Roses of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens

Since I examined Species Roses last week , I thought I would start the month with a feature post on the ACTO Heritage Rose Garden, which is based at Mt Lofty Botanic Garden in the Adelaide Hills and is devoted to Species Roses. I am also discussing the Adelaide Botanic Garden later on.

Mt Lofty Botanic Garden : ACTO Heritage Rose Gardenblogadelaidebgreszd80image-33625 minutes from Adelaide CBD; Free entrance; Map above from the official brochure.

Upper Entrance: Summit Rd, Crafers

Lower Entrance: Lampert Rd, Piccadilly

8.30 am to 4 pm Monday to Friday; 10 am to 5 pm Weekends and Public Holidays (6 pm Daylight Savings)

Mt Lofty Botanic Garden covers an area of 97 hectares in the Adelaide Hills and specializes in cool climate plants. It is one of three gardens managed by the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and was opened to the public in 1977. The ACTO Heritage Rose Garden is set right up the top of the hill on the northern corner of the gardens above the nursery, and even though it is quite a long walk and not the easiest to find, it is well worth persevering! It is also a lovely walk up through the gardens!blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-09-33blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-34-57 It started as the National Species Rose Collection in 1977. The cooler climate of the Adelaide Hills is more favourable for the Species and Heritage Roses, while Hybrid Teas predominate in the much warmer Adelaide Botanic Garden in the city. During the late 1980s, the collection morphed into the ACTO Heritage Rose Garden and is dedicated to Clive Armour, the former Chairman of the Board of the Adelaide Botanic Garden and CEO of ACTO Power. The collection continues to expand with new acquisitions, grown by seed from known wild origin. Here are two maps from the official brochure:blogadelaidebgreszd30image-335blogadelaidebgreszd30%2014-10-27-11-59-12This garden is dedicated to Species Roses and the History and Development of the Rose. They are the forerunners of all modern roses and have huge variety in their shape, origin and scent. Usually they are all single (double or multiple petalled forms are usually hybrids) with 5 petals (though R. sericea pteracantha usually has only 4 petals). They provide all-year round interest and display from their Spring flowers to Autumn foliage and ripening hips in a wide variety of colour, shape and size. Roses are grouped in sections according to their characteristics (flowers; foliage; prickles; hips; and chromosome number). They are displayed in a linear taxonomic arrangement, with each group labelled with information, specific to that group, as well as each rose species being individually labelled. Rose-shaped information boards have titles from : The Story of the Rose and Old European Roses to Botanic Buccaneers; Out of China and The Power to Perpetually Flower; Rugged Roses (Rugosas and American roses) and finally Hip Hip Hooray, describing some of the roses renowned for their beautiful hips.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-48-30blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-48-46Attached to the online site is an excellent audio tour about the cultural and botanical history of the rose by Alexandra de Blas, who interviews Walter Duncan, a prominent rose breeder and rose grower of international renown (we visited his Heritage Garden in Clare in Peak Old Rose blooming season in late October 2014!) and Dr Brian Morley, a former Director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. It is well worth listening to it, both before and after visiting Mt Lofty Botanic Garden. Ideally, you would listen it as you walk round each bed! Unfortunately, I discovered the audio tour after my visit, so I cannot verify the mobile reception coverage in the garden! All in all, it is an excellent précis of the History of the Rose, even if you never get to visit this wonderful garden!! See:

I will now show you some photos of the different rose beds in the order discussed on the audio tour.

