The Bloomingdale strain is less common, on shorter stems up to 10 inches and double flowers of pale orange, yellow, red, pink and white flowers. Last year, I ordered the Picasso collection from Tesselaars and I was thrilled with their exotic jewel-like colours.BlogFavNurseries30%Reszdgrampians 1 282Description:  Frost hardy cool-season perennials, which do best in mild Winters and long cool Springs. Lacy, celery-like leaves which form a mound 15 – 30 cm across. BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-14 13.57.18BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-14 13.56.39Lustrous, colourful double flowers with multiple, crepe-thin satiny petals in Spring.BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-17 09.28.37BlogBdayblessgs20%Reszd2015-10-10 14.20.06BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-14 13.57.13Growing Conditions:

Ranunculus like moderate temperatures, Zones 4 – 7, but they are winter hardy to Zone 8. In fact, they need 6 – 8 weeks of cool weather in which to sprout and grow, so should be planted in Autumn for early Spring flowers (lasting 6 – 7 weeks) or late Winter for Mid-Spring (lasting 4 – 6 weeks). They prefer full sun and a well-drained soil is essential. If the soil gets water-logged, the bed should be raised with a 5 – 7 cm layer of peat moss, compost or decomposed manure. The tubers should be planted, claws facing down, 5 cm deep and 10 – 15 cm inches apart. Water well on planting and only lightly after that, though the roots should be kept cool and moist. Flowers appear 90 days after planting. They should not be watered once dormant and the corms can be lifted and stored in colder climates, where the soil freezes. Snails and mildew can be a problem, but generally they are very hardy. They can be propagated by tuber division or seed.BlogReignroses20%ReszdIMG_2987BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 158Use:  In borders and beds, accompanied by other cool-climate plants like forget-me-nots, calendula, primroses and pansies and Iceland Poppies (2nd photo below). BlogPrivSpec25%Reszdoctober 170BlogSpringpalette20%Reszd2015-10-15 16.28.23In floristry, they are also an excellent cut flower, lasting up to 10 days with floral preservative. Change the vase water often. BlogSpringfeastg20%Reszd2015-10-29 11.01.43BlogSpringfeastg20%Reszd2015-10-29 11.00.01BlogSpringfeastg20%Reszd2015-10-29 13.46.25All types of Ranunculus are poisonous to livestock. These birds don’t look too worried! In fact, they complement the colours of the Spring bulbs! Or maybe they think vice versa!BlogDaylightslavg BG20%ReszdIMG_1298This goose looks completely at home in amongst the daffodils- my daughter Caroline’s latest Feature Plant painting! Thank you, Caro!BlogSpring bulbs 20%ReszdIMG_1074