  1. Old European Species: In the early days of settlement in Australia, roses were transported by ship in Wardian cases to Hobart and Sydney, then overland to Adelaide. Gallica roses grew well in the early colonial gardens. An example from this bed is Cardinal de Richelieu, a deep purple Gallica.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-49-07bloggallicasreszd20%2014-10-27-12-49-12 Albas and Damasks are both complex hybrids. Trigintipetala or Kazanlik is grown in vast paddocks in Bulgaria, its petals distilled to produce attar of roses, used in the perfumery industry.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-50-29blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-49-46 Maxima is a very old, very tall Alba from the 15th century.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-06-33blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-07-44
  2. Wild Roses : Hebe’s Lip (1st photo) is a cross between a Damask and R. eglanteria, while Lord Penzance, a cross between R. eglanteria and ‘Harison’s Yellow’ (3rd photo below), is one of the Penzance Briars (2nd photo). Also see the photo of the shrub at  end of this section on Mt. Lofty Botanic Garden.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-09-12blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-09-47blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-52-41 Scotch Briars or Burnet Roses, R. pimpinellifolia or R. spinosissima, are also tough Species Roses, which grow in the wild in cold mountainous regions from the Alps to the Rockies and even the Arctic Circle.
  3. Chinese Species : The introduction of the continuous-flowering China roses to Europe by businessmen, returning from China in the days when China was opening up to the West, had an enormous impact on rose breeding. The four Stud Chinas : Old Blush (Parson’s Pink China) 1789; Slater’s Crimson China 1792; Hume’s Blush Tea-Scented China 1810; and Parks Yellow Tea-Scented China 1824, arrived in England in the late 18th century. Their petals had a translucent glow and a delicate scent, reminiscent of the tea chests, in which they arrived on the ships of the East India Company. Old Blush is an excellent picking rose and makes a good hedge.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-51-05blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-51-10 Mutabilis is one of my favourite China roses, its multi-coloured single flowers, reminding me of butterflies!blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-51-20Hermosa is a classic China hybrid rose.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-53-24 Two yellow species from China are Father Hugo’s Rose, R. hugonis (1st photo) and Canary Bird, a hybrid of R. xanthina (2nd and 3rd photos).blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-55-53blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-56-44bloghxroses20reszd2014-10-27-12-56-56 R. sweginzowii is found in NW China.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-57-32The plant hunters, or Botanic Bucaneers as they are labelled, also brought in Chinese species.blogadelaidebgreszd50%2014-10-27-12-58-25 Robert Fortune is remembered in the name of R. fortuneana.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-58-47 It is closely related to the Banksia roses, R. banksiae, with which it is closely intertwined in the photos below.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-59-07blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-59-18 There is also a single form: R. banksiae lutescens.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-03-48 Ernest Wilson brought back R. wilmottiae, R. moyesii and R. roxburghii. Wilmot’s Rose, R. wilmottiae, comes from Western China.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-52-17 Moyes Rose, Rosa moyesii, has arching canes, red flowers (though there is a pink variation) and bright sealing wax red, bottle-shaped hips.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-57-55 The Chestnut Rose (or Burr Rose), R. roxburghii, from China and Japan has vicious prickles, evergreen foliage, repeat-blooming flowers and prickly yellow hips, reminiscent of a chestnut or small pineapple.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-00-20blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-04-46blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-04-20 R. sericea pteracantha uses its blood-red, translucent winged thorns to gain purchase and climb up other vegetation. It is 3 m tall with wrist-thick canes and four-petalled flowers, but it is really grown for its attractive young shoots, thorns and leaves.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-06-24blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-06-30The Himalayan Musk Rose, R. brunonii, is a huge shrub, 4 to 5 m high, with a five-petalled delicate white flower, with a sweet delicate fragrance, and 1 cm long, bright red hips in late Summer through Autumn to Winter, providing bird food. It is partially evergreen in warm climates.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-54-01blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-54-29 R. webbiana (1st two photos) also comes from the Himalayas, while R. rubus hails from Central and Western China (3rd photo).blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-10-29blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-10-57blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-54-53 Rosa dupontii is another favourite tall species with single white flowers and gold stamens.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-55-11Largest of all, Rosa gigantea, climbs up to 20 m high into trees in NE India, SW China and the foothills of the Himalayas.blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-12-59-58
  4. Rugosa Roses: Very tough roses from Japan with deciduous, rugose, deeply-veined foliage; attractive continuous scented single flowers; and plump red hips, which look terrific in dried flower arrangements in Autumn and Winter. Best grown en masse as a hedge or bank, they are also used in land reclamation projects in Europe. They grow well on sandy soils and have no diseases or pruning or spraying requirements. The photos below show in order: Scabrosa, Mme Georges Bruant, Frau Dagmar Hastrup and Pink Grootendorst, one of the Rugosa cultivars.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-11-35blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-14-01blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-12-34blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-14-46
  5. Hybrid Musks: Two of my fravourites are Buff Beauty (1st 2 photos)and Penelope (photos 3 to 5.) blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-15-17blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-17-27blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-16-41blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-16-20blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-16-56 The ACTO Heritage Garden is certainly a wonderful collection of the original Species Roses and an excellent reference point if you are considering growing Species Roses in your garden. All of them are tough, drought-resistant and disease-free and require no pruning, but they do need space and a temperate climate. This shrub of Lord Penzance definitely needs room!blogadelaidebgreszd20%2014-10-27-13-11-59

Adelaide Botanic Garden

North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000

Open 7.15 am Monday to Friday; 9 am Weekends and Public Holidays. Closes between 5 pm (Winter) and 7 pm (High Summer). For times, consult the website. Free entrance.

I love visiting the Adelaide Botanic Garden, whenever I visit Adelaide. It is such a well-planned city with all the major institutions: the Art Gallery of South Australia, the Stae Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum, the University of Adelaide, the Royal Adelaide Hospital and the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, all side by side the length of North Terrace and backing onto the landscaped gardens and lawns edging the Torrens River (Karrawirra Parri). There are two sections of the Adelaide Botanic Garden of particular note for the rose lover: the International Rose Garden and the National Rose Trial Garden, both designated by the reference E23 on the map from the official brochure below:blogadelaidebgreszd25image-334International Rose Garden

Hackney Rd, Adelaide, SA

This 1.5 hectare garden holds 2500 roses, with special areas devoted to Australian-bred roses; Single roses; Heritage Roses; Pillar Roses; and Charity Roses (the proceeds of their sale going back into specified charities) like Olympic Gold and The Childrens’ Rose. It includes a sunken garden; a circular rose garden; several pergolas and a series of huge arches, covered in climbing roses. Here are some photos from our visits in 2008 and 2014.

blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7113blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7104blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7105blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7106blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9309blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7112blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9324blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7114blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9342There are Teas; Hybrid Teas; Cluster-Flowered Roses; Shrub Roses; and Miniature Roses, Standards, Weepers and Climbers. The climbers on the huge arches include: Mermaid, a hybrid of R. bracteata, bred in UK in 1917;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9325blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9326

Adelaide d’Orléans, a hybrid of R. sempervirens, bred in France in 1826;blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9330 R. brunonii, a Species rose, discovered in the Himalayas in 1922;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9332 R. gigantea, another Species Rose from the Himalayas 1889;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9334 Lamarque, a Noisette rose bred in France in 1830; Note the variation in colour according to the different light.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9338blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9339

and Climbing Lorraine Lea, a Climbing Tea, bred by Alister Clark in Australia in 1932.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9341Here are photos of some of the Tea Roses: Devoniensis 1838 UK;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9302 Triomphe du Luxembourg 1840 France;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9306blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9308 Catherine Mermet 1869 France;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9299 Anna Olivier 1872 France;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9305 and Jean Ducher 1873 France.blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7108blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7107 Hybrid Teas include: Mrs. Oakley Fisher 1921 UK;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9310 and Sally Holmes, a Shrub Rose, bred in UK in 1976.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9319blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9320 R. X dupontii is a Species Rose from before 1817.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9312Hybrid Musks include: Kathleen 1922;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9321blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9318 Cornelia 1925;blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9313 and Felicia 1928, all bred in the United Kingdom.blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9315blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9316 For more information, see:

National Rose Trial Garden

Started in 1996 to determine which roses, imported from the Northern Hemisphere and not yet for sale, are best suited for the Australian climate. It is the first of its kind in Australia (and the 3rd of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere) and is a joint venture between the Botanic Gardens of South Australia, the National Rose Society of Australia Inc. and the rose industry. Roses are trialled over two growing seasons (2 years), receiving equal treatment. Depending on the rose type, 3, 4 0r 6 plants are trialled. They are identified only by a code number, all other details only known by the trial coordinator and the agent, who entered the rose in the trial. A panel of 10 experienced rosarians allocate points every month of the 2 years, according to health; vigour; hardiness; pest and disease tolerance; growth habit; impact of display; beauty of blooms; abundance of flowering; fragrance and novelty. The best roses receive an award and are then sold in nurseries to the general public. Some of the winners can be seen on the following website:

While in the city, it is worth consulting the following website, which details other rose venues:

I always love visiting the Heritage Rose Garden on the Northern bank of the Torrens River between Frome Rd and the University footbridge. blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7096blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7098blogadelaidebgreszd25img_7099Established between 1996 and 1999 by the Adelaide City Council and the South Australian chapter of Heritage Roses Australia Incorporated, its terraced rose beds showcase 1200 Heritage Roses, including Teas, Chinas and Polyanthas, while Climbing Teas and Noisettes festoon pillars and arches. It is a very picturesque spot! Here are some more photos including Mutabilis (photos 4 and 6) :blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9372blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9368blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9363blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9369blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9370blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9373blogadelaidebgreszd20img_9374Next week, I am describing the Gorgeous Gallicas!






Wild Species or Botanical Roses

Species or Botanical Roses are the original roses, which grew all over the Northern Hemisphere from Europe to the Middle East and Asia, as well as North America. I will be discussing species from all areas, but first a quick note about the other subgenera.

Hulthemia, or Simplicifoliae (meaning simple leaves), is the oldest of the subgenera and has been classified outside the Rosa genus by some authorities. Its growth habit, behaviour and general appearance are very rose-like, but the foliage is different, being simple leaves with no stipules. They are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules. The flowers are single with five petals and the stems are angular with many thorns. It originated in SW Asia, mainly Iran, hence the name ‘Persian Rose’, R. persica.

R. stellata, the Gooseberry Rose, belongs to the subgenus, Hesperhodos (Greek for Western Rose) and it looks and behaves very much like a small gooseberry bush with very prickly stems; small, light green, gooseberry-like foliage; and buds and fruit covered with soft spines. It hails from SW North America, while the third subgenus Platyrhodon (Greek for Flaky Rose, referring to its bark) only has one species: R. roxburghii, the Burr or Chestnut Rose, which originated in China. This tall shrub has tawny-brown angular stems with flaky peeling bark on the older wood; long, stout, paired thorns; light green compound leaves with 15 small leaflets; a small crop of single clear pink flowers; and spiny yellow-orange fruit.

Now I will focus on the largest subgenus, Rosa, which has 11 sections. I have repeated this section from last week’s post for easier reading:

1. Pimpinellifoliae (including R. foetida, R. spinosissima, R. hugonis, R.ecae)

2. Gallicanae (including R. gallica, R. damascena, R. centifolia, R. centifolia muscosa, R. richardii, Portlands)

3. Caninae (including R. alba, R. canina, R. eglanteria, R. glauca and R. villosa)

4. Carolinae (including R. carolina, R. nitida, R.palustris, R. virginiana, R. foliolosa)

5. Cassiorhodon (Cinnamomaea :  including R. moyesii, R. rugosa, R. blanda, R. fedschenkoana, R. kordesii, and Boursaults)

6. Synstylae (including R. arvensis, R. brunonii, R. dupontii, R. filipes, R. moschata, R. multiflora, R. phoenicia, R. sempervirens, R. setigera, R. wichuriana and Hybrid Musks, Polyanthas, Floribundas, Multiflora Ramblers, Modern Climbing Roses and Modern Shrub Roses)

7. Chinensis (including R. chinensis, R. odorata, R. gigantea, Bourbons, Noisettes, Teas, Hybrid Perpetuals and Hybrid Teas)

8. Banksianae (including R. banksiae and R. fortuniana)

9. Laevigatae (R. laevigata)

10. Bracteata (R. bracteata)

11. Gymnocarpae (R. gymnocarpa)

The photos below are of Species Roses: R. wilmottiae (photo 1); R. webbiana (photos 2 and 3); and R. roxburghii plena (photo 4).blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-52-17blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-10-29blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-10-57blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-04-46However, I think it is easier to understand all these species by dividing them up into their original habitats and because our forefathers came from Europe, bringing their roses with them, I will start with Europe.

Dog Roses, R. canina, are the commonest wild roses, often growing in hedgerows, in Britain and Northern Europe. They have hardy, stiff twiggy bushes; single, sweetly-scented, pale pink flowers borne in small groups; and bright orange hips, which are very rich in Vitamin C and are used to make rosehip syrup, jam, tea and even wine. One cup of rosehip tea provides the minimum daily adult requirement of Vitamin C. Apparently, during the Second World War, the British relied on rosehips and hops for their source of  Vitamins A and C , hence the common (and very quaint!) wartime expression ‘we are getting by on our hips and our hops’! In the past, they were used as a medicine to treat bites from mad dogs, hence the name, the Dog Rose. Here are photos of the hips and the flowers:blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-192blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-11-14-20 Sweet Briar, R. eglanteria, also known as R. rubiginosa, is closely related to and very similar in appearance to R. canina, except that it has apple-scented foliage and a higher density of prickles. Its oval bright orange red hips in late Summer and  Autumn are also used to make rosehip syrup. It has a number of cultivars, though many have since disappeared, and include the Penzance Briars of the 1890s. I saw both Lord Penzance 1890 and Lady Penzance 1894 at the Mt Lofty Botanic Garden. I loved their tiny golden blooms. Lord Penzance is a cross between R. eglanteria and R. harisonii, while Lady Penzance is a cross between R. eglanteria and R. foetida bicolor and has the strongest scented foliage. Both R. canina and R. rubiginosa have been fully naturalized in Australia from the days of early settlement. The Dog Rose was used as a root stock for modern roses in Europe until superseded by Rosa laxa, though it is still used as an understock for standard roses. This is a photo of Lord Penzance :blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-09-47The Apple Rose and the Field Rose also hail from Northern and Central Europe. The Apple Rose, R. villosa or R. pomifera, hailing from the same area as R. canina and R. eglanteria, also has fragrant leaves; clear pink, fragrant, single flowers; and large, orange, apple-shaped fruit, covered in bristles. It is related to R. glauca, another European rose from 1830, which has glaucous purple stems, soft mauve-pink flowers and oval red-purple hips. The Field Rose, R. arvensis, a natural climber which wends its way through hedgerows, has wide open creamy flowers with gold stamens and has been used to breed Ayrshire Roses, which are very hardy, vigorous, white-flowered climbers.blogspeciesrosesreszd25%2014-11-26-15-28-51Scotch Briars, R. pimpinellifolia, also known as R. spinosissima, prefer colder and less fertile areas like the coast. They are very hardy and not fussy about soil, reproduce easily from cuttings and sucker freely on their own roots. They have very prickly bushy growth, attractive fern-like Autumn foliage and single and double blooms of white, pink, yellow or red, often being the first roses to flower in Summer. Spinosissima Single Purple (photo above) is an example.They were very popular at the beginning of the 19th century and were the dominant cluster-flowered rose in 1824, until they were superseded by longer-flowering roses, but only a few cultivars are left. Harison’s Double Yellow, R. harisonii, photographed below, is a very double yellow form, which we also saw at the Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-52-41blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-31-26 The German breeder, Kordes, used R. pimpinellifolia to breed Fruhlinsgold 1937 (photos 2 and 3), Fruhlingsmorgen 1942, Fruhlingstag 1949 and Maigold 1953 (photo 1).blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9505blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-30-29blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-259 But my favourite of all the Scotch Roses (and in fact, one of my favourite roses of all, for its refined scent and long continuous flowering, often being the first and last rose of the season to bloom – see photo below) is Stanwell Perpetual 1838, a cross between the Autumn Damask, R. damascena bifera, and R. pimpinellifolia. It is tall and straggly, with long, incredibly prickly, arching canes; grey-green, ferny leaves; and fully double, quartered, soft blush-pink scented flowers.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-10-09-19-11In Southern Europe, R. gallica  is the dominant rose and will be discussed in my post on Gallicas next month. R. sempervirens and its hybrids are healthy ramblers and scramblers, which originated in the Mediterranean area and were known as the Evergreen Roses in Victorian times, as they retain their foliage in Winter. They include Adelaide d’Orleans 1826 (photo below) and Félicité Perpétue 1827. The Musk Rose, R.moschata, also grows in Mediterranean regions and may have been introduced from the East early on in the history of the rose.blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9330The roses which grow in the Middle East: R.foetida, R. ecae and R. hemisphaerica: also belong to the Pimpinellifolia subgenus. The Austrian Briar or Austrian Yellow, R. foetida (‘foetida‘ referring to the slightly unpleasant smell of the flowers), has large single golden-yellow flowers with prominent stamens in early Summer. See photo below:blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-27-18

I used to grow Austrian Copper, R. foetida bicolor, a sport of R. foetida. Its single blooms are copper orange inside and yellow on the outside (see photo 2 below), occasionally reverting to the original yellow or sometimes both colours occurring on the plant at the same time (see photo 1 below). Both are vigorous shrubs and can be used as climbers.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-27-55blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-27-58 R. foetida persiana (photo below) has double, globular, rich  golden yellow blooms. The golden colours of R.foetida and the latter have been used extensively in the breeding of the modern rose, but unfortunately these roses have also passed on their propensity to black spot.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-28-55 The Sulphur Rose, R. hemisphaerica, is also a tall, fully double, sulphur-yellow rose, while R.ecae is a small prickly shrub with reddish-brown twigs; small ferny leaves; and single, buttercup-sized, deep yellow blooms with pronounced stamens.blogspeciesrosesreszd50nov-2010-259

I used to grow Geranium 1938, a seedling of R. moyesii (photo below). Geranium, photographed above, has light green leaves; single, orange-red blooms with creamy anthers; and a large crop of pendulous, orange-red, flagon-shaped hips each year.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-57-55I have never grown any of the American species, so I don’t know much about them, but they include : R. virginiana; R. carolina; R. nitida (photo below); the Swamp Rose R. palustris; the Meadow Rose R. blanda and  R. gymnocarpa, the latter two the American equivalent of Europe’s Dog Rose; and R. foliolosa. All have good Autumn foliage, but have less fragrance and colour variation then the European species. The Prairie Rose, R. setigera, is the only native climbing rose in the USA and is a hardy trailing shrub with long arching branches, good Autumn foliage, clusters of single pink flowers with no fragrance, and small globular red hips. Baltimore Belle 1843 is a famous Setigera hybrid, resulting from a cross with a Gallica hybrid. R. gymnocarpa is the most distinctive rose in California and is known as the Bald Hip Rose, because it loses the sepals off its hips earlier than in other species.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-53-07The Cherokee Rose ( R. laevigata ) and the Macartney Rose ( R. bracteata ) are both Asian roses, which naturalized very quickly in the warm South of USA.  They are both climbers with glossy nearly evergreen leaves, large vicious barbs along their stems, and very large, white, single flowers with pronounced gold stamens. R. laevigata (photo below) was discovered in China in 1759 and reached America by the end of the 19th century, where it adapted so readily that it became known as the Cherokee Rose.blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9262 In 1895, R. laevigata was crossed with a Tea Rose in Germany to produce the light pink Anemone Rose, R. anemonoides, which later sported Ramona, the Red Cherokee Rose. R. bracteata (photo below) was discovered in the Shangtun and Kian regions of China in 1792 during a plant collecting expedition led by Lord Macartney, after whom the rose is named. It was a bit tender in Europe, but on reaching America by the early 19th century, it thrived, naturalizing in the hedgerows, then escaping into the fields, where its strong underground runners are now used to prevent erosion. Crossing R. bracteata with a double yellow Tea Rose in 1917 produced a famous and beautiful evergreen climber, with lemon-yellow single flowers, called Mermaid.blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9264Asia has by far the greatest diversity in Rosa species. Since it is one of the first roses to flower for the season, I will start with the Banksianae Roses. Banksia Roses are vigorous climbers with few thorns; smooth, light green foliage with 5 to 7 leaflets; large clusters of small, rosette-like, white or yellow flowers; and small hips.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-38-30 I have two types : the double white R.banksiae alba plena 1803 (photo above) on the bottom fence in the future chook yard, intermingled with jasmine, Jasminum polyanthum, both of which I grew from cuttings in the same polystyrene box. Their roots were so intertwined that I planted them both together and they  both flowered at the same time in Spring, as did our huge old bush of the double pale yellow Lady Banks Rose, R. banksia lutea 1825. See photos below:blogoctgarden20reszd2016-10-09-11-39-16blogoctgarden20reszdimg_1904blogoctgarden20reszdimg_0289Lady Banks was the wife of Joseph Banks, the botanist on the Endeavour during Captain Cook’s exploratory trip to Australia, and later the President of the Royal Horticultural Society, when these roses were discovered in China. It is such a spectacular sight over our outdoor eating area and was one of the contributory factors for our purchase of the house. We also used to grow it over the outside toilet in our old garden in Armidale.blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-224

Both banksias have single forms too – R. banksiae normalis 1877 has single white blooms, which are borne singly rather than in clusters, while R. banksiae lutescens 1870 has single pale yellow flowers, which are slightly larger than R. banskiae lutea. See photo below:blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-38-09 R. fortuniana, thought to be a cross between R. laevigata and  a white R. banksiae, has larger scented double creamy-white flowers, which are borne singly in each leaf axil, rather than in clusters, an identification aid, differentiating it from R. banksiae alba plena. It also has slightly darker green foliage and stems and is even easier to propagate, so is often used as a rose understock, especially in sandy soils. It was introduced from China to the West in 1850. It flowers once only in early Spring.

On my neighbour’s fence line, I am growing three Rugosa hybrids. R. rugosa hails from Japan and West Asia and originally only had two forms with a wine-red or a white single bloom, but extensive hybridization since the 1890s has produced at least 46 different hybrids of single, semi-double and double forms and a wide colour range from white to pink, red, purple and even yellow, as in the case of Agnes, which I saw at Walter Duncan’s Heritage Rose Garden in Clare, South Australia (photo below).blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-32-32 Rugosas are tough hardy shrubs which tolerate poor and sandy soils, pollution and salty winds, so can be grown in coastal situations. They are even grown in the middle of the French autoroutes, an inspired decision, as their beautiful colourful blooms are very fragrant and bloom almost continuously. The purple-red blooms of Roseraie de l’Hay (photo below) are particularly fragrant. It is one of my favourite roses!blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-15-13-41-50 Madame Georges Bruant (photos below) also has a lovely scent and elegant, semi-double, pure white blooms.blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-233bloghxroses20reszd2016-11-11-16-23-13It is a cross between R. rugosa and Tea Rose, Sombreuil, photographed below.blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_0189 In between, I have planted the slightly smaller Fru Dagmar Hastrup, also known as Frau Dagmar Hartopp, which has silvery-pink, scented, single blooms (photo below) with pronounced gold stamens and tomato-like hips.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-12-34 All rugosas are incredibly prickly and make good impenetrable hedges. They also have deep veined, coarse, textured rugose (wrinkled) leaves, hence their name and their ability to withstand tough climatic conditions. They provide good Autumn color, as do their large, globular, red hips.They are also incredibly disease-resistant and drought- and shade-tolerant.blogspeciesrosesreszd50april-028 In the past, I have also grown Scabrosa, which has large, fragrant, single, cerise blooms and gold stamens and prominent hips (photos below);blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-11-35blogspeciesrosesreszd50april-032 R. rugosa alba (photo below) with its single, pure-white, fragrant flowers;blogspeciesrosesreszd70image-159 Fimbriata, a cross between R. rugosa and Noisette rose, Mme Alfred Carrière, with small white/ blushing pale-pink, dianthus-like blooms (photo below) with a frilled edge (as if they had been cut with pinking shears), but unfortunately no fragrance;blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-171 Pink Grootendorst, its pink equivalent; See photo below:blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-13-14-46 and the enormous Vanguard, with equally gigantic, salmon-pink, semi-double blooms, which I probably would never have ordered had I realized how large it grew (which is also why I am NOT growing it now!). See photos below:blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-213image-178 Vanguard was developed in 1932 from a cross between Eldorado and a hybrid Rugosa alba-Wichuraiana cross, which brings me to the next type of rose, the Wichuraiana Ramblers.

R. wichuraiana was introduced to the West in the 1890s from China and was crossed with Polyanthas and China roses to produce many exceedingly healthy and vigorous ramblers and climbers with cluster flowers and glossy green foliage like Dorothy Perkins 1902; Excelsa 1909; Sanders White 1912; Dr W. Van Fleet 1910; and Paul Transom 1900 (photo).blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9247

I have three hybrids in my current garden. Albéric Barbier 1900 is a cross between R. wichuraiana and ‘Shirley Hibbard’ and has long pliable stems, glossy green foliage and creamy white flowers in Summer. I grew it from cuttings and have 2 bushes in pots, ready to clamber over the future chook pen! I also raised three plants of Albertine and one plant of New Dawn from cuttings. Albertine 1921 is a favourite, despite its wicked, sharp-hooked thorns. It is a cross between R. wichuraiana and ‘Mrs Arthur Robert Waddell’ and has glossy coppery-red leaves and beautifully scented, muddled warm-pink blooms in Summer only (photos 2 and 3 below). I have planted them along the back of the shed, where their blooms will complement the colour of the old shed wall perfectly. We plan to construct a framework behind them, so they can be kept under control to a certain degree, otherwise they could well take over the entire area! In my old garden, they covered the entrance pergola, as can be seen in photo 1 below:blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-227blogspeciesrosesreszd50image-187blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-16-09-47-07 New Dawn 1930, a sport of Dr Van Fleet, has soft blush-pink scented blooms (see photos below), glossy dark green foliage and thorny stems. I am growing it up the front of the main pergola on the bottom side. New Dawn was the first perpetual flowering climber, opening up a new era for climbing roses.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-22-17-03-43blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_0456Another rose species with large hooked thorns is R. sericea from the Himalayas and Western China. In fact, R. sericea pteracantha (photos below) is often grown specifically for its young red thorns, which are quite spectacular when the sun shines through them! They have small, single, white flowers with only four petals and delicate ferny foliage.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-06-24blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-06-30 R. xanthina, the parent of bright yellow Canary Bird 1908, photographed below, also has ferny foliage and hails from China. It is a member of the Pimpinellifolia subgenus.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-56-44blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-56-56Rosa brunonii is also from the Himalayas , hence its name, the Himalayan Musk Rose, as well as its previous scientific name, R. moschata nepalensis. It is a very vigorous climber with downy grey-green, drooping leaves; hooked thorns; and single, white, tissue-thin flowers in clusters in Summer. See photo below:blogspeciesrosesreszd20img_9332 It is now seen as a distinct species, separate from R. moschata, the Musk Rose, which looks very similar and has a pleasant musk scent. The latter is a very old rose and is thought to have been introduced during the reign of King Henry XIII. R. moschata was crossed with R. gallica to produce R. dupontii, one of my favourite tall shrubs (2m) with single, white, scented flowers and gold stamens. Here is a photo of Dupontii: blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-27-12-55-11

Rosa multiflora hails from East Asia and has had a great influence in the development of modern roses. Seeds were sent from Japan to the French rose breeder, Guillot, in 1862, who then used it to develop Floribundas, which I will be discussing later in the year, and at least 27 once-flowering Multiflora Ramblers, most of which still exist today.

I am growing three plants of Russelliana 1840, a cross between R. multiflora and R. setigera, which I raised from cuttings, along my neighbour’s fence at the back of the future chook yard. Also called the Old Spanish Rose, as it was thought to have originally come from Spain, this ancient rose has very double, quartered, fragrant, crimson-purple, fading to lilac/ mauve, flowers with a green eye, borne in clusters; very thorny stems; and blue-green leaves with a resinous (pine-like) fragrance. It is a tough rose, tolerating poor soils and full shade, so it hopefully should be able to handle its proximity to the white mulberry tree. It propagates easily and was once used as a root stock. Here is one of my young seedlings:blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2016-11-08-10-27-30 Seagull and Rambling Rector are two more famous examples of the latter rose type.

Rosa multiflora, photographed below, is very floriferous, even though it is only a short flowering season, with clusters of small, single, creamy-white flowers with gold stamens, borne on thornless stems produced in the previous season and smooth light green leaves. Because it strikes readily from seeds and cuttings, it was used as an understock in the early 20th century. Other forms of R. multiflora include: R. multiflora carnea (fully double globular white flowers tinged with pink); R. multiflora cathayensis (larger single pink flowers) and the unusual Seven Sisters Rose, R. multiflora platyphylla 1816, with huge trusses of large double flowers, often with seven different colours within the one truss. Colours vary from soft to deep pink, lilac and even deep red.blogspeciesrosesreszd70image-163And finally, the most famous Chinese species of all, without which the modern rose would never have developed: The China Rose, R. chinensis, previously called R. indica and R. sinica. The China, photographed below, is one of the Stud Chinas, called Slaters Crimson China.bloghxroses20reszd2014-10-19-13-14-31 It is a member of the subgenus Chinensis, along with other Chinese species R. gigantea (photo below) and Rosa X odorata, and I will reserve discussion of this important subgenus till later in the year. Its main contribution to the modern rose gene pool is its remontancy, as well as its warm colour range.blogspeciesrosesreszd20%2014-10-19-13-24-37  Before the introduction of the Chinas to the West, Old European Roses were only white, pink or red and flowered only once, except for the Autumn Damask, which flowered twice. The basic rose groups were : Gallicas, Albas, Damasks, Centifolias and Mosses, so next month, I will start with an in-depth look at the Gallicas, then progress through the other rose types in order